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By Meriwether Lewis and and William Clark


Transcriber’s Note: These Journals are from May 14, 1804, the day the
expedition left the Mississippi River, to September 26, 1806, a day or
two after they arrived back in St. Louis. It includes all possible
Journal entries of Lewis and Clark. Most of the “courses and distances”
and “celestial observations” have been omitted. The notes and most of
the corrections of past editors have been removed. There are a few OCR
errors, but most of the misspellings are almost 200 years old. The dates
with the names in the brackets are a little redundent. They are included
to provide the correct date in a consistent format.

PG Editor’s Note: Misspellings, inventive punctuation and lack of
punctuation along with variable capitalization, and not entirely clear
abbreviations have been left as is. DW
[Clark, May 14, 1804]
May the 14th-Monday
Set out from Camp River a Dubois at 4 oClock P.M. and proceded up the
Missouris under Sail to the first Island in the Missouri and Camped on
the upper point opposit a Creek on the South Side below a ledge of
limestone rock Called Colewater, made 41/2 miles, the Party Consisted
of 2, Self one frenchman and 22 Men in the Boat of 20 ores, 1 Serjt. &
7 french in a large Perogue, a Corp and 6 Soldiers in a large Perogue.
a Cloudy rainey day. wind from the N E. men in high Spirits

[Clark, May 14, 1804]
Monday May 14th 1804
Rained the forepart of the day I determined to go as far as St. Charles
a french Village 7 Leags. up the Missourie, and wait at that place
untill Capt. Lewis Could finish the business in which he was obliged to
attend to at St Louis and join me by Land from that place 24 miles; by
this movement I calculated that if any alterations in the loading of
the Vestles or other Changes necessary, that they might be made at St.
Charles I Set out at 4 oClock P.M. in the presence of many of the
Neighbouring inhabitents, and proceeded on under a jentle brease up the
Missourie to the upper Point of the 1st Island 4 Miles and Camped on
the Island which is Situated Close on the right (or Starboard) Side,
and opposit the mouth of a Small Creek called Cold water, a heavy rain
this after-noon The Course of this day nearly West wind from N. E
[Lewis, May 15, 1804]
Tuesday May 15th
It rained during the greater part of last night and continued untill 7
OCk. A.M. after which the Prarty proceeded, passed two Islands and
incamped on the Stard. shore at Mr. Fifer’s landing opposite an Island,
the evening was fair. some wild gees with their young brudes were seen
today. the barge run foul three several times–on logs, and in one
instance it was with much difficulty they could get her off; happily no
injury was sustained, tho the barge was several minutes in eminent
danger; this was cased by her being too heavily laden in the stern.
Persons accustomed to the navigation of the Missouri and the
Mississippi also below the mouth of this river, uniformly take the
precaution to load their vessels heavyest in the bow when they ascend
the stream in order to avoid the danger incedent to runing foul of the
concealed timber which lyes in great quantities in the beds of these
[Clark, May 15, 1804]
Tuesday 15–rained all last night and this morning untill 7 oClock, all
our fire extinguished, Some Provisions on the top of the Perogus wet, I
sent two men to the Countrey to hunt, & proceed on at 9 oClock, and
proceeded on 9 miles and Camped at a Mr Pip. Landing just below a Coal
Bank on the South Side the prarie Comes with 1/4 of a mile of the river
on the N. Side I sent to the Setlements in the Pairie & purchased fowls
&. one of the Perogue are not Sufficently maned to Keep up.

Refurences from the 15th of May (2) a large Island to the Starboard;
(3) passed a Small Island in the bend to the Starbord, opposit Passage
De Soux and with 11/2 miles of the mississippi, observed a number of
Gosselins on the edge of the river many passing down, Strong water &
wind from the N E–Passed a Place Lbord Called the Plattes, a flat rock
projecting from the foot of a hill, where there is a farm, (5) pass an
Small Isld near the Center of the river, run on Several logs this after
noon, Camped at Mr. Pipers Landing.
[Clark, May 15, 1804]
May 15th Tuesday
Rained the greater part of the last night, and this morning untile 7
oClock–at 9 oClock Set out and proceeded on 9 miles passed two Islands
& incamped on the Starbd. Side at a Mr. Pipers Landing opposit an
Island, the Boat run on Logs three times to day, owing her being too
heavyly loaded a Sturn, a fair after noon, I Saw a number of Goslings
to day on the Shore, the water excessively rapid, & Banks falling in-.
[Clark, May 16, 1804]
Wednesday May 16th
A fair morning, Set out at 5 oClock passed the Coal hill (Call by the
natives Carbonear) this hill appears to Contain great quantytes of
Coal, and also ore of a rich appearance haveing greatly the resemblance
of Silver Arrived Opposit St Charles at 12 oClock, this Village is at
the foot of a Hill from which it takes its real name Peeteite Coete or
the little hill, it contains about 100 indefferent houses, and abot 450
Inhabetents principally frinch, those people appear pore and extreemly
kind, the Countrey around I am told is butifull. interspursed with
Praries & timber alturnetly and has a number of American Settlers

Took equal altituds with Sextion M a 68°37’30” Dined with the Comdr. &
Mr. Ducetts family–(1) Passed an Island on the L Side just above the
bank one just above, two Small ones oposut under the St. Shore, one on
Lb. Side below St Charles, arrived at this place at 12 oClock a fine Day
[Clark, May 16, 1804]
May 16th Wednesday
a fair morning Set out at 5 oClk pass a remarkable Coal Hill on the
Larboard Side Called by the French Carbonere, this hill appear to
Contain great quantity of Coal & ore of a ____ appearance from this
hill the village of St Charles may be Seen at 7 miles distance–we
arrived at St. Charles at 12 oClock a number Spectators french &
Indians flocked to the bank to See the party. This Village is about one
mile in length, Situated on the North Side of the Missourie at the foot
of a hill from which it takes its name Petiete Coete or the Little hill
This village Contns. about 100 houses, the most of them Small and
indefferent and about 450 inhabitents Chiefly French, those people
appear pore, polite & harmonious–I was invited to Dine with a Mr.
Ducett this gentleman was once a merchant from Canadia, from
misfortunes aded to the loss of a Cargo Sold to the late judge Turner
he has become Somewhat reduced, he has a Charming wife an eligent
Situation on the hill Serounded by orchards & a excellent gardain.
[Clark, May 17, 1804]
Thursday the 17th 1804 a fine Day 3 men Confined for misconduct, I had
a Court martial & punishment Several Indians, who informed me that the
Saukees had lately Crossed to war against the Osage Nation Som
aplicasions, I took equal altitudes made the m a. to be 84° 39′ 15″
measured the Missouries at this place and made it 720 yards wide, in
Banks. a Boat came up this evening, I punished Hall agreeable to his
Sentence in part, a fine after noon; Suped with Mr. Ducett an agreeable
man more agreeable Lady, this Gentleman has a Delightfull Situation &
[Clark, May 17, 1804]
May the 17th Thursday 1804
a fair day Compelled to punish for misconduct. Several Kickapoos
Indians Visit me to day, George Drewyer arrive. Took equal altitudes of
Suns L L made it 84° 39′ 15″ ap T. Measured the river found it to be 720
yards wide, a Keel Boat Came up to day–Several of the inhabitents Came
abord to day receved Several Speces of Vegatables from the inhabitents
to day

[Ordway, May 17, 1804]
Orders St. Charles Thursdy the 17th of May 1804-
a Sergeant and four men of the Party destined for the Missourri
Expidition will convene at 11 oClock to day on the quarter Deck of the
Boat, and form themselves into a Court martial to hear and determine
(in behalf of the Capt.) the evidences aduced against William Warner &
Hugh Hall for being absent last night without leave; contrary to
orders;-& John Collins 1st for being absent without leave–2nd for
behaveing in an unbecomeing manner at the Ball last night–3rdly for
Speaking in a language last night after his return tending to bring
into disrespect the orders of the Commanding officer

Signd. W. Clark Comdg.

Detail for Court martial

Segt. John Ordway Prs.

R. Fields
R. Windsor
J. Whitehouse
Jo. Potts

The Court convened agreeable to orders on the 17th of May 1804 Sgt.
John Ordway P. members Joseph Whitehouse Rueben Fields Potts Richard
Windsor after being duly Sworn the Court proceded to the trial of
William Warner & Hugh Hall on the following Charges Viz: for being
absent without leave last night contrary to orders, to this Charge the
Prisoners plead Guilty. The Court one of oppinion that the Prisoners
Warner & Hall are Both Guilty of being absent from camp without leave
it being a breach of the Rules and articles of war and do Sentence them
Each to receive twentyfive lashes on their naked back, but the Court
recommend them from their former Good conduct, to the mercy of the
commanding officer.–at the Same court was tried John Collins Charged
1st for being absent without leave–2d. for behaveing in an unbecomming
manner at the ball last night idly for Speaking in a languguage after
his return to camp tending to bring into disrespect the orders of the
Commanding officer–The Prisoner Pleads Guilty to the first Charge but
not Guilty to the two last chrges.–after mature deliberation &
agreeable to the evidence aduced. The Court are of oppinion that the
Prisnair is Guilty of all the charges alledged against him it being a
breach of the rules & articles of War and do Sentence him to receive
fifty lashes on his naked back–The Commanding officer approves of the
proceedings & Desicon of the Court martial and orders that the
punishment of John Collins take place this evening at Sun Set in the
Presence of the Party.–The punishment ordered to be inflicted on
William Warner & Hugh Hall, is remitted under the assurence arriveing
from a confidence which the Commanding officer has of the Sincerity of
the recommendation from the Court.–after the punishment, Warner Hall &
Collins will return to their squads and Duty

The Court is Disolved.

Sign. Wm. Clark
[Clark, May 18, 1804]
Friday May the 18th 1804 a fine morning took equal altitude and made it
97° 42′ 37″ M. A

I had the Boat & Pierogue reloded So as to Cause them to be heavyer in
bow than asturn recved of Mr. Lyon 136 lb. Tobacco on act. of Mr.
Choteau Gave out tin Cups & 3 Knives to the French hands, Mr. Lauriesme
returned from the Kickapoo Town to day delayed a Short time & Set out
for St. Louis, I Sent George Drewyer with Mr. Lauriesmus to St Louis &
wrote to Cap Lewis Mr. Ducett made me a present of rivr Catts & Some
Herbs our french hands bring me eggs milk &c. &. to day The wind hard
from the S. W. Two Keel Boats came up to this place to day from Kentucky
[Clark, May 18, 1804]
May the 18th Friday 1804
a fine morning, I had the loading in the Boat & perogue examined and
changed So as the Bow of each may be heavyer laded than the Stern, Mr.
Lauremus who had been Sent by Cap Lewis to the Kickapoo Town on public
business return’d and after a Short delay proceeded on to St Louis, I
Sent George Drewyer with a Letter to Capt Lewis Two Keel Boats arrive
from Kentucky to day loaded with whiskey Hats &c. &. the wind from the
SW. Took equal altitudes with Sexetn Made it 97°42′ 37″ MT.
[Clark, May 19, 1804]
Satturday May the 19th 1804 a Violent Wind last night from the W. S W,
Suckceeded by rain with lasted Som hours, a Cloudy Morning, many
persons Came to the boat to day I took equal altitudes. mar time 76° 33′

I heard of my Brothers illness to day which has given me much Concurn,
I settle with the men and take receipts for Pay up to the 1st of Decr.
next, I am invited to a ball in the Village, let Several of the men
go,–R Fields Kill a Deer George Drewyear returned with a hundred
Dollars, he lost
[Clark, May 19, 1804]
May 19th Satturday 1804
A Violent Wind last night from the W. S. W. accompanied with rain which
lasted about three hours Cleared away this morn’g at 8 oClock, I took
receipt for the pay of the men up to the 1st. of Decr. next, R. Fields
Kill a Deer to day, I recve an invitation to a Ball, it is not in my
power to go. George Drewyer return from St Louis and brought 99
Dollars, he lost a letter from Cap Lewis to me, Seven Ladies visit me
to day
[Lewis, May 20, 1804]
Sunday May 20th 1804
The morning was fair, and the weather pleasent; at 10 oCk A M. agreably
to an appointment of the preceeding day, I was joined by Capt.
Stoddard, Lieuts. Milford & Worrell together with Messrs. A. Chouteau,
C. Gratiot, and many other respectable inhabitants of St. Louis, who
had engaged to accompany me to the Vilage of St. Charles; accordingly
at 12 Oclk after bidding an affectionate adieu to my Hostis, that
excellent woman the spouse of Mr. Peter Chouteau, and some of my fair
friends of St. Louis, we set forward to that village in order to join
my friend companion and fellow labourer Capt. William Clark who had
previously arrived at that place with the party destined for the
discovery of the interior of the continent of North America the first 5
miles of our rout laid through a beatifull high leavel and fertile
prarie which incircles the town of St. Louis from N. W. to S. E. the
lands through which we then passed are somewhat broken up fertile the
plains and woodlands are here indiscriminately interspersed untill you
arrive within three miles of the vilage when the woodland commences and
continues to the Missouri the latter is extreamly fertile. At half
after one P.M. our progress was interrupted the near approach of a
violent thunder storm from the N. W. and concluded to take shelter in a
little cabbin hard by untill the rain should be over; accordingly we
alighted and remained about an hour and a half and regailed ourselves
with a could collation which we had taken the precaution to bring with
us from St. Louis.

The clouds continued to follow each other in rapaid succession,
insomuch that there was but little prospect of it’s ceasing to rain
this evening; as I had determined to reach St. Charles this evening and
knowing that there was now no time to be lost I set forward in the
rain, most of the gentlemen continued with me, we arrived at half after
six and joined Capt Clark, found the party in good health and sperits.
suped this evening with Monsr. Charles Tayong a Spanish Ensign & late
Commandant of St. Charles at an early hour I retired to rest on board
the barge–St. Charles is situated on the North bank of the Missouri 21
Miles above it’s junction with the Mississippi, and about the same
distance N. W. from St. Louis; it is bisected by one principal street
about a mile in length runing nearly parrallel with the river, the
plain on which it stands-is narrow tho sufficiently elivated to secure
it against the annual inundations of the river, which usually happen in
the month of June, and in the rear it is terminated by a range of small
hills, hence the appellation of petit Cote, a name by which this vilage
is better known to the French inhabitants of the Illinois than that of
St. Charles. The Vilage contains a Chappel, one hundred dwelling
houses, and about 450 inhabitants; their houses are generally small and
but illy constructed; a great majority of the inhabitants are miserably
pour, illiterate and when at home excessively lazy, tho they are polite
hospitable and by no means deficient in point of natural genious, they
live in a perfect state of harmony among each other; and plase as
implicit confidence in the doctrines of their speritual pastor, the
Roman Catholic priest, as they yeald passive obedience to the will of
their temporal master the commandant. a small garden of vegetables is
the usual extent of their cultivation, and this is commonly imposed on
the old men and boys; the men in the vigor of life consider the
cultivation of the earth a degrading occupation, and in order to gain
the necessary subsistence for themselves and families, either undertake
hunting voyages on their own account, or engage themselves as hirelings
to such persons as possess sufficient capital to extend their traffic
to the natives of the interior parts of the country; on those voyages
in either case, they are frequently absent from their families or homes
the term of six twelve or eighteen months and alwas subjected to severe
and incessant labour, exposed to the ferosity of the lawless savages,
the vicissitudes of weather and climate, and dependant on chance or
accident alone for food, raiment or relief in the event of malady.
These people are principally the decendants of the Canadian French, and
it is not an inconsiderable proportian of them that can boast a small
dash of the pure blood of the aboriginees of America. On consulting
with my friend Capt. C. I found it necessary that we should pospone our
departure untill 2 P M. the next day and accordingly gave orders to the
party to hold themselves in readiness to depart at that hour.

Captn. Clark now informed me that having gotten all the stores on board
the Barge and perogues on the evening of the 13th of May he determined
to leave our winter cantainment at the mouth of River Dubois the next
day, and to ascend the Missouri as far as the Vilage of St. Charles,
where as it had been previously concerted between us, he was to wait my
arrival; this movement while it advanced us a small distance on our
rout, would also enable him to determine whether the vessels had been
judiciously loaded and if not timely to make the necessary alterations;
accordingly at 4 P.M. on Monday the 14th of May 1804, he embarked with
the party in the presence of a number of the neighbouring Citizens who
had assembled to witness his departure. during the fore part of this
day it rained excessively hard. In my last letter to the President
dated at St. Louis I mentioned the departure of Capt. Clark from River
Dubois on the 15th Inst, which was the day that had been calculated on,
but having completed the arrangements a day earlyer he departed on the
14th as before mentioned. On the evening of the 14th the party halted
and encamped on the upper point of the first Island which lyes near the
Larbord shore, on the same side and nearly opposite the center of this
Island a small Creek disimbogues called Couldwater.

The course and distance of this day was West 4 Miles the Wind from N. E.
[Clark, May 20, 1804]
Sunday 20th May
a Cloudy morning rained and a hard wind last night I continue to write
Rolls, Send 20 men to Church to day one man Sick Capt Lewis and Several
Gentlemen arrive from St Louis thro a violent Shoure of rain, the most
of the party go to the Church.
[Clark, May 20, 1804]
Sunday 20th May
A Cloudy morning rained and hard wind from the ____ last night, The
letter George lost yesterday found by a Country man, I gave the party
leave to go and hear a Sermon to day delivered by Mr. ____ a romon
Carthlick Priest at 3 oClock Capt. Lewis Capt. Stoddard accompanied by
the Officers & Several Gentlemen of St Louis arrived in a heavy Showr
of Rain Mssr. Lutenants Minford & Werness. Mr. Choteau Grattiot,
Deloney, Laber Dee Ranken Dr. SoDrang rained the greater part of this
evening. Suped with Mr. Charles Tayon, the late Comdt. of St Charles a
Spanish Ensign.
[Clark, May 21, 1804]
Monday 21st May
Dine with Mr. Ducete & Set out from St. Charles at three oClock after
getting every matter arranged, proceeded on under a jentle Breese, at
one mile a Violent rain with Wind from the S. W. we landed at the upper
point of the first Island on the Stbd Side & Camped, Soon after it
commenced raining & continued the greater part of the night; 3 french
men got leave to return to Town, and return early (refur to Fig. 2.)

25st refured to fig. 2 Left St. Charles May 21st 1804. Steered N. 15° W
13/4 Ms N 52°W to the upper point of the Island and Camped dureing a rain
which had been falling half an hour, opposit this Isd. Corns in a Small
creek on the St. Sd. and at the head one on the Ld. Side rains
[Clark, May 21, 1804]
May 21st 1804 Monday
All the forepart of the Day Arranging our party and prcureing the
different articles necessary for them at this place–Dined with Mr.
Ducett and Set out at half passed three oClock under three Cheers from
the gentlemen on the bank and proceeded on to the head of the Island
(which is Situated on the Stbd Side) 3 miles Soon after we Set out to
day a hard Wind from the W. S W accompanied with a hard rain, which
lasted with Short intervales all night, opposit our Camp a Small creek
corns in on the Lbd Side-
[Clark, May 22, 1804]
Tuesday May 22nd
delayed a Short time for the three french men who returned and we Set
out at 6 oClock a Cloudy morning rained Violently hard last night Saw
Several people on the bank to day & passed Several Small farms. Capt.
Lewis walk on Shore a little & passed a Camp of Kickapoo Indians, &
incamped in the mouth of a Small Creek in a large Bend on the Stbd Side.
[Clark, May 22, 1804]
May 22nd Tuesday 1804
a Cloudy morning Delay one hour for 4 french men who got liberty to
return to arrange Some business they had forgotten in Town, at 6 oClock
we proceeded on, passed Several Small farms on the bank, and a large
creek on the Lbd. Side Called Bonom a Camp of Kickapoos on the St. Side
Those Indians told me Several days ago that they would Come on & hunt
and by the time I got to their Camp they would have Some Provisions for
us, we Camped in a Bend at the Mo. of a Small creek, Soon after we came
too the Indians arrived with 4 Deer as a Present, for which we gave
them two qts. of whiskey-

This Day we passed Several Islands, and Some high lands on the
Starboard Side, Verry hard water.
[Clark, May 23, 1804]
Wednesday May 23rd 8 Indians Kick. Came to Camp with meat we recved
their pesents of 3 Deer & gave them Whisky.

Set out early run on a log under water and Detained one hour proceeded
on the Same Course of last night, (2 miles) passed the mouth of a creek
on the Sbd. Side called Woman of Osage River about 30 yds. over,
abounding in fish, Stoped one hour where their was maney people
assembled to See us, halted at an endented part of a Rock which juted
over the water, Called by the french the tavern which is a Cave 40 yds.
long with the river 4 feet Deep & about 20 feet high, this is a place
the Indians & french Pay omage to, many names are wrote up on the rock
Mine among others, at one mile above this rock coms in a small Creek
called Tavern Creek, abov one other Small Creek, camped at 6 oClock
(after expirencing great dificuselty in passing Some Drifts) on the Stb
Side, examined the mens arms found all in good order except the
Detachment of Solds in the Perogue–R Field Killed a Deer.
[Clark, May 23, 1804]
May 23rd Course of last night S 75 W Contined 2 miles to the Said point
St. Side passed the upper Point of the Island Thence S 52° W. 7 Miles to
a pt. on St. Sd. passing Tavern Island two Small Isd. in a bend to the
St. side the Mo. of Oge womans River at 1 m. the Cave Called the
Tavern, Lbd Side at 5 m. Situated in the Clifts, opposit a Small Island
on the Stbd Side (R. & Jo. Fields came in) with many people, passed the
Tavern Cave, Capt Lewis assended the hill which has peninsulis
projecting in raged points to the river, and was near falling from a
Peninsulia hard water all Day Saved himself by the assistance of his
Knife, passed a Creek 15 yds. wide at 1 mile called Creek of the Tavern
on the Lbd. Side, Camped opposit the pt. which the Last Course was to.
one man Sick.
[Clark, May 23, 1804]
May 23rd Wednesday 1804
We Set out early ran on a Log and detained one hour, proceeded the
Course of Last night 2 Miles to the mouth of a Creek on the Stbd. Side
Called Osage Womans R, about 30 yds. wide, opposit a large Island and a
Settlement. (on this Creek 30 or 40 famlys are Settled) Crossed to the
Settlemt. and took in R & Jo. Fields who had been Sent to purchase Corn
& Butter &c. many people Came to See us, we passed a large Cave on the
Lbd. Side about 120 feet wide 40 feet Deep & 20 feet high many
different immages are Painted on the Rock at this place. the Inds &
French pay omage. many hams are wrote on the rock, Stoped about one
mile above for Capt Lewis who had assended the Clifts which is at the
Said Cave 300 fee high, hanging over the Water, the water excessively
Swift to day, we incamped below a Small Isld. in the Meadle of the
river, Sent out two hunters, one Killed a Deer

This evening we examined the arms and amunition found those mens arms
in the perogue in bad order a fair evening Capt. Lewis near falling
from the Pencelia of rocks 300 feet, he caught at 20 foot.
[Clark, May 24, 1804]
Thursday May the 24th 1804 Set out early passed a Small Isd in the
Midlle of the river, opposit the on the Lbd. Side is projecting Rock of
1/2 a mile in extent against which the Current runs, this place is
called the Devils race grounds,1 above this Coms in a Small Creek
called the little quiver, a Sand Island on the Stbd Side, passed
Several Islands & 2 creeks, on the Stbd Side a Small Island on the Lbd
Side above we wer verry near loseing our Boat in Toeing She Struck the
Sands the Violence of the Current was so great that the Toe roap Broke,
the Boat turned Broadside, as the Current Washed the Sand from under
her She wheeled & lodged on the bank below as often as three times,
before we got her in Deep water, nothing Saved her but
[Clark, May 24, 1804]
May 24th Set out early, Killed a Deer last night. examined the mens
arms, & Saw that all was prepared for action, passed an Island in the
M. R, opposit a hard place of water called the Devill race grown, S 63° W
4 miles to a point on the Sd. Starboard Side N 68 W to a point on Lbd
Side 3 ms. Passd. a Small Willow Island on the Lbd. Side to the point
of a Isd. L Side–S 75° W to a point on Stbd Side 3 Miles, Passed the
upper point of the Island. Crossed and in a verry bad place we got our
Boat a ground & She Bocke the Toe Roap & turned the Land, the in
Wheeling three times, got off returned to the head of the aforesaid
Island, and Came up under a falling Bank. hard water this place being
the worst I ever Saw, I call it the retregrade bend. Camped at an old
[Clark, May 24, 1804]
May 24th Thursday 1804
Set out early passed a Verry bad part of the River Called the Deavels
race ground, this is where the Current Sets against Some projecting
rocks for half a mile on the Labd. Side, above this place is the mouth
of a Small Creek Called queivere, passed Several Islands, two Small
Creeks on the Stbd. Side, and passed between a Isld. an the Lbd. Shore
a narrow pass above this Isld is a Verry bad part of the river, we
attempted to pass up under the Lbd. Bank which was falling in So fast
that the evident danger obliged us to Cross between the Starbd. Side
and a Sand bar in the middle of the river, we hove up near the head of
the Sand bar, the Sand moveing & banking caused us to run on the Sand.
The Swiftness of the Current wheeled the boat, Broke our Toe rope, and
was nearly over Setting the boat, all hand jumped out on the upper Side
and bore on that Side untill the Sand washed from under the boat and
wheeled on the next bank by the time She wheeled a 3rd Time got a rope
fast to her Stern and by the means of Swimmers was Carred to Shore and
when her Stern was down whilst in the act of Swinging a third time into
Deep water near the Shore, we returned, to the Island where we Set out
and assended under the Bank which I have just mentioned, as falling in,
here George Drewyer & Willard, two of our men who left us at St.
Charles to Come on by land joined us, we Camped about 1 mile above
where we were So nearly being lost, on the Labd Side at a Plantation.
all in Spirits. This place I call the retragrade bend as we were
obliged to fall back 2 miles
[Clark, May 25, 1804]
25 May
Set out early Course West to a Point on Sbd. Side at 2 Miles passd a
Willow Isd. in a Bend to the Lbd. a creek called wood rivr Lbd. Side N
57° W. to a pt. on the Sb. Side 3 Miles passed the Mouth of a Creek St.
Side Called Le quever, this Same course continued to a Point Ld. Side
21/2 Miles further. opposit a Isd. on Sd Side Passed a Creek Called R.
La freeau at the pt. N 20° W 2 miles To a Small french Village called La
Charatt of five families only, in the bend to the Starbord This is the
Last Settlement of Whites, an Island opposit
[Clark, May 25, 1804]
May 25th Friday 1804
rain last night river fall Several inches, Set out early psd. Several
Islands passed wood River on the Lbd Side at 2 miles passed Creek on
the St. Side Called La Querer at 5 miles passed a Creek at 8 mile,
opsd. an Isd. on the Lbd Side, Camped at the mouth of a Creek called
River a Chauritte, above a Small french Village of 7 houses and as many
families, Settled at this place to be convt. to hunt, & trade with the
Indians, here we met with Mr. Louisell imedeately down from the Seeeder
Isld. Situated in the Countrey of the Suxex 400 Leagues up he gave us a
good Deel of information Some letters he informed us that he Saw no
Indians on the river below the Poncrars–Some hard rain this evening

The people at this Village is pore, houses Small, they Sent us milk &
eggs to eat.
[Clark, May 26, 1804]
May 26th 1804. Set out at 7 oClock after a hard rain & Wind, & proceed
on verry well under Sale. Wind from the E N E

The wind favourable to day we made 18 miles a Cloud rais & wind & rain
Closed the Day
[Clark, May 26, 1804]
May the 26th Sattarday 1804.
Set out at 7 oClock after a heavy Shour of rain (George Drewyer & John
Shields, Sent by Land with the two horses with directions to proceed on
one day & hunt the next) The wind favourable from the E N E passed Beef
Island and river on Lbd Side at 31/2 Ms Passed a Creek on the Lbd. Side
Called Shepperds Creek, passed Several Islands to day great Deal of
Deer Sign on the Bank one man out hunting, w Camped on an Island on the
Starboard Side near the Southern extrem of Luter Island.
[Lewis, May 26, 1804]
Detatchment Orders.
May 26th 1804.
The Commanding Officers direct, that the three Squads under the command
of Sergts. Floyd Ordway and Pryor heretofore forming two messes each,
shall untill further orders constitute three messes only, the same
being altered and organized as follows (viz)

1 Sergt. Charles Floyd. (1)

2 Hugh McNeal
3 Patric Gass
4 Reubin Fields (2)
5 John B Thompson
+ 6 John Newman
7 Richard Winsor
+ Francis Rivet &
8 Joseph Fields (3)
9 Sergt. John Ordway.

10 William Bratton (4)
11 John Colter (5)
X 12 Moses B. Reed
13 Alexander Willard
14 William Warner
15 Silas Goodrich
16 John Potts &
17 Hugh Hall

18 Sergt. Nathaniel Pryor. (6)

19 George Gibson (7)
20 George Shannon (8)
21 John Shields (9)
22 John Collins
23 Joseph Whitehouse
24 Peter Wiser
F 25 Peter Crusat &
F 26 Francis Labuche

The commanding officers further direct that the remainder of the
detatchmen shall form two messes; and that the same be constituded as
follows. (viz)

Patroon, Baptist Dechamps

Etienne Mabbauf
Paul Primaut
Charles Hébert
Baptist La Jeunesse
Peter Pinaut
Peter Roi &
Joseph Collin

1 Corpl. Richard Warvington.

2 Robert Frasier
3 John Boleye
4 John Dame
5 Ebinezer Tuttle &
6 Isaac White

The Commanding officers further direct that the messes of Sergts.
Floyd, Ordway and Pryor shall untill further orders form the crew of
the Batteaux; the Mess of the Patroon La Jeunesse will form the
permanent crew of the red Perogue; Corpl. Warvington’s mess forming
that of the white perogue.

Whenever by any casualty it becomes necessary to furnish additional men
to assist in navigating the Perogues, the same shall be furnished by
daily detale from the Privates who form the crew of Batteaux, exempting
only from such detale, Thomas P. Howard and the men who are assigned to
the two bow and the two stern oars.–For the present one man will be
furnished daily to assist the crew of the white perogue; this man must
be an expert boatman.

The posts and duties of the Sergts. shall be as follows (viz)–when the
Batteaux is under way, one Sergt. shall be stationed at the helm, one
in the center on the rear of the Starboard locker, and one at the bow.
The Sergt. at the helm, shall steer the boat, and see that the baggage
on the quarterdeck is properly arranged and stowed away in the most
advantageous manner; to see that no cooking utensels or loos lumber of
any kind is left on the deck to obstruct the passage between the
burths–he will also attend to the compas when necessary.

The Sergt at the center will command the guard, manage the sails, see
that the men at the oars do their duty; that they come on board at a
proper season in the morning, and that the boat gets under way in due
time; he will keep a good lookout for the mouths of all rivers, creeks,
Islands and other remarkable places and shall immediately report the
same to the commanding officers; he will attend to the issues of
sperituous liquors; he shall regulate the halting of the batteaux
through the day to give the men refreshment, and will also regulate the
time of her departure taking care that not more time than is necessary
shall be expended at each halt–it shall be his duty also to post a
centinel on the bank, near the boat whenever we come too and halt in
the course of the day, at the same time he will (acompanied by two his
guard) reconnoiter the forrest arround the place of landing to the
distance of at least one hundred paces. when we come too for the
purpose of encamping at night, the Sergt. of the guard shall post two
centinels immediately on our landing; one of whom shal be posted near
the boat, and the other at a convenient distance in rear of the
encampment; at night the Sergt. must be always present with his guard,
and he is positively forbidden to suffer any man of his guard to absent
himself on any pretext whatever; he will at each relief through the
night, accompanyed by the two men last off their posts, reconnoiter in
every direction around the camp to the distance of at least one hundred
and fifty paces, and also examine the situation of the boat and
perogues, and see that they ly safe and free from the bank

It shall be the duty of the sergt. at the bow, to keep a good look out
for all danger which may approach, either of the enimy, or obstructions
which may present themselves to passage of the boat; of the first he
will notify the Sergt. at the center, who will communicate the
information to the commanding officers, and of the second or
obstructions to the boat he will notify the Sergt. at the helm; he will
also report to the commanding officers through the Sergt. at the center
all perogues boats canoes or other craft which he may discover in the
river, and all hunting camps or parties of Indians in view of which we
may pass. he will at all times be provided with a seting pole and
assist the bowsman in poling and managing the bow of the boat. it will
be his duty also to give and answer all signals, which may hereafter be
established for the government of the perogues and parties on shore.

The Sergts. will on each morning before our departure relieve each
other in the following manner–The Sergt. at the helm will parade the
new guard, relieve the Sergt. and the old guard, and occupy the middle
station in the boat; the Sergt. of the old guard will occupy the
station at the bow, and the Sergt. who had been stationed the
preceeding day at the bow will place himself at the helm.–The sergts.
in addition to those duties are directed each to keep a seperate
journal from day today of all passing occurences, and such other
observations on the country &c. as shall appear to them worthy of notice

The Sergts. are relieved and exempt from all labour of making fires,
pitching tents or cooking, and will direct and make the men of their
several messes perform an equal propotion of those duties.

The guard shall hereafter consist of one sergeant and six privates &

Patroon, Dechamp, Copl. Warvington, and George Drewyer, are exempt from
guad duty; the two former will attend particularly to their perogues at
all times, and see that their lading is in good order, and that the
same is kept perfectly free from rain or other moisture; the latter
will perform certain duties on shore which will be assigned him from
time to time. all other soldiers and engaged men of whatever
discription must perform their regular tour of guad duty.

All detales for guard or other duty will be made in the evening when we
encamp, and the duty to be performed will be entered on, by the
individuals so warned, the next morning.–provision for one day will be
issued to the party on each evening after we have encamped; the same
will be cooked on that evening by the several messes, and a proportion
of it reserved for the next day as no cooking will be allowed in the
day while on the mach

Sergt. John Ordway will continue to issue the provisions and make the
detales for guard or other duty.–The day after tomorrow lyed corn and
grece will be issued to the party, the next day Poark and flour, and
the day following indian meal and poark; and in conformity to that
ratiene provisions will continue to be issued to the party untill
further orders.–should any of the messes prefer indian meal to flour
they may recieve it accordingly–no poark is to be issued when we have
fresh meat on hand.

Labuche and Crusat will man the larboard bow oar alternately, and the
one not engaged at the oar will attend as the Bows-man, and when the
attention of both these persons is necessary at the bow, their oar is
to be maned by any idle hand on board.

Meriwether Lewis Capt.
Wm. Clark Cpt.
[Clark, May 27, 1804]
Sunday May 27th as we were Setting out this morning two Canoos loaded
with Bever elk Deer Skins & Buffalow Robes, from the Mahars nation,
they inform that they left that place 2 months, a gentle Breese from
the S. E, we camped on an Isd in the mouth of Gasconade R, this river
is 157 yards wide a butifull stream of clear water. 19 foot Deep Hills
on the lower Side
[Clark, May 27, 1804]
May 27th Sunday 1804
as we were pushing off this Morning two Canoos Loaded with fur &c. Came
to from the Mahars nation, which place they had left two months, at
about 10 oClock 4 Cajaux or rafts loaded with furs and peltres came too
one from the Paunees, the other from Grand Osage, they informed nothing
of Consequence, passed a Creek on the Lbd Side Called ash Creek 20 yds
wide, passed the upper point of a large Island on the Stbd Side back of
which Comes in three Creeks one Called Orter Creek, her the men we left
hunting Came in we camped on a Willow Island in the mouth of Gasconnade
River. George Shannon Killed a Deer this evening
[Clark, May 28, 1804]
Monday 28th May
rained hard all the last night Some wind from the S W, one Deer Killed
to day, one Man fell in with Six Indians hunting, onloaded the perogue,
& found Several articles Wet, Some Tobacco Spoiled. river begin to rise
[Clark, May 28, 1804]
May 28th Munday 1804 Gasconnade
Rained hard all last night Some thunder & lightening hard wind in the
forepart of the night from the S W. Ruben Fields Killed a Deer Several
hunter out to day I measured the river found the Gasconnade to be 157
yds. wide and 19 foot Deep the Course of this R. is S 29° W, one of the
hunters fell in with 6 Inds. hunting, onloaded the large Perogue on
board of which was 8 french hands found many things wet by their
cearlenessness, put all the articles which was wet out to Dry–this day
So Cloudy that no observations could be taken, the river begin to rise,
examine the mens arms and equapage, all in Order
[Clark, May 29, 1804]
Tuesday 29th May Sent out hunters, got a morning obsvtn and one at 12
oClock, rained last night, the river rises fast The Musquetors are
verry bad, Load the pierogue
[Clark, May 29, 1804]
May 29th 1804 Set out from the mouth of the gasconnade, where we took
obsevn &c. left a Perogue for a man lost in the woods, Course N. 54 W 2
m to a point Lb. Side. Passed the Isd. on which we Camped, river still
rised, water verry muddey N. 78° W 2 Ms. to a pt. on Lb Side passed two
willow Islands first Smaller and a Creek on Lbd. called Deer Creek one
oposit the point St. Side and incamped on the Lb Side rain all night
the tents together along the N; 76 W 25 Poles S 26 W, to the point
above–S 19° to the pot below the River
[Clark, May 29, 1804]
May 29th Tuesday rained last night, Cloudy morning 4 hunters Sent out
with Orders to return at 12 oClock Took equal altitudes of Suns Lower
limb found it 105° 31′ 45″

Cap Lewis observed meridean altitude of sun U L-back observation with
the octant & artificeal horozen–gave for altitude on the Limb 38° 44′
00″ sun octant Error 2 0 0 +

had the Perogues loaded and all perpared to Set out at 4 oClock after
finishing the observations & all things necessary found that one of the
hunters had not returned, we deturmined to proceed on & leave one
perogue to wate for him, accordingly at half past four we Set out and
came on 4 miles & camped on the Lbd Side above a Small Creek Called
Deer Creek, Soon after we came too we heard Several guns fire down the
river, we answered them by a Discharge of a Swivile on the Bow
[Clark, May 30, 1804]
May 30th, Wednesday, Set out at 7 oClock after a heavy rain, rained all
last night, a little after Dark last night Several guns were herd
below, I expect the French men fireing for Whitehous who was lost in
the woods.
[Clark, May 30, 1804]
May 30th Wednesday 1804
Rained all last night Set out at 6 oClock after a heavy Shower, and
proceeded on, passed a large Island a Creek opposit on the St. Side
just abov a Cave Called Monbrun Tavern & River, passed a Creek on the
Lbd. Side Call Rush Creek at 4 Miles Several Showers of rain the
Current Verry Swift river riseing fast Passed Big Miry River at 11
Miles on the Starboard Side, at the lower point of a Island, this River
is about 50 yards Wide, Camped at the mouth of a Creek on Lbd Sd of abt
25 yds. Wide Called Grinestone Creek, opposit the head of a Isd. and
the mouth of Little Miry River on the St Side, a heavy wind accompanied
with rain & hail we Made 14 miles to day, the river Continue to rise,
the County on each Side appear full of Water.
[Clark, May 31, 1804]
May 31st Thursday 1804
rained the greater part of last night, the wind from the West raised
and blew with great force untile 5 oClock p.m.which obliged us to lay
by a Cajaux of Bear Skins and pelteries came down from the Grand
Osarge, one french man one Indian, and a Squar, they had letters from
the man Mr. Choteau Sent to that part of the Osarge Nation Settled on
Arkansa River mentioning that his letter was Commited to the flaims,
the Inds. not believeing that the Americans had possession of the
Countrey they disregarded St Louis & their Supplies &c.–Several rats
of Considerable Size was Cought in the woods to day–Capt Lewis went
out to the woods & found many curious Plants & Srubs, one Deer killed
this evening
[Clark, June 1, 1804]
June 1st Friday 1804 Set out early, the Same Course S 48° W of Wednesday
contd. 4 ms passed the Mouth of Little Miry on the Stb & high rich Land
on the Lb Side, S. 45°W to an Island opposit a hill on the S. Sd. 6 Ms.
this Isd is on the Lbd. passed the Mo. of Bear creek 25 yds wide at 2
ms. & three Small Isd., Some Swift water and banks falling in, Wind a
head from the West, S 39° W 3 ms. to the Pt. above the mouth of Osage
River Larb Side, Camped fell a number of Trees in the Point to take
observation a fair after noon, Sit up untill 1 oClock to take Som
observations &c.
[Clark, June 1, 1804]
June 1st 1804 Friday
Set out early a fair morning Passed the mouth Bear Creek 25 yds. Wide
at 6 Miles, Several Small Islands in the river the wind a head from the
West the Current exceedingly rapid Came to on the point of the Osarges
River on the Labd Side of Missouries this osages river Verry high,
felled all the Trees in the point to Make observations Sit up untill 12
oClock taken oservation this night
[Clark, June 2, 1804]
June 2nd–Took the Dirts. of Son & moon &c &c. I measured the Osage &
Missouris at this place made ther width as follows, the Missoure 875
yd. wide The Osage R 397 yds. wide, the distance between the 2 rivers
80 poles up is 40 Ps. Took equal altitudes & Mredian altitude also-and
made them ____ I assended the hill in the point 80 ps. from the pt.
found it about 100 foot high, on the top is 2 graves, or mouns, a
Delightfull prospect from this hill which Comds. both rivers

Drewyer & Shields came to the opposit Side to day at SunSet we sent
across & brought them over, they had been absent 7 Days Swam many
creeks, much worsted. They informed us that the Countrey on both Sides
of muddy river’s to the hill called by the french ____ 3 ms. below this
place, a Small Praries below the hill, 4 Deer Killed to day I assend a
hill &. after measuring the river &c. &c. &c.
[Clark, June 2, 1804]
June 2nd Satturday Cap Lewis Took the Time & Distance of suns & moons
nearest limbs, the Sun East–and Meridean altitude of Suns U. L. with
Octant, back observation gave for altitude 37° 28″00″.

Error of Octant 2° 00′ 00″ +. made Several other observations–I made an
angle for the Wedth of the two rivers. The Missourie from the Point to
the N. Side is 875 yards wide the Osage River from the point to the S.
E Side is 397 yards wide, the destance between the two rivers at the
pt. of high Land (ioo foot above the bottom) and 80 poles up the
Missouries from the point is 40 poles, on the top of this high land
under which is a limestone rock two Mouns or graves are raised–from
this pt. which Comds both rivers I had a delightful) prospect of the
Missouries up & down, also the Osage R. up. George Drewyer & John
Shields who we had Sent with the horses by Land on the N Side joined us
this evening much worsted, they being absent Seven Days depending on
their gun, the greater part of the time rain, they were obliged to raft
or Swim many Creeks, those men gave a flattering account of the
Countrey Commencing below the first hill on the N Side and extendg
Parrelal with the river for 30 or 40 Ms. The Two Muddey river passing
Thro & som fine Springs & Streams our hunters kill Several Deer to day,
Some Small licks on the S E of the Osage River.
[Clark, June 3, 1804]
June Sunday 3rd 1804
the fore part of the day fair I attempted to take equal alltitudes, & M
Altitudes, but was disapointed, the Clouds obsured the Sun, took the D.
of sun & moon Capt Lewis & George Drewyer went out & Killed a Deer, We
Set out at 5 oClock P M Cloudy & rain, West 5 Ms. to the mo. of Murrow
Creek Lb Sd. a pt. St. Side Keeping along the Lbd Side 1 Ms., passed
the mouth of a Creek on Lbd Side 3 ms., I call Cupboard, Creek, mouths
behind a rock which projects into the river, Camped in the mouth of the
Creek aforesaid, at the mouth of this Creek I saw much fresh Signs of
Indians, haveing Crossed 2 Deer Killed to day. I have a verry Sore
Throat, & am Tormented with Musquetors & Small ticks.
[Clark, June 3, 1804]
June 3rd Sunday 1804
The forepart of the day fair Took meridional altitude of suns U:L with
the Octant and Glass Horrison adjusted back observation. the instrument
gave 38° 2′ 00″–it was Cloudy and the Suns disk much obsured, and Cannot
be Depended on.

We made other Observations in the evening after the return of Capt
Lewis from a walk of three or four ms. round–We Set out at 5 oClock
P.M. proceeded on five miles to the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. 20
yds. wide Called Murow, passed a Creek at 3 ms. which I call Cupbord
Creek as it Mouths above a rock of that appearance. Several Deer Killed
to dayat the mouth of the Murow Creek I Saw much Sign of war parties of
Inds. haveing Crossed from the mouth of this Creek. I have a bad Cold
with a Sore throat. Near West 5 Miles
[Clark, June 4, 1804]
June 4th 1804 Monday, a fair Day Sent out 3 hunters, our mast broke by
the boat running under a tree Passed an Islands on Stbd Side on which
grow Seeder a Creek at ____ miles on the Starbd Sd. Course N. 30° W 4 ms.
to pt. on St. Side below 2d Isd. passed a Creek on Lbd Side 15 yd.
wide, I call Nightingale Creek. this Bird Sang all last night and is
the first of the kind I ever herd, below this Creek and the last Passed
a Small Isd on the Stbd. N. 25 W. 3 ms. to a pt. on St. Sd. passed a
Sm. Isd. on St. Sd. and Seeder Creek on the Same Side 20 yds wide
passed a Creek on Lbd Sd. 20 yd wide, I call Mast Creek, this is a
Short Creek, fine land above & below the mouth. Jentle rise of about 50
foot, Delightfull Timber of Oake ash walnut hickory &c. &c. wind from N
W. by W. N. 58° W. 71/2 ms. passed a Creek Called Zoncar on the Lbd Side,
N 75 W 3 me. to a pt, S. Sd. called Batue a De charm, a plain on the
hill opposit. I got out & walked on the L Sd. thro a Charming Bottom of
rich Land about one mile then I assended a hill of about 170 foot on
the top of which is a Moun and about 100 acres of Land of Dead timber
on this hill one of the party says he has found Lead ore a verry
extensive Cave under this hill next the river, the Land on the top is
fine, This is a very bad part of the river Seven Deer Killed to day by
our hunters–one of the horses is Snaged, the other lost his Shous to
day the Bottom on the St. Side to day is covered with rushes, not verry
good ____ the high land Comes to the bank on the Labd Side and good 2d
rate land.
[Clark, June 4, 1804]
June 4th Monday 1804
a fair day three men out on the right flank passed a large Island on
the St. Side Called Seeder Island, this Isd. has a great Deel of Ceedar
on it, passed a Small Creek at 1 ms. 15 yd. Wide which we named
Nightingale Creek from a Bird of that discription which Sang for us all
last night, and is the first of the Kind I ever heard. passed the mouth
of Seeder Creek at 7 ms. on the S. S. abt. 20 yds. Wide above Some
Small Isds. passed a Creek on the L. S. abt. 15 yds. wide. Mast Creek,
here the Sergt. at the helm run under a bending Tree & broke the mast,
Some delightful) Land, with a jentle assent about the Creek, well
timbered, Oake, Ash, walnut &c. &c. passed, wind N W. by W. passed a
Small Creek Called Zan Can C on the L. S; at this last point I got out
and walked on the L. Sd. thro a rush bottom for 1 Miles & a Short
Distance thro Nettles as high as my brest assended a hill of about 170
foot to a place where the french report that Lead ore has been found, I
saw no mineral of that description, Capt Lewis Camped imediately under
this hill, to wate which gave me Some time to examine the hill, on the
top is a moun of about 6 foot high and about 100 Acres of land which
the large timber is Dead in Decending about 50 foot a projecting lime
Stone rock under which is a Cave at one place in this projecting rocks
I went on one which Spured up and hung over the Water from the top of
this rock I had a prospect of the river for 20 or 30 ms. up, from the
Cave which incumposed the hill I decended by a Steep decent to the
foot, a verry bad part of the river opposit this hill, the river
Continu to fall Slowly, our hunters killed 7 Deer to day The land our
hunters passed thro to day on the S. S. was Verry fine the latter part
of to day. the high land on the S. S. is about 2d rate
[Clark, June 5, 1804]
June 5th Tuesday, Jurked the Vennison Killed yesterday, after Seting
over the Scouting Party or hunder of 3 men Set out at 6 oClock Course N
57° W to a pt. on S. Sd. 5 ms. passed a Creek on L. Sd. I call Lead C of
15 yds passed one on the S. Called Lit. good-womans Creek about 20 yds.
wide Passed a Willow Isd. a Butifull Prarie approaching near the river
above Lead C & extends to the Mine river in a westerly Derection,
passed the Mouth of the Creek of the Big Rock 15 yds Wide at 4 ms. on
the Lbd Sd. at 11 oClock brought a Caissie in which was 2 men, from 80
League up the Kansias River, where they wintered and caught a great qty
of Beever but unfortunatey lost it by the burning of the plains, the
Kansas Nation hunted on the Missourie last Winter and are now persueing
the Buffalow in the Plains, passed a Projecting Rock called the Manitou
a Painting from this Deavel to the Pt. on the Lbd Side N 23° W 71/2 Ms.
The Same course 21/2 ms. Creek Cld. Manitou passed a on the Lbd. Side
about 40 yd. wide, a Sand bar in the middle of the River passed up
between the Sand & L. Shore one Mile to a Small Creek 10 yd. wide, (I
call Sand C). We run on the Sand and was obliged to return to the
Starbd Side, I am verry unwell with a Slight feever from a bad cold
caught three days ago at the Grand so R–passed a Small Willow Isd. on
S. Side, a large one in the Middle of the river, York Swam to the Isd.
to pick greens, and Swam back with his greens, the Boat Drew too much
water to cross the quick Sands which intervened, She draws 4 foot
water, a fair wind our mast being broke by accidence provented our
takeing the advantage of it passed the lower point of a large Island,
opposit the Current devides between 4 Small Isds on the St Side. we
found the water excessively hard for 12 Miles as we were oblged to pass
up the center of the Current between two of the Isds. & round the heads
of the other 2 the Current Setting imediately against the points which
was choked up with Drift for a mile–Above those Isd. on the St. Side
we camped altogether our Hunter or Spis discovered the sign of a war
party of abt. 10 Men
[Clark, June 5, 1804]
June 5th Tuesday 1804
after Jurking the meet Killed yesterday and Crossing the hunting party
we Set out at 6 oClock, from the last Course & distance, N 51° W. 5 ms.
to a pt. on the St. Sd. passed a Small Creek on the Ld. S. I call Lead
C. passed a Creek on the S. S. of 20 yds. wide Cald. Lit. Good Womans
C. on the L. S. a Prarie extends from Lead C. parrelel with the river
to Mine river, at 4 ms. Passed the Creek of the big rock about 15 yds.
wide on the L. Sd. at 11 oClock brought too a Small Caissee in which
was two french men, from 80 Leagues up the Kansias R. where they
wintered, and Cought a great quantity of Beaver, the greater part of
which they lost by fire from the Praries, those men inform that the
Kansas Nation are now out in the plains hunting Buffalow, they hunted
last winter on this river Passed a projecting rock on which was painted
a figue and a Creek at 2 ms. above Called Little Manitou Creek from the
Painted rock this Creek 20 yds. wide on the L. Sd. passed a Small Creek
on L. S. opposit a Verry bad Sand bar of Several ms. in extent, which
we named Sand C here my Servent York Swam to the Sand bar to geather
greens for our Dinner and returnd with a Sufficent quantity wild
Creases or Teng grass, we passed up for 2 ms on the L. S. of this Sand
and was obliged to return, the Watr. uncertain the quick Sand Moveing
we had a fine wind, but could not make use of it, our Mast being broke,
we passed between 2 Small Islands in the Middle of the Current, & round
the head of three a rapid Current for one mile and Camped on the S. S.
opsd. a large Island in the middle of the river; one Perogue did not
get up for two hours, our Scout discovd. the fresh sign of about 10
Inds. I expect that those Indians are on their way to war against the
Osages nation probably they are the Saukees
[Clark, June 6, 1804]
Wednesday the 6th of June 1804.
Mended our mast this morning and Set out at 7 oClock, under a Jentle
Braise from the S, E by S N 28° W 31/2 miles to a hill on St Sd. passg
the N. beige of the Island Called Split rock Island, the river rose
last night a foot the Countrey about this Isd. is delightfull large
rush bottom of rushes below on the St. Side N 49° W, 11/2 Ms. to the
mouth of Split rock River ____ yds. wide on the Starboard Side opod.
the pt. of a Isd. passed a place in the projecting rock Called the hole
thro the rock, a round Cave pass thro the Pt. of rock’s West 11/2 ms.
to a pt. on Std. Sd. opposit a Clift of rocks abt 200 foot N 31° W. 4 ms
1/2 to a pt. on L. Side passed Saline Creek on the L. Side a large Salt
Lick & Spring 9 me. up the Creek, one bushel of water will make 7 lb.
of good Salt

(Information) Took Meridian altitude of sun Limb. 37° 6′ 0″ equat to ____
of Lattidude.

on this Creek, So great a no of Salt Springs are on it that the water
is brackish N 51° W to a Belge of an Isd on the S. Sd. at 3 ms. Passed a
Willow Isd. in Middle, Some wind in the after part of to day from the S
E, (the Banks are falling in greatly in this part of the river) as also
is one Side or the other in all the Course, we assended on the North
Side of the Isd. and finding that the perogues Could not Keep up Camped
2 hs. by Sun. on the Sd Sd the land below this is good.
[Clark, June 6, 1804]
June 6th Wednesday 1804
Mended our Mast this morning &, Set out at 7 oClock under a jentle
breise from S. E. by S passed the large Island, and a Creek Called
Split rock Creek at 5 ms. on the S. S. psd. a place to the rock from
which 20 yds we. this Creek takes its name, a projecting rock with a
hole thro a point of the rock, at 8 ms. passed the mouth of a Creek
Called Saline or Salt R on the L. Sd. this River is about 30 yds. wide,
and has So many Licks & Salt Springs on its banks that the Water of the
Creek is Brackish, one Verry large Lick is 9 ms. up on the left Side
the water of the Spring in this Lick is Strong as one bushel of the
water is said to make 7 lb. of good Salt passed a large Isd. & Several
Small ones, the water excessivly Strong, So much So that we Camped
Sooner than the usial time to waite for the pirogue, The banks are
falling in Verry much to day river rose last night a foot.

Capt. Lewis took meridean altd. of Suns U. L. with the octant above
Split Rock C. &made the altitude 37° 6′ 00 error of octt. as useal 2° 0′ 0″
+ The Countrey for Several miles below is good, on the top of the high
land back is also tolerable land Some buffalow Sign to day

I am Still verry unwell with a Sore throat & head ake
[Clark, June 7, 1804]
Thursday 7th of June 1804 Set out early passed the head of the Isd from
the Isd. N. 61° W. to the mouth of a Creek Called big monitu on St. Sd.
41/2 ms. psd. a Sand bar in the river, Som Buffalow Sign Sent out
George Drewyer & Newmon to hunt Capt Lewis and 6 men went to a Lick up
this Creek on the right Side over 2 mes. & 2 other not far above the
water runs out of the bank & not verry Strong. 3 to 500 G for a bushell.

S 88° W. 2 Miles to a pt. on Lbd. Side, high bluff on the Stbd. Side,
Monitou Creek is 30 yds. Wide at the mouth, passed a painted part of a
Projecting rock we found ther a Den of rattle Snakes, Killed 3
proceeded on passed, S 81°W 4 ms. to apt. on S. Side passed an Island in
the Middle of the river, S. 87° W. to a pt. of high Land on the L. S.
pass’g over the Middle of a willow Island, ms. 31/2 proceed on 1/2 a
mile on this Course a Camped at the mouth of Good womans river on the
S. S. about 35 yds wide, & navagable Som D. our hunters brought in 3
bear this evening-& infd. that the Countrey between this R. & the
Monitou R is rich and well watered, Capt. Lewis went out an hour this
[Clark, June 7, 1804]
June 7th Thursday 1804
Set out early passed the head of the Island opposit which we Camped
last night, and brackfast at the Mouth of a large Creek on the S. S. Of
30 yds wide Called big Monetou, from the pt. of the Isd. or Course of
last night to the mouth of this Creek is N 61° W 41/2 ms. a Short
distance above the mouth of this Creek, is Several Courious Paintings
and Carveing in the projecting rock of Limestone inlade with white red
& blue flint, of a verry good quallity, the Indians have taken of this
flint great quantities. We landed at this Inscription and found it a
Den of rattle Snakes, we had not landed 3 minutes before three verry
large Snakes wer observed on the Crevises of the rocks & Killed–at the
mouth of the last mentioned Creek Capt. Lewis took four or five men &
went to Some Licks or Springs of Salt water from two to four miles up
the Creek on Rt. Side the water of those Springs are not Strong, Say
from 4 to 600 Gs. of water for a Bushel of Salt passed Some Small
willow Islands and Camped at the Mouth of a Small river called Good
Womans River this river is about 35 yards wide and Said to be navagable
for Perogues Several Leagues Capt. Lewis with 2 men went up the Creek a
Short distance. our Hunters brought in three Bear this evening, and
informs that the Countrey thro which they passed from the last Creek is
fine rich land, & well watered.
[Clark, June 8, 1804]
June 8th Friday
Set out at Daylight proceeded on the Course of last night S 87° W 3
ms passed a Willow Island, from the Point of last Course S 81° W. 3 ms.
to a pt. on S. S. passd a ____ Isd. in the middle of the river, passd a
on the Ld S. above a pt. of rocks 3 ms. on which thir is a number of
Deer Licks, N 88° W. 3 Ms. to a pt L S. N. 83° W 2 ms. to the Mo of Mine
River, psd an Isd.–This river is 90 yards wide & navagable for
Perogues about 90 Ms. I went out on the L S. about 4 ms. below this R.
and found the Countrey for one mile back good Land and well watered the
hills not high with a gentle assent from the river, well timbered with
oake, walnit Hickory ash, &c. the land Still further back becoms thin
and open, with Black & rasp Berries, and Still further back the Plains
Commence, The french inform that Lead ore is found on this river in
Several places, it heads up between the Osagees & Kansas River the
right hand folk passes in a Short distance of the Missourie at the
antient Little Ozages Villages our hunter Killed, 2 Deer, after Staying
one hour at the mouth of this River, Cap Lewis went out & proceeded on
one Mile & came in, he fount the land in the point high and fine Course
N. 64° W 1 Ms. to a pt. on S. S. N. 80° W to the Lower pot a Id. on L. S.
passed a Small Isd. in the m. R. at (3 Ms.) met 3 men on a Caussee from
R Dis Soux, above The Mahar Nation loaded with fur. Camped on the Lower
point of an Id. L. S. called the Mills, here I found Kegs an Pummey
stone, and a place that fur or Skins had been burred by the hunters our
Hunters Killed 5 Deer, Some rain, the Countrey on the S. S. is Verry
[Clark, June 8, 1804]
8th of June, Friday 1804
Set out this morning at Daylight proceeden on the Course of last night
Passed two willow Islands & a Small Creek above a Rock point on the L.
S. at 6 miles on which there is a number of Deer Licks, passed the Mine
River at 9 ms. this river is about 70 yards wide at its mouth and is
Said to be navagable for Perogues 80 or 90 ms. the main branch passes
near the place where the Little osage Village formerly Stood on the
Missouries, & heads between the Osarge & Kansias Rivers, the left hand
fork head with nearer Branches of the Osage River, The french inform
that Lead Ore has been found in defferent parts of this river, I took
Sjt. Floyd and went out 4 Ms. below this river, I found the land Verry
good for a Mile or 11/2 Ms. back and Sufficiently watered with Small
Streams which lost themselves in the Missouries bottom, the Land rose
gradeuelly from the river to the Summit of the high Countrey which is
not more that 120 foot above High Water mark, we joined the Boat &
Dined in the point above the mouth of this River, Capt. Lewis went out
above the river & proceeded on one mile, finding the Countrey rich, the
wedes & Vines So thick & high he came to the Boat–proceeded on passed
an Island and Camped at the lower point of an Island on the L. S.
Called the Island of mills about 4 ms. above Mine River at this place I
found Kanteens, Axs, Pumey Stone & peltrey hid & buried (I suppose by
some hunters) none of them (except the pumey Stone) was teched by one
of our party, our hunters Killed 5 Deer to day, Commenced raining Soon
after we Came too which prevented the party Cooking their provisions-
our Spies inform that the Countrey they passed thro on S. S. is a fine
high bottom, no water.

This day we met 3 men on a Cajaux from the River of the Soux above the
Mahar nation those men had been hunting 12 mo. & made about 900$ in
pelts. & furs they were out of Provesions and out of Powder. rained
this night
[Clark, June 9, 1804]
9th of June Satterday Set out early, water verry Swift got fast on a
log, detained us 1/4 hour Hard rain last night. N 39° W 31/2 Ms. to a pt.
on the S. S. opposit the Commencement of the 1st Prarie, Called Prarie
of the Arrows,1 the river at this place about 300 yds. Wide passed a
Small Creek, Arrow Creek 8 yds. wide L. Sd. the Current exceedingly

N 34° E 2 ms. to the Belg of a Small Island Situated on the L. Sd. Passed
the mo. of Arrow Creek N 83°W 11/2 ms. to a pt on L. S. opposit Black
bird C Small passed the head of the Isd. & a small Willow one to the L.
S. (Os merdn. altd. back obsvn. 37 00′ 00) N. 39° W 2 Ms. to a pt. of
High Land on the L. Side opst. a pt. on St. S. River about 350 yds.
wide at this pt. a Wind from the S at 4 oClock (Handson Sutn) on the
High pt. a prarie & Small Lake below N 32° E 31/2 Ms. to a pt. on L. S.
passed an Isld. in the mid R–in passing up on the S. S. opsd. the Isd.
the Sturn of the boat Struck a log which was not proceiveable the Curt.
Struck her bow and turn the boat against Some drift & Snags which below
with great force; This was a disagreeable and Dangerous Situation,
particularly as immense large trees were Drifting down and we lay
imediately in their Course,–Some of our men being prepared for all
Situations leaped into the water Swam ashore with a roap, and fixed
themselves in Such Situations, that the boat was off in a fiew minits,
I can Say with Confidence that our party is not inferior to any that
was ever on the waters of the Missoppie we Crossed to the Island and
Camped, our hunters lay on the S. S. the wind from the S. W. the river
continue to rise Slowly Current excessive rapid–The Countrey on the S.
S. high bottom & Delghtfull land that on the L. S. is up land or hills
of from 50 to 100 foot higher than the bottom & a thinly wooded,
Countrey, Lands tolerably Good; Comminced raining at 5 oClock and
continued by intervales the greater part of the night. We discovered
that one of our French hands had a Conpt.–We Commsd Doctering, I hope
the Success in this case, usial to
[Clark, June 9, 1804]
9th of June 1804 Satturday
a fair morning, the River rise a little we got fast on a Snag Soon
after we Set out which detained us a Short time passed the upper Point
of the Island Several Small Chanels running out of the River below a
Bluff & Prarie (Called the Prariee of Arrows) where the river is
confined within the width of 300 yds. Passed a Creek of 8 yds. wide
Called Creek of Arrows, this Creek is Short and heads in the Praries on
the L. S. passed a Small Creek Called Blackbird Creek S. S. and One
Islands below & a Prarie above on the L. S. a Small Lake above the
Prarie–opposit the Lower point of the 2d. Island on the S. S. we had
like to have Stove our boat, in going round a Snag her Stern Struck a
log under Water & She Swung round on the Snag, with her broad Side to
the Current expd. to the Drifting timber, by the active exertions of
our party we got her off in a fiew Mints. without engerey and Crossed
to the Island where we Campd. our hunters lay on the S. S. the Perogue
Crossed without Seeing them & the banks too uncertain to Send her over-
Some wind from the S accompanied with rain this evening–The Lands on
the S. S. is a high rich bottom the L. S. appears oven and of a good
quallity runing gradually to from fifty to 100 foot.
[Clark, June 10, 1804]
June 10th Sunday 1804 Some rain last night we set out early Saw a
number of Goslings this morning, Continued on the Course of last night,
thence N. 8 E. 21/2 ms. to a pt. on the L. S. passed a part of the
River that the banks are falling in takeing with them large trees of
Cotton woods which is the Common groth in the Bottoms Subject to the
flud North 1 Me along the L. Side N. 40° W. 1 ms. along the L, S. opposit
the two Charletons, on the N. Side, those rivers mouth together, the
1st 40 yds. wide the next 90 yds. Wide and navagable Some distance in
the Countrey, the land below is high & not verry good. Came to and took
Mdnl. altd. of Sons U. L. back obsvn. with the octant Made it 37° 12′
00″, delayed 11/2 Hour. N. 70° W 1/2 of a me. along the L. Sd.–S 60° W 1/2
m. on L. S. the Same Course to the Pt. S. S. 11/2 Ms. We halted and
Capt Lewis Killed a Buck the Current is excessively Swift about this
place N. 80° W. 3 ms to a pt. on S. S. passed a Isd. Called Sheeco Islan
wind from the N W Camped in a Prarie on the L. S., Capt Lewis & my Self
Walked out 3 ms. found the Country roleing open & rich, with plenty of
water, great qts of Deer I discovered a Plumb which grows on bushes the
hight of Hasle, those plumbs are in great numbers, the bushes beare
Verry full, about double the Sise of the wild plumb Called the Osage
Plumb & am told they are finely flavoured.
[Clark, June 10, 1804]
10th of June 1804
A hard rain last night, we Set out this morning verry early passed Some
bad placies in the river Saw a number of Goslings morning pass near a
Bank which was falling in at the time we passed, passed the two River
of Charletons which mouth together, above Some high land which has a
great quantity of Stone Calculated for whetstons the first of those
rivers is about 30 yds. Wide & the other is 70 yds wd. and heads Close
to the R.

Dumoin The Aieways Nation have a Village on the head of these River
they run through an even Countrey and is navagable for Perogues Cap
Lewis took Medn. altd. of sun U. L with Octant, back obsvn. made it 37°
12′ 00″–delayd 11/2 hours.

Capt. Lewis Killed a large Buck, passed a large Isd. called Shecco and
Camped in a Prarie on the L. S. I walked out three miles, found the
prarie composed of good Land and plenty of water roleing & interspursed
with points of timberd land, Those Praries are not like those, or a
number of those E. of the Mississippi Void of every thing except grass,
they abound with Hasel Grapes & a wild plumb of a Superior quallity,
called the Osages Plumb Grows on a bush the hight of a Hasel and hang
in great quantities on the bushes I Saw great numbers of Deer in the
Praries, the evening is Cloudy, our party in high Spirits.
[Clark, June 11, 1804]
11 June Monday–as the wind blew all this day from the N, W. which was
imedeately a head we Could not Stur, but took the advantage of the
Delay and Dried our wet articles examined provisons and Cleaned arms,
my Cold is yet verry bad–the river begining to fall our hunters killed
two Deer, G Drewry killed 2 Bear in the Prareie to day, men verry
lively Danceing & Singing &c.
[Clark, June 11, 1804]
11th June 1804 Monday
The N W. wind blew hard & Cold as this wind was imediately a head, we
Could not proceed we took the advantage of this Delay and Dried our wet
articles examin’d Provisions &c. &c. the river begining to fall the
hunters killed two Deer G. Drewyer Killed two Bear in the Prarie, they
were not fat. we had the meat Jurked and also the Venison, which is a
Constant Practice to have all the fresh meat not used, Dried in this
[Clark, June 12, 1804]
12th of June, Tuesday We Set out early, passed thro a verry bad bend N.
25° W. 31/2 to apt. L. S. N. 70° W. 21/2 ms to apt. on S. S. passed a Sand
bar-N 60° W 31/2 ms. to a pt. on S. S. passed Plumb. C at 1/2 a me. on L.
S. and halted to Dine, and 2 Caussease Came Down from the Soux nation,
we found in the party an old man who had been with the Soux 20 years &
had great influence with them, we provld. on this old man Mr. Duriaur
to return with us, with a view to get Some of the Soux Chiefs to go to
the U. S. purchased 300 lb. of Voyagers Grece @ 5$ Hd. made Some
exchanges & purchuses of Mockersons & found it Late & concluded to

Those people inform that no Indians are on the river, The Countrey on
each Side of the river is good
[Clark, June 12, 1804]
12th of June, Tuesday 1804
Set out early passed Some bad Placies, and a Small Creek on the L. S.
Called plumb Creek at abt. 1 me. at 1 oClock we brought too two
Chaussies one Loaded with furs & Pelteries, the other with Greece
buffalow grease & tallow We purchased 300 lb. of Greese, and finding
that old Mr. Durioun was of the party we questioned him untill it was
too late to Go further and Concluded to Camp for the night, those
people inform nothing of much information Colcluded to take old Durioun
back as fur as the Soux nation with a view to get some of their Chiefs
to Visit the Presdt.

of the United S. (This man being a verry Confidential friend of those
people, he having resided with the nation 20 odd years) and to
accompany them on
[Clark, June 13, 1804]
13th June Wednesday we Set out early passed a verry round bend to L. S.
passed two Creeks 1 me. apt. Called Creeks of the round Bend, between
those Creeks Stbd S. is a butifull Prarie, in which the antient
Missourie Indians had a Village, at this place 300 of them were killed
by the Saukees, a fair Day. Passed the antient Missouries villages on
right Course N 40° W 21/2 pt. L S., S 29° W 3 ms. pt. S. S., this nation
once the Most Noumerous is now almost extinct, about 30 of them,
liveing with Otteaus on the R. Platt, the remainder all distroyed, took
altd. of S. U L with qdt. which gave N 28 W. 11/2 ms to a pt. S. S.
Passed some Charming land, I have not Seen any high hils above
Charliton and the hits below for Several days Cannot to turmed hills
but high Land, not exceeding 100 abov the high water mark N 30° W, to a
pt. L. S. 2 ms. passed a verry bad Sand bar, where the boat was nearly
turning & fastening in the quick Sand and came too in the mouth of
Grand R. S. S. this River is about 120 yards wide and navigable for
Purogues a great distance, it heads with the River Dumoine, passing the
river Carlton. a Butifull open Prarie Coms to the river below its
mouth, we landed and walked to the hills which is abt. 1/2 a mile. the
Lower prarie over flows. the hunters Killd. a Bare & Dere, this is a
butifull place the Prarie rich & extinsive, Took Some Looner
Observations which Kept Cap L. & my Self up untill half past 11 oClock.
[Clark, June 13, 1804]
13th June Wednesday, 1804
We Set out early passed a round bend to the S. S. and two Creeks Called
the round bend Creeks between those two Creeks and behind a Small
willow Island in the bend is a Prarie in which the Missouries Indians
once lived and the Spot where 300 of them fell a Sacrifise to the fury
of the Saukees This nation (Missouries) once the most noumerous nation
in this part of the Continent now reduced to about 80 fes. and that
fiew under the protection of the Otteaus on R Platt who themselves are
declineing passed Som willow Isds. and bad Sand bars, Twook Medn.
altitude with Octent back observation it gave for altd. on its Low L 36°
58′ 0″ the E Enstrement 2° 00′ 00″ +. the Hills or high land for Several
days past or above the 2 Charletons does not exceed 100 foot passed a
Batteau or Sand roleing where the Boat was nearly turning over by her
Strikeing & turning on the Sand. We came too in the Mouth of Grand
River on S. S. and Camped for the night, this River is from 80 to 100
yards wide at its Mouth and navagable for Perogues a great distance
This river heads with the R. Dumoine below its mouth is a butifull
Plain of bbttom land the hills rise at 1/2 a mile back

The lands about this place is either Plain or over flown bottom Capt
Lewis and my Self walked to the hill from the top of which we had a
butifull prospect of Serounding Countrey in the open Prarie we Caught a
racoon, our hunters brought in a Bear & Deer we took Some Luner
observation this evening.
[Clark, June 14, 1804]
14th June, Thursday We set out at 6 oClock after a thick fog proceeded
on verry well S. 33 W 2 Ms. to the lower pt of an Isld. S. S. S. 60° W.
thro a narrow 1 me channel to a Small prarie S. S. opposit this Isd. on
L. L. is a Butifull high Plain. from the Isd. S. 70’W. to a pt. L. S.
21/2 ms. just below a piec of High Land on the S. S. Called the place
of Snakes, passed the worst place I have Seen on L. S. a Sand bar
makeing out 2/3 Cross the river Sand Collecting &c forming Bars and
Bars washg a way, the boat Struck and turned, She was near oversetting
we saved her by Some extrodany exertions of our party (ever ready to
inconture any fatigue for the premotion of the enterpris), I went out
to walk on the Sand Beech, & Killed a Deer & Turky during the time I
was from the boat a Caussee came too from the Pania nation loaded with
furs We gave them Some whiskey and Tobacco & Settled Some desputes &
parted S. 5 E. 3 ms. to pt. on S. S. passed a Creek S. S. 25 yds. wd.
Called Snake Creek or (____) passed a bad Sand bar S. S. in passing
which we were obliged to run great Sesque of Loseing both Boat & men,
Camped above, G. Drewyer tels of a remarkable Snake inhabiting a Small
lake 5 ms. below which gobbles like a Turkey & may be herd Several
miles, This Snake is of Size.
[Clark, June 14, 1804]
14th, June Thursday we Set out at 6 oClock, after a thick fog passed
thro a narrow pass on the S. S. which forms a large Isd. opposit the
upper point of this Island on the L. S. is one of the worst quick or
moveing Sand bars which I have Seen not withstanding all our
precaustons to Clear the Sands & pass between them (which was the way
we were Compd. to pass from the immens Current & falling banks on the
S. S.) the Boat Struck the point of one from the active exertions of
the men, prevented her turning, if She had turned She must have
overset. we met a Causseu from the Pania on the River Platt, we
detained 2 hours with a view of engageing one of the hands to go to the
Pania nation with a View to get those people to meet us on the river. I
went out (Shot a Deer) we passd a highland &clay bluff on the S. S.
Called the Snake bluff from the number of Snakes about this place, we
passd a Creek above the Bluff about 18 yds. wide, This Creek is Called
Snake Creek, a bad Sand bar Just below which we found difficuelty in
passing & Campd above, our Hunters Came in. George Drewyer, gives the
following act. of a Pond, & at abt. 5 miles below the S. S. Passed a
Small Lake in which there was many Deer feeding he heard in this Pond a
Snake makeing Goubleing Noises like a turkey. he fired his gun & the
noise was increased, he has heard the indians Mention This Species of
Snake one Frenchman give a Similar account
[Clark, June 15, 1804]
15 June Friday 1804, we Set out early proceeded on about 1 me. and the
Boat turned on a Sawyer which was near doeing her great damage, the
river is riseing fast & the water exceedingly Swift, passd. a bad Sand
bar on which we Stuck for a Short time this is Said to be the worst
part of the river and Camped opsd. the bend in which the Antient
Villages of the little Osarge & Missouries, the lower or first of those
villagies (L. Osages) is Situated in Butifull Plain at the foot of Some
riseing land, in front of their Viliges next the river is a butifull
bottom Plain in which they raised their Corn &c. back of the Village
the high Prarie extends back to the Osarge River, about 3 Ms. above &
in view the Missouries Nation resided under the protection of the
Osarges, after their nation was riducd by the Saukees below, thos built
their Village in the Same low Prarie and lived there many years, the
war was So hot & both nations becom So reduced that the Little Osage &
a fiew of the Missoures moved & built a village 5 ms near the Grand
Osage, the rest of the Missoures went and took protection under the
Otteaus on Platt river
[Clark, June 15, 1804]
15th, June, Friday 1804 Set out early and had not proceeded far e’er we
wheeled on a Sawyer which was near injuring us Verry much, passed a
plain on the L. S. a Small Isd. in the midle the river riseing, water
verry Swift Passed a Creek on the L. S. passed between two Islands, a
verry bad place, Moveing Sands, we were nearly being Swallowed up by
the roleing Sands over which the Current was So Strong that we Could
not Stem it with our Sales under a Stiff breese in addition to our
ores, we were Compelled to pass under a bank which was falling in, and
use the Toe rope occasionally, Continued up pass two other Small
Islands and Camped on the S. S. Nearly opposit the Antient Village of
the Little Osarges and below the Antt. Village of the Missoures both
Situations in view an within three Ms. of each other, the Osage were
Settled at the foot a hill in a butifell Plain which extends back quite
to the Osage River, in front of the Vilg. Next to the river is an
ellegent bottom Plain which extends Several miles in length on the
river in this low Prarie the Missouries lived after They were reduced
by the Saukees at Their Town Some Dists. below. The little osage
finding themselves much oppressed by the Saukees & other nations, left
this place & built a village 5 ms. from the Grand Osarge Town about
____ years ago. a few of the Missoures accompanied them, the remainder
of that nation went to the Otteaus on the River Platt. The River at
this place is about 1 ms. wide our hunters did not Come in this evening
the river beginning to fall
[Clark, June 16, 1804]
16th June Satterday Set out at 7 oClock Proceed on N. 68°W. 21/2 ms.
passed a Isd. close on the S. S. at the lower point Drewer & Willard
had camped & had with them 2 bear & 2 Deer we took in the meat &
proceeded on. Some rain this morning West 2 Ms. pass an Isd on S. S. &
prarie, to a Belge of Snag Isd. L. S. a butifull extensive Prarie on S.
S. Hills to about 9 ms. distant. Mr. Mackey has Laid down the rems. of
an old fort in this Prarie, which I cannot find S 85 W. 1 me. along the
Isd. L. S.–S 61° W alg L. S. 1 me. S 30° W, 3, ms. to pt. S. S. opsd. an
Isd. & head of the last S 40° W 1 me. S. S. Passed a verry bad place
where the Sand was moving constantly, I walked on Shore obsd. fine high
Bottom land on S. S. Camped late this evening.
[Clark, June 16, 1804]
16th, June Satturday 1804
Set out at 7 oClock at about a mile 1/2 we Came to the Camp of our
hunters, they had two Bear & two Deer proceeded on pass a Island on the
S. S. a heavy rain came on & lasted a Short time, we came to on the S.
S. in a Prarie at the place where Mr. Mackey lay down a old french
fort, I could See no traces of a Settlement of any Kind, in this plain
I discovered a Kind of Grass resembling Timothey which appeared well
calculated for Hay, this Plain is verry extensive in the evening I
walked on the S. S. to see if any timber was Convt. to make Oars, which
we were much in want of, I found Som indifferent timber and Struck the
river above the Boat at a bad Sand bar the worst I had Seen which the
boat must pass or Drop back Several Miles & Stem a Swift Current on the
opsd Side of an Isd. the Boat however assended the middle of the Streem
which was diffucult Dangerious We Came to above this place at Dark and
Camped in a bad place, the misquitoes and Ticks are noumerous & bad.
[Clark, June 17, 1804]
June 17 1804 Rope walk Camp
The Current of the River at this place is a Stick will float 48 poles 6
feet in the rapidest part in 23 Seconds, further out is 34, Still
further 65–74–78 & 82 are the Trials we have made.
[Clark, June 17, 1804]
June 17 Sunday 1804 Cloudy Wind, S. E. Set out early S. 65° W 1 Me. Came
too to Make ores, and a Cord for a Toe Rope all this day imployed in
getting out Ores, & makeing for the use of the Boat out of a large
Cable rope which we have, G Drewyer Came up a Bear & 2 Deer, also a
fine horse which he found in the woods, Supposed to have been left by
Some war party from the osages, The Ticks are numerous and large and
have been trousom all the way and the Musquetors are beginning to be
verry troublesome, my Cold Continues verry bad the French higherlins
Complain for the want of Provisions, Saying they are accustomed to eat
5 & 6 times a day, they are roughly rebuked for their presumption, the
Country about abounds in Bear Deer & Elk and the S. S. the lands are
well timbered and rich for 2 ms. to a butifull Prarie which risies into
hills At 8 or 9 ms. back–on the L. S a Prarie coms. on the bank which
is high and contines back rich & well watered as far
[Clark, June 17, 1804]
June 17th Sunday 1804 (S. 65°W. me. S. Side-)
Cloudy morning wind from the S. E. we Set out early and proceeded on
one mile & came too to make oars, & repair our Cable & toe rope &c. &c.
which was necessary for the Boat & Perogues, Sent out Sjt. Pryor and
Some men to get ash timber for ores, and Set Some men to make a Toe
Rope out of the Cords of a Cable which had been provided by Capt Lewis
at Pitts burg for the Cable of the boat–George Drewyer our hunter and
one man came in with 2 Deer & a Bear, also a young Horse, they had
found in the Prarie, this horse has been in the Prarie a long time and
is fat, I suppose he has been left by Some war party against the Osage,
This is a Crossing place for the war partis against that nation from
the Saukees, Aiaouez, & Souix. The party is much aflicted with Boils
and Several have the Decissentary, which I contribute to the water

The Countrey about this place is butifull on the river rich & well
timbered on the S. S. about two miles back a Prarie coms. which is rich
and interspursud with groves of timber, the County rises at 7 or 8
miles Still further back and is roleing–on the L. S. the high lands &
Prarie Corns. in the bank of the river and Continus back, well watered
and abounds in Der Elk & Bear The Ticks & Musquetors are verry
[Clark, June 18, 1804]
June 18th Monday Some raind last night, Sent out 6 Hunters to day
across the R. they Killed 5 Deer & Colter a Bear verry fat we continue
to repare our ropes & make oars all day, heavy rain all the fore pt. of
the day, the party Drying meat & greesing themselves, Several men with
the Disentary, and two thirds of them with ulsers or Boils, Some with 8
or 10 of those Turners Mesquetors verry bad we finish our Cords & oars
this evening Men in Spirits
[Clark, June 18, 1804]
June 18th Monday
Some rain last night, and Some hard Showers this morning which delay
our work verry much, Send out Six hunters in the Prarie on the L S.
they kill 5 Deer & Coltr a Bear, which verry large & fat, the party to
wok at the oars, make rope, & jurk their meat all Day Dry our wet Sales
&c. in the evening, The misquiter verry bad
[Clark, June 19, 1804]
June 19th Tuesday
rain last night after fixing the new Oars and makeing all necessary
arrangements, we Set out under a jentle breese from the S. E. and
proceeded on passed two large Islands on the S. S. leaving J. Shields
and one man to go by land with the horses Some verry hard water, passed
Several Islands & Sand bars to day at the head of one we were obliged
to cleare away Driftwood to pass, passed a Creek on the L. Side Called
Tabboe 15 yds. wide passed a large Creek at the head of an Island
Called Tiger River on the S. S. The Island below this Isd. is large and
Called the Isle Of Panters, formed on the S. S. by a narrow Channel, I
observed on the Shore Goose & Rasp berries in abundance in passing Some
hard water round a Point of rocks on the L. S. we were obliged to take
out the roape & Draw up the Boat for 1/2 a mile, we Came too on the L.
S. near a Lake of the Sircumfrance of Several miles Situated on the L.
S. about two miles from the river this Lake is Said to abound in all
kinds of fowls, great quanties of Deer frequent this Lake dureing
Summer Season, and feed on the hows &c. &c. they find on the edgers the
Lands on the North Side of the river is rich and Sufficiently high to
afford Settlements, the Lds. on the South Side assends Gradually from
the river not So rich, but of a good quallity and appear well watered
[Clark, June 20, 1804]
June 20th, Wednesday
Set out after a heavy Shower of rain and proceeded on the Same Course
of last night passed a large butifull Prarie on the S. S. opposit a
large Island, Calld Saukee Prarie, a gentle breese from the S. W. Some
butiful high lands on the L. S. passed Som verry Swift water to day, I
saw Pelicans to day on a Sand bar, my servant York nearly loseing an
eye by a man throwing Sand into it, we came too at the lower Point of a
Small Island, the party on Shore we have not Seen Since we passed Tiger
R–The Land appeard verry good on each Side of the River to day and
well timbered, we took Some Loner observations, which detained us
untill 1 oClock a butifull night but the air exceedingly Damp, & the
mosquiters verry troublesom
[Clark, June 21, 1804]
21st June Thursday 1804 river raised 3 Inches last night after our bow
man Peter Crousat a half Mahar Indian examined round this Small Isd.
for the best water, we Set out determined to assd. on the North Side,
and Sometimes rowing Poleing & Drawing up with a Strong Rope we
assended without wheeling or receving any damige more than breakeing
one of my S. Windows, and looseing Some oars which were Swong under the

Two men Sent out to hunt this afternoon Came in with a Deer, at Sun Set
The ellement had every appearance of wind, The hunters inform me that
the high Countrey on the S. S. is of a good quallity, and well timbd.
The High lands on the L. Side is equally good The bottom land on this
river is alike, 1st low and covd. with Cotton wood & willows Subject to
over flow the 2nd is higher groth Cotton Walnut ash Mulberry Linn &
[Clark, June 21, 1804]
21st June Thursday
The river rose 3 Inches last night after the Bows man Peter Crousat
viewed The water on each Side of the Island which presented a most
unfavourable prospect of Swift water over roleing Sands which rored
like an immence falls, we Concluded to assend on the right Side, and
with much dificuilty, with the assistance of a long Cord or Tow rope, &
the anchor we got the Boat up with out any furthr dang. than Bracking a
Cabbin window & loseing Some oars which were Swong under the windows,
passed four Isds to day two large & two Small, behind the first large
Island two Creeks mouth Called (1) Eue-bert Creek & River & Isd. the
upper of those Creeks head against the Mine River & is large, passed a
verry remarkable bend in the River to the S. forming an accute angle,
the high lands come to the river on the S. S. opposit the upper large
Island, this Isd. is formed by a narrow chanel thro. the Pt. of the
remarkable bend just mentiond below this Isd. on the L. S. is a
Couenter Current of about a mile–passed between Several Small Islands
Situated near the L. Side and camped above on the Same Side, Two men
Sent out to hunt this evening brought in a Buck & a pore Turkey.

at Sun Set the atmespier presented every appearance of wind, Blue &
white Streeks Centering at the Sun as She disappeared and the Clouds
Situated to the S. W, Guilded in the most butifull manner. The Countrey
and Lands on each Side of the river is various as usial and may be
classed as follows. viz: the low or over flown points or bottom land,
of the groth of Cotton & Willow, the 2nd or high bottom of rich furtile
Soils of the groth of Cotton, Walnut, Som ash, Hack berry, Mulberry,
Lynn & Sycamore. the third or high Lands risees gradually from the 2nd
bottom (cauht whin it Coms to the river then from the river) about 80
or 100 foot roleing back Supplied with water the Small runs of (which
losees themselves in the bottom land) and are covered with a variety of
timber Such as Oake of different Kinds Blue ash, walnut &c. &c. as far
as the Praries, which I am informed lie back from the river at some
places near & others a great Distance
[Clark, June 22, 1804]
22nd June Friday after a Violent gust of wind accompanied with rain
from the West, which commenced at Day brake, and lasted about one hour,
we Set out under a gentle Breeze from the N W. and proceeded on S. 14°W.
21/2 ms. to pt. on L. S. Ord Killed a goose, S 25 W 3 Ms. to a pt. on
S. S. psd. Snags and Swift water on the S. S.–S. 66° W. 1/2 a me. on S
pt. N 60 W 41/2 me. to pt. L. S. passed a large Isd. on the S. S.-
(Ferenthiers Thermometr at 3 oClock P.M. 87 d which is 11 d above Summr
heat) and one on the L. S. opposit against which there is a handsom
Prarie of high Bottom & up Land, Capt Lewis went out in this Prarie &
walked Several miles, Come to opposit the mouth of a large Creek on the
S. S. Called River of the Fire Prarie at the mouth of this creek the
party on Shore Shields & Collins was camped waiting for our arrival &
inform that they Pass’d thro Some fine Lands, and well watered G D.
Killed a fine Bear to day
[Clark, June 22, 1804]
22nd June Friday river rose 4 Inchs last night. I was waken’d before
day light this morning by the guard prepareing the boat to receve an
apparent Storm which threttened violence from the West at day light a
violent wind accompanied with rain cam from the W. and lasted about one
hour, it Cleared away, and we Set out and proceeded on under a gentle
breeze from the N. W. passed Some verry Swift water Crouded with Snags,
pass two large Island opposit each other, and immediately opposit a
large & extensive Prarie on the Labd Side, This Prarie is butifull a
high bottom for 11/2 a mile back and risees to the Common leavel of the
Countrey about 70 or 80 feet and extends back out of view. Capt. L
walked on Shore a few miles this after noon (at 3 oClock P M. Ferents
Thermometer Stood at 87°: = to 11 d above Summer heat) we came to on the
L. Side opposit the mouth of a large Creek Called the River of the Fire
Prarie, at the mouth of this Creek the Party on Shore were waiting our
arrival, they informed that the Lands thro which they passed was fine &
well watered
[Clark, June 23, 1804]
23rd June Satturday Some wind this morning from the N W. Set out at 7
oC Proceeded on N. 70 d. W 2 Ms. to an Isd. Close on the S. S. I went
on Shore & walked up thro a rich bottom for about Six miles, Killed a
Deer & much fatigued N. 75 E. to a point in a bend L. S. 11/2 the river
fell 8 Inches last night.
[Clark, June 23, 1804]
23rd June Satturday Some wind this morning from the N. W. we Set out at
7 oClock, and proceeded on to the head of a Island on the S. S. the
wind blew hard and down the river which prevented the Pty moveing from
this Island the whole day, Cap. Lewis had the arms examined &c. at the
lower end of this Island I got out of the boat to walk on Shore, &
expected the party on Shore would overtake me at the head of the
Island, they did not & I proceeded on round a round and extensive bend
in the river, I Killed a Deer & made a fire expecting the boat would
Come up in the evening. the wind continueing to blow prevented their
moveing, as the distance by land was too great for me to return by
night I concluded to Camp, Peeled Some bark to lay on, and geathered
wood to make fires to Keep off the musquitor & Knats. Heard the party
on Shore fire, at Dark Drewyer came to me with the horses, one fat bear
& a Deer, river fell 8 Inches last night
[Lewis and Clark, June 24, 1804]
Sunday June 24th set out at 1/2 after six continuing the course on the
Lard. side N. 80 E 1/4 of a mile to point Lard. N. 551/4 of a mile to
point Lard. Due west to a point Stard 3 miles good water

(I joined the Boat theis morning with a fat Bear & two Deer, last
evining I Struck the river about 6 miles (by land) abov the Boat, and
finding it too late to get to the Boat, and the wind blowing So hard
Down the river that She could not assend, I concluded to Camp, altho I
had nothing but my hunting Dress, & the Musquitors Ticks & Knats verry
troublesom, I concid to hunt on a Willow Isd. Situated close under the
Shore, in Crossing from an Island, I got mired, and was obliged to
Craul oat, a disegreeable Situation & a Diverting one of any one who
Could have Seen me after I got out, all Covered with mud, I went my
Camp & Craped off the Mud and washed my Clothes, and fired off my gun
which was answered by George Drewyer who was in persute of me & came up
at Dark we feasted of meet & water the latter we made great use of
being much fatigued & thirsty–The meet which hung up near the water a
large Snake made Several attempts to get to it and was so Detirmined
that I Killed him in his attempt, the Snake appeared to make to that
part of the meet which Contained the milk of a Doe, On this part of the
River I observe great quantites of Bear Sign, they are after Mulbiries
which are in great quantities)

N 85 d W. 41/2 ms. to a pt. on L Side, Came to above the mouth of a
Creek on the L. S. abt. 20 yds. Wide Called Hay Cabbin Creek Latd. of
this place is 38° 37’5″ North–Capt. Lewis took Sergt. Floyd and walked
on Shore, George Drewyer Killed 2 Deer R Fields Killed a Deer dureing
the time we wer Jurking the meet I brought in, West 1/2 ml. along the
L. S.

S 21° W. 3 ms. to a pt. on the S. S. pass 2 Creek on the S. S. just above
Some rocks Some distance from Shore 1 of These Creek is Called
Sharriton-Cartie, a Prarie on the L. S. near the river. Capt Lewis
Killed a Deer, & Collins 3. emince number of Deer on both Sides of the
river, we pass between two Sand bars at head of which we had to raise
the boat 8 Inch to get her over, Camped at the Lower point of a Isd. on
the L S. the Party in high Spirits.
[Clark, June 24, 1804]
24th, June Sunday Set out at half after Six. I joined the boat this
morng at 8 oClock (I will only remark that dureing the time I lay on
the band waiting for the boat, a large Snake Swam to the bank
imediately under the Deer which was hanging over the water, and no
great distance from it, I threw chunks and drove this Snake off Several
times. I found that he was So determined on getting to the meet I was
Compelld to Kill him, the part of the Deer which attracted this Snake I
think was the milk from the bag of the Doe.) I observed great quts. of
Bear Signs, where they had passed in all Directions thro the bottoms in
Serch of Mulberries, which were in great numbers in all the bottoms
thro which our party passed.)

Passed the mouth of a Creek 20 yds. wide name Hay Cabbin Creek from
camps of Straw built on it came to about 1/2 me. above this Creek &
jurked, the meet killed yesterday and this morning Lattitude of this
place 38° 37′ 5″ N. Capt. Lewis walked on Shore & Killed a Deer, pass a
bad part of the river, on the S. S. the rocks projected into the river
Some distance, a Creek above Called Sharston Carta, in the evening we
Passed thro betwen two Sand bars at the head we had to raise the Boat 8
Inches together over, Camped near the lower point of an Island on the
L. Side, party in high Spirrits. The Countrey on each Side of the river
is fine interspersed with Praries, in which imence herds of Deer is
Seen, on the banks of the river we observe numbers of Deer watering and
feeding on the young willow, Several Killed to day
[Clark, June 25, 1804]
Monday June 25th a heavy fog Detaind us about an hour Set out passed
the Isd on a course from the last point S 49° W, 3 Ms to a point on the
S. S. S 55° W 1/2 Me. S. S. a Coal-Bank on the opposit or L. S Side, this
bank appears to Contain great quantity of excellente CoaL the wind from
the N. W a Small Creek Called Coal or (Chabonea)3 N 50° W to the Pt, L.
S. 31/2 Miles Hard water & logs, Bank falling in, Passed a Small Creek
L. S. Called Labeenie a Prarie is Situated on the S. S. a Short
Distance from the river, which contains great quantities of wild apples
of the Size of the Common apple, the French Say is well flavered when
ripe, which is the time the leaves begin to fall N 70°W 1/2 me. along the
right Side of a Willow Isd. Situated on the L. Side S. 80° W 1/2 me. L.
S. S 55° W. 1/2 me. to Pt. of Smal Isd. L. S. S 15° W 1/2 me. L. S.–S. 2° E
2 me. pt on Lbd S. (here I will only remark that the Deer in the
Morning & evening are feeding in great numbers on the banks of the
River, they feed on young willow, and amuse themselves running on the
open beeches or points) We have hard water this afternoon round the
heads of Small Islds. on the L. Side below a Small High Prarie S. 48° W.
2 Ms. pt. S. S. passd. a small Isd. on which we Camped The party on
Shore did not join us to day, or have we Seen or her of them river
falling fast about 8 Inches in 24 hours, the Hills on the L. S. this
evening higher than usial about 160 or 180 feet. the lands appear of a
Simalier to those passed
[Clark, June 25, 1804]
25th, June Monday a thick fog detained us untile 8 oClock, passed a
Island, at 3 miles passed a Coal-mine, or Bank of Stone Coal, on the
South Side, this bank appears to Contain great quantity of fine Coal,
the river being high prevented our Seeeing that contained in the Cliffs
of the best quallity, a Small Creek mouth’s below This bank Call’d
after the bank Chabonea Creek the Wind from the N. W. passed a Small
Creek on the L. Side at 12 oClock, Called Bennet’s Creek The Praries
Come within a Short distance of the river on each Side which Contains
in addition to Plumbs Raspberries & vast quantities of wild apples,
great numbs. of Deer are seen feeding on the young willows & earbage in
the Banks and on the Sand bars in the river. our party on Shores did
not join us this evening we Camped on an Island Situated on the S.
Side, opposit some hills higher than Common, Say 160 or 180 feet above
the Bottom. The river is Still falling last night it fell 8 Inches
[Clark, June 26, 1804]
June 26th Tuesday 1804 we Set out early, the river falling a little,
the wind from the S. W. Passed the mouth of a Small river on the L.
Side above the upper point of a Small Island, Called Blue water river,
this river heads in Praries back with the Mine River about 30 yds. wide
Lattitude of a pt. 4 ms. above this river is 38° 32′ 15″ North, the high
lands which is on the Northe Side does not exceed 80 feet high, at this
Place the river appears to be Confd. in a verry narrow Channel, and the
Current Still more So by Couenter Current or Whirl on one Side & high
bank on the other, passed a Small Isd. in the bend to the L. Side we
Killed a large rattle Snake, Sunning himself in the bank passed a bad
Sand bar, where our tow rope broke twice, & with great exertions we
rowed round it and Came to & Camped in the Point above the Kansas River
lobserved a great number of Parrot queets this evening, our Party
Killed Several 7 Deer to day
[Clark, June 27, 1804]
June 27th, Wednesday a fair warm morning, the river rose a little last
night. we determin to delay at this Place three or four Days to make
observations & recruit the party Several men out Hunting, unloaded one
Perogue, and turned her up to Dry with a view of repairing her after
Completeing a Strong redoubt or brest work frome one river to the
other, of logs & Bushes Six feet high, The Countrey about the mouth of
this river is verry fine on each Side as well as the North of the
Missouries the bottom, in the Point is low, & overflown for 250 yards.
it rises a little above high water mark and Continus up that hight of
good quallity back to the hills ____ A high Clift, on the upper Side of
the Kansis 1/2 a mile up below the Kanses the hills is about 11/2 miles
from the point on the North Side of the Missouries the Hill or high
lands is Several miles back, we compareed the instrmts Took equal
altitudes, and the Meridian altituade of the Suns L L to day Lattitude
38° 31′ 13″ Longitude ____ Measured The width of the Kansas River by an
angle and made it 230 yds 1/4 wide, it is wider above the mouth the
Missouries at this place is about 500 yards wide, The Course from the
Point down the midle. of the Missourie is S. 32° E, & turns to the North.
up is N 21°W. up the right side of the Kansas is S. 54° E, & the river
turns to the left, Several Deer Killed to day.
[Clark, June 28, 1804]
28 June Thursday took equal altitudes &c. &c. &c. & varaitian of the
Compass repaired the Perogue Cleaned out the Boat Suned our Powder
wollen articles examined every thing 8 or 10 huntrs. out to day in
different direction, in examineing our private Store of Provisions we
found Several articles Spoiled from the wet or dampness they had
received, a verry warm Day, the wind from the South, The river
Missourie has raised yesterday last night & to day about 2 foot. this
evening it is on a Stand, Capt. Lewis weighed the water of the Two
rivers The Missouris 78° The Kansais 72° To Describe the most probable of
the various accounts of this great river of the Kansas, would be too
lengthy & uncertain to insert here, it heads with the river Del Norid
in the black Mountain or ridge which Divides the waters of the Kansas
Del Nord, & Callarado & oppsoitly from those of the Missoureis (and not
well assertaind) This River recves its name from a nation which dwells
at this time on its banks & 2 villages one about 20 Leagues & the other
40 Leagues up, those Indians are not verry noumerous at this time,
reduced by war with their neighbours, &c. they formerly liveid on the
South banks of the Missouries 24 Leagues above this river in a open &
butifull plain and were verry noumerous at the time the french first
Settled the Illinois, I am told they are a fierce & warlike people,
being badly Supplied with fire arms, become easily conquered by the
Aiauway & Saukees who are better furnished with those materials of war,
This nation is now out in the plains hunting the Buffalow our hunters
Killed Several Deer and Saw Buffalow, men impd Dressing Skins & makeing
themselves Comfortable, the high lands Coms to the river Kanses on the
upper Side at about a mile, full in view, and a butifull place for a
fort, good landing place, the waters of the Kansas is verry
disigreeably tasted to me.
[Clark, June 29, 1804]
29th of June 1804, Set out from the Kansas river 1/2 past 4 oClock,
proceeded on passed a Small run on the L. S. at 1/2 Mile a (1) Island
on the S. S. at 11/2 me. Hills above the upr. pt of Isd. L. S. a large
Sand bar in the middle. Passed a verry bad place of water, the Sturn of
the Boat Struck a moveing Sand & turned within 6 Inches of a large
Sawyer, if the Boat had Struck the Sawyer, her Bow must have been
Knocked off & in Course She must hav Sunk in the Deep water below Came
to & camped on the S. S. late in the eveninge.
[Clark, June 29, 1804]
29th June Friday obsvd. the distance of (D & )),took Equal & maridinal
altd. and after makeing Some arrangements, and inflicting a little
punishment to two men we Set out at 1/2 past 4 oClock and proceeded on
(i ) passed a large Island on the S. Side, opposit a large Sand bar,
the Boat turned and was within Six Inches of Strikeing the rapidity
with which the Boat turned was so great that if her bow had Struck the
Snag, She must have either turned over or the bow nocked off S W wind
[Clark, June 29, 1804]
Camp mouth of the Kanseis June 29th 1804. Ordered
a Court martial will Set this day at 11 oClock, to Consist of five
members, for the trial of John Collins and Hugh Hall, Confined on
Charges exhibited against them by Sergeant Floyd, agreeable to the
articles of War.

Detail for the Court

Sergt Nat. Pryor presd.

2 John Colter
3 John Newmon
4 Pat. Gass
1 J. B. Thompson

John Potts to act as judge advocate.

The Court Convened agreeable to order and proceeded to the trial of the
Prisoners Viz John Collins Charged “with getting drunk on his post this
morning out of whiskey put under his Charge as a Sentinal and for
Suffering Hugh Hall to draw whiskey out of the Said Barrel intended for
the party”

To this Charge the prisoner plead not guilty.

The Court after mature deliveration on the evidence abduced &c. are of
oppinion that the prisoner is Guilty of the Charge exibited against
him, and do therefore Sentence him to recive one hundred Lashes on his
bear Back.

Hugh Hall was brought with “takeing whiskey out of a Keg this morning
which whiskey was Stored on the Bank (and under the Charge of the
guard) Contrary to all order, rule, or regulation”

To this Charge the prisoner “Pleades Guilty.”

The Court find the prisoner guilty and Sentence him to receive fifty
Lashes on his bear Back.

The Commanding Officers approve of the Sentence of the Court and orders
that the Punishment take place at half past three this evening, at
which time the party will Parrade for inspection-
[Clark, June 29, 1804]
at the Mouth of the River Kansies
June 26″ 27″ 28 & 29th-
This river is 366 miles above the mouth of Missouri it is in Lattitude
38° 31′ 13″ North

it is 230 yds. wide at its mouth & wider above from the point up the
Missourie for about 3 ms. N. 21° W, Down the Middle of the Missourie is
S. 32° E, up the upper bank of the Kansais, is S. 54° E the river turns to
the East above a pt. of high land, well Situated for a fort & in view
of the Missouris one mile up & on the upper Side, the width of the
Missouris at this place is about 500 yds.

Missourie Water weighs 78. The Kanseis weghs 72 river Miss raised in
the time at the Kanseis 2 foot and begun to fall.

The wood land on each side of the Mouth of this river is extensive and
of a good quallity as far as our hunters was back, but badly watered
with Springs, only two being Seen by them

Some punishment of two men Hall & Collins for takeing whiskey out of
the Barrel last night agreeable to the Sentences of a Court Mtl of the
party who we have always found verry ready to punish Such Crimes

Many Deer Killed to day

Allarm post or order of Battle arms to be Situated & the Duty &c.
Messes of men under a Serjiant who is to detail for every day one man
of his Squad to Cook &c. who Shall have the management of the
provisions dureing that day or issue, each Days rations must be divided
&c. &c Order of encampment, Tents, fires & Duty
[Clark, June 30, 1804]
30th June, Set out verry early this Morng Saw a verry large wolf on the
Sand bar this morning walking near a gange of Turkeys (1) at 10 miles
above the Kansis passed the mouth of a Small River Call the (Petite
Plate) or the little Shole river, this river is about 70 yds. Wide and
has Several rapids & falls, well Calculatd for mills, the land on this
river is Said to be Roaling, Killed 2 Deer Bucks Swinging the river the
wind from the S. W. here we opened the Bag of Bread given us by which
we found verry good, our Bacon which was given us by we examined and
found Sound and good Some of that purchased in the Illinois Spoiled, a
relish of this old bacon this morning was verry agreeable, Deer to be
Seen in every direction and their tracks ar as plenty as Hogs about a
farm, our hunts. Killed 9 Deer to day the land below the last river is
good, that above, between the two rivers which is near together is
Slaik’y and bad on the N. Side, the other Side is good land, Landed on
the L. S. below an Isd called Dimond Island
[Clark, June 30, 1804]
30th June Satturday 1804
Set out verry early this morning, a verry large wolf Came to the bank
and looked at us this morning, passd the (1) mouth of a Small river 10
ms. above the Kanseis Called by the french Petite River Platte (or
Shoal river) from the number of falls in it, this river is about 60
yards wide at its mouth and runs Parrilel with the Missouries for ten
or twelve miles, I am told that the lands on this Small river is good,
and on its Several falls well Calculated for mills, the wind from S. W.
came to at 12 oClock & rested three hours, the… being hot the men
becom verry feeble, Farnsts. Thermometer at 3 oClock Stood at 96° above
0, emence numbs. of Deer on the banks, Skipping in every derection, the
party Killed nine Bucks on the river & Bank to day, The Countrey on the
S. S. between the Shoal River & Missouris is indifferent Subject to
overflow, that below and on the L. S. is high & appers well timbered,
Camped on the L. S. opsd. the Lower point of a Isd. Called diamond
Island, Broke our mast
[Clark, July 1, 1804]
July 1st 1804, last night one of the Sentinals Chang’d either a man or
Beast, which run off, all prepared for action, Set out early passed the
Dimond Isd. pass a Small Creek on the L. S. as this Creek is without
name we Call it Biscuit Creek Brackfast on the upper point of a Sand
beech, The river still falling a little a verry warm Day. I took Some
medison last night which has worked me very much party all in helth
except Boils-

passed a Sand bar in the river above the Isd. Covered for a me. with
Drift Wood, Came to Capt Lewis took Medn. altitude & we delayed three
hours, the day being excessively hot, Turkeys are plenty on the Shore,
G. Drewyer inform that he Saw PueCanns Trees on S. S. yesterday great
quantities of raspburies an Grapes, (2) pass a Creek on the L. S.
called remore (Tree Frog) Creek, an Isd above in the Mid. and 2 Willow
Isds on the S. S. all of the Same name; The two Willow Isds. has been
made within 3 years & the Main Chant. runs now on the L S. of the large
Island where there was no runing water at low water from this Island
the range of Hills up the river to the N, W, pass a run on the L. S. a
Butifull extensive Prarie, Two Islands just above Called (Isles des
Parques) or Field Islands, those Islands are, one of our French hands
tels me that the French intended to Settle here once & brought their
Cows and put them on those Islands, Mr Mackey Says the first village of
the Kanseis was a little above this Island & made use of as fields, no
trace of anything of that Kind remains to be Seen on the Isds. fine
Land on the L. Side, Hills near the river all day, Camped on the lower
pot. of 1st Isd.-
[Clark, July 1, 1804]
July 1st, Sunday 1804
a Small allarm last night all prepared for action, Set out early this
morning passed on the North Side of Dimond Island, a Small Creek mouths
opposit I call Biscuit Creek,–a large Sand bar in the middle of the
river 11/2 ms. above the Isd. Covered with Drift wood. river fall a
little. The wind from S. W. Came to above this Drift and delayed three
hours to refresh the men who were verry much over powered with the
heat, Great quantity of Grapes & raspberries, (2) passed a Small Creek
on the L. S. below one large and two small Islands. This Creek and
Isds. are Called Remore (or Tree Frog) a large Pond on the S. S., the
main Current of Water run’g on the L. S. of the Island, I am told that
Three years ago the main Current run on the S. S. of the Island and no
appearance of the two Smaller Islands, Camped on the lower point of one
of the two large & 2 Small Isds. Called Isles des Parques or field
Islds a high butifull Prarie on the L. S. one of the french hands Says
“that the french Kept their Cattle & horses on those Islands at the
time they had in this quarter a fort & trading establishment.”

paecaun Trees Seen on the S. S. Deer and turkeys in great quantities on
the bank
[Clark, July 2, 1804]
July the 2nd 1804 Set out verry early this morning passd on the Left of
the Isles des parques High butifull Situation–on the L S. the land
indifferent lands a Creek coms in on the S. S. Called parques, all at
once the river became Crowded with drift that it was dangerous to cross
this I Suppose was from the caveing in of the banks at the head of Some
Island above, (3) passed a Creek on the L. S. called Turquie or Turkey
Creek passed a verry bad Sand bar on the L. S. the 20 Oars & Poals
could with much dificuelty Stem the Current, passed a large Island on
the S. S. Called by the Inds. Wau-car-ba war-con-da or the Bear Medison
Island, at 12 oClock came to on the Island and put in a mast, detained
four hours, exceedingly hot, wind in forepart of the day from the S. E,
George Drewyer informs that the Lands he pass through yesterday & to
day on the S. S. was generally Verry fine he Saw two Springs of fresh
water near the Island, Deer Sign has become So Common it is hardly
necessary to mention them, we Camped after dark on the S. S. opposit
the 1st old Village of the Kanzas which was Situated in a Valley
between two points of high land, on the river back of their village
commenced an extensive Prarie a large Island in front which appears to
have made on that Side and thrown the Current of the river against the
place the Village formerly Stood, and washes away the bank in that
part. The french formerly had a Fort at this place, to protect the
trade of this nation, the Situation appears to be a verry elligable one
for a Town, the valley rich & extensive, with a Small Brook Meanding
through it and one part of the bank affording yet a good Landing for
Boats The High Lands above the Fere river on each Side of the
Missouries appear to approach each other much nearer than below that
plaice, being from 3 to 6 miles between them, to the Kansas, above that
place from 3 to 5 Ms. apart and higher Some places being 160 or 180
feet the river not So wide We made a Mast of Cotton wood, to day in the
Course of the evening & night it turned of a butifull red Colour
[Clark, July 2, 1804]
July 2nd, 1804 Set out early and proceeed on the left of the islands,
two of which are large a high bottom Situated on the L. S. passed the
mouth of a Creek on the S. S. Called Turquie Creike, at this place I
observed that the river was Crouded with Drift wood, and dangerous to
pass as this dead timber Continued only about half an our, I concluded
that Some Island of Drift had given way (3) passed a Creek on the L. S.
called Turky Creek, a bad Sand bar on the L. S. we could with
dificuelty Stem the Current with our 20 oars & and all the poles we
had, passed a large Island on the S. S. Called by the Indians
Wau-car-ba war-cand-da or the Bear Medesin Island, at 12 oClock landed
on the Island & put up a mast which detained us four hours–a verry hot
day winds from the S. E.–George Drewyer inform’s that the Lands he
passed through yesterday and to day on the S. S. was verry fine, few
Springs, we Camped after dark on the S. S. above the Island & opposit
the 1st old village of the Kanzes which was Situated in a valley,
between two points of high Land, and imediatly on the river bank, back
of the village and on a riseing ground at about one mile The French had
a garrison for Some time and made use of water out of a Spring running
into Turkey Creek. an extensive Prarie, as the Current of the river
Sets against the banke and washes it away the landing place for Boats
is indifferent–The high lands above the Fire river, approaches nearer
each than below, being from 3 to 6 miles distant and above Kansas from
3 to 5 miles distant and the Hills at Some places are from 160 to 180
feet above the bottom
[Clark, July 3, 1804]
July 3rd 1804 Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a
gentle Breeze from the South passed two Islands one a Small Willow
Island on the L. S. (1) The other a large Island Called Cow 1. (Isle
Vache), this Island is large, opposit to the head on the S. S. is a (2)
large Pond, a Bad Sand bar on the S. S. we attemptd without Success, &
was oblige to Cross back, I Saw a White horse on the L. S. in view of
the upper point of the Island, (3) passed a large Sand bar at the S.
point, we halted to day about a mile above the Island and found a
horse, which had been lost by the Indians, verry fat and jentle, Sent
him on to join the others which was ahead on the L S at this place, the
french had a tradeing house, for to trade with the Kanzes on a high
bottom on the L. S. near the hills which is Prarie proceeded on round a
large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped (opposit a large Sand bar in the
middle of the river). on the L. S. a Butifull Small Stream passes back
of the trading house, before mentioned
[Clark, July 3, 1804]
July 3rd, Tusday 1804
Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze
from the S. passed two Islands (1) one a Small willow Island on the L.
S. the other large Called by the french Isle de Vache or Cow Island,
opposit the head on the S. S. is a large Pond Containg Beever, & fowl,
a bad Sandbar on the S. S. above the Island, on the L. S. we halted at
an old Tradeing house, here we found a verry fat horse, which appears
to have been lost a long time a butifull Small run passes back of the
Tradeing house near the high land, we came to at a round bend on the L.
S. and Camped
[Clark, July 4, 1804]
July 4th Wednesday 1804, Set out early passed the mouth of a Beyeue
leading from a Lake on the S. S. this Lake is large and was once the
bend of the River, it reaches Parrelel for Several miles, Came to on
the L. S. to Dine & rest a Short time, a Snake bit Jo. Fields on the
Side of his foot which Swelled much, apply Barks to the wound, pass a
Creek on the L. S. about 15 yards wide cuming out of an extensive
Prarie as this Creek has no name, and this day is the 4th of July, we
name this Independance us. Creek above this Creek the wood land is
about 200 yards, back of those wood is an extensive Prarie open and
high, which may be Seen six or seven below–Saw great Nos. of Goslins
to day nearly Grown, the last mentioned prarie I call Jo Fields Snake
Prarie, Capt Lewis walked on Shore & Saw a large moun & 3 roads leading
We Camped in the plain one of the most butifull Plains, I ever Saw,
open & butifully diversified with hills & vallies all presenting
themselves to the river covered with grass and a few scattering trees a
handsom Creek meandering thro at this place the Kansaw Inds. formerly
lived and had a verry large Town passed a Creek (4) I observed Spring
braking out of the bank, a good Situation for a fort on a hill at the
upper part

The Plains of this countrey are covered with a Leek Green Grass, well
calculated for the sweetest and most norushing hay-interspersed with
Cops of trees, Spreding ther lofty branchs over Pools Springs or Brooks
of fine water. Groops of Shrubs covered with the most delicious froot
is to be seen in every direction, and nature appears to have exerted
herself to butify the Senery by the variety of flours Delicately and
highly flavered raised above the Grass, which Strikes & profumes the
Sensation, and amuses the mind throws it into Conjecterng the cause of
So magnificent a Senerey in a Country thus Situated far removed from
the Sivilised world to be enjoyed by nothing but the Buffalo Elk Deer &
Bear in which it abounds & Savage Indians

The names of the french Ingishees, or Hirelens-

in Perogue
1 Battist de Shone Patrn
2 Joseph Le bartee
3 Lasoness
4 Paul Preemau
5 Chalo
6 E. Cann
7 Roie
8 Charlo Cougee

in the large Boat
*J. Le bartee

bow men
Pieter Crousatt half Indian
William La Beice Mallat

3 Sergts. & 23 men for the Boat
George Drewyer. Hunter & 4 Horses
1 Corpl & 4 Privates in a Perogue to be Sent back from Plate
Mr. Dueron inteptr for the Sues Capt. Lewis my Self & York

in all 46 men July 4th 4 horses & a Dog
[Clark, July 4, 1804]
July 4th Wednesday ussered in the day by a discharge of one shot from
our Bow piece, proceeded on, passed the mouth of a (1) Bayeau lading
from a large Lake on the S. S. which has the apperance of being once
the bed of the river & reaches parrelel for Several Miles Came to on
the L. S. to refresh ourselves &. Jos. Fields got bit by a Snake, which
was quickly doctered with Bark by Cap Lewis. (2) Passed a Creek 12 yds.
wide on L. S. comeing out of an extensive Prarie reching within 200
yards of the river, as, this Creek has no name, and this being the we
Dine (on corn) the 4th of July the day of the independance of the U. S.
call it 4th of July 1804 Creek, Capt. Lewis walked on Shore above this
Creek and discovered a high moun from the top of which he had an
extensive view, 3 paths Concentering at the moun Saw great numbers of
Goslings to day which Were nearly grown, the before mentioned Lake is
clear and Contain great quantities of fish an Gees & Goslings, The
great quantity of those fowl in this Lake induce me to Call it the
Gosling Lake, a Small Creek & Several Springs run in to the Lake on the
East Side from the hills the land on that Side verry good–(3) We came
to and camped in the lower edge of a Plain where 2d old Kanzas village
formerly Stood, above the mouth of a Creek 20 yds wide this Creek we
call Creek Independence as we approached this place the Praree had a
most butifull appearance Hills & Valies interspsd with Coops of Timber
gave a pleasing deversity to the Senery. the right fork of Creek
Independence Meandering thro the middle of the Plain a point of high
Land near the river givs an allivated Situation. at this place the
Kanzas Indians formerley lived. this Town appears to have covd. a large
Space, the nation must have been noumerous at the time they lived here,
the Cause of their moveing to the Kanzas River, I have never heard, nor
Can I learn; war with their neghbors must have reduced this nation and
Compelled them to retire to a Situation in the plains better Calculated
for their defence and one where they may make use of their horses with
good effect, in persueing their enemey, we Closed the by a Discharge
from our bow piece, an extra Gill of whiskey.
[Clark, July 5, 1804]
July the 5th 1804 Set out verry early this morning, Swam the horse
across the river, proceeded on for two miles under the bank where the
old Kansas town formerly stood The Cause of those people moveing from
this place I cannot learn, but naterally conclude that War has reduced
their nation & compelled them to retire further into the Plains with a
view of defending themselves & opposeing their enemey (more effectuall)
on hors back (I neglected to mention yesterday that the Lake on the S.
S. was large Say 3/4 me. wide & 7 or 8 long one creek & Several brooks
running into it from the hills, it contains Great quantities of Sun
fish & Gosling’s from which we gave it the name,) passed Some verry bad
Sand bars Situated parrelel to each other, (1) the Boat turned three
times once on the ____ of a Drift wood. She recved no proceiviable
damage, we came to for Dinner at a Beever house, Cap Lewis’s Dog Seamon
went in & drove them out. the high Lands on the L. S. is open, a few
trees Scattering (2) passed a Small Creek on the L. S. in the 1s bend
to the left I call yellow oaker creek from a bank of that Mineral just
above. we camped on the L. S. under a high bank Latd. 39° 25′ 41″ North

on the banks of this river I observe great quants of Grapes, berries &
roses Deer is not So plenty in this three days past as they were below
that. Elks are plenty about those Praries. Some Buffalow Sign.
[Clark, July 5, 1804]
July 5th Thursday 1804
Set out verry early, proceeded on near the bank where the old village
Stood for two miles, (Swam the hors found a few days ago) passed Some
bad Sand bars, The Origan of this old village is uncertain M. de
Bourgmont a French officer who Comdd. a fort near the Town of the
Missouris in about the year 1724 and in July of the Same year he
visited this Village at that time the nation was noumerous & well
desposed towards the french Mr. Du Pratz must have been badly informed
as to the Cane opposd this place we have not Seen one Stalk of reed or
cane on the Missouries, he States that the “Indians that accompanied M
De Bourgmont Crossed to the Canzes Village on floats of Cane”

Those people must have been verry noumerous at that time as Mr. De B.
was accompanied by 300 Warriers, 500 young people & 300 Dogs of burthen
out of this Village

The Cause of Those Indians moveing over to the Kanzis river I have
never lernt–we passed Some bad Sand bars, Situated parrelel to each
other (1) The Boat turned twice on the quick Sand & once on a raft of
Drift, no procievable damage Prarie Contine on the high land on the L.
S. passd a Small Creek (2) on L. S. in the first bend to the L S. I
call Yellow-Oaker Creek from a quantity of that Mineral in a bank a
little above

The river Continue to fall a little–I observe great quantities of
Summer & fall Grapes, Berries & Wild roases on the banks–Deer is not
so plenty as usual, great Deel of Elk Sign. (Wind from S E)
[Clark, July 6, 1804]
6th July Friday. We Set out early this morning & Proceeded on (the
river falls Slowly) wind S. W) passed a Sand bar in 1st bend to the
right (1) passed a Small Island at the S. pt. a verry warm day (worthy
of remark that the water of this river or Some other Cause, I think
that the most Probable throws out a greater preposn. of Swet than I
could Suppose Could pass thro the humane body Those men that do not
work at all will wet a Shirt in a Few minits & those who work, the Swet
will run off in Streams) opposit the 3rd point passed a Prarie on the
S. S. Called Reeveys Prarie (fro a man of that name being Killed in it)
opposit this Prarie the river is Confined in a verry narrow Space
Crowded on S. S. by Sands which were moveing and difficuelt to pass.
the Hunts. Sent in 3 Deer Jurked on the 4th point of to day is a Small
Island & a Sand bar 2 miles out in the river, this is Called the Grand
Bend, or Grande de Tour, I walked on this Sand bar found it a light
Sand intersperced with Small Pebbles of various Kinds, also pit Coal of
an excellent quallity was lodged on the Sand, We camped on the L. S. at
a small creek a whiper will perched on the boat for a Short time, I
gave his name to the Creek
[Clark, July 6, 1804]
July 6th, Friday We Set out early this morning, wind from the S. W.
passed a large Sand bar in the 1st. bend to the right. (1) passed a
Small Island at the S. point opposit the 3rd point we passed a Prarie
on the S. S. Called Reeveys Prarie at this place the river is Confined
in a verry narrow Channel Crouded by a Sand bar from the L. Point This
Sand bar from the L. Point, this Sand bar is verry bad, at the 4th
Point from the S. S. is a verry extensive bar, at the Point of which is
a Small willow Island this is Called the Grand Detour or Great bend

I walked on this Sand bar and found the Sand was light, with Collection
of Small pebble, & some Pit Coal I observe that the men Swet more than
is Common from Some Cause, I think the Missouries water is the
principal Cause our hunters Sent in 3 Bucks today The river Still fall
a little
[Clark, July 7, 1804]
7th of July Satturday 1804 Set out early passed Some verry Swift water
on the L. S. which Compelled us to Draw up by the Cord. a verry warm
morning, passed a butifull Prarie on the right Side which extends back,
those Praries has much the appearance from the river of farms, Divided
by narrow Strips of woods those Strips of timber grows along the runs
which rise on the hill & pass to the river a Cleft above, one man sick
(Frasure) Struck with the Sun, Saw a large rat on the Side of the bank,
Killed a wolf on the Bank passed (2) a verry narrow part of the river,
all confined within 200 yards, a yellow bank above, passed a Small
willow Island on the S. point, (in Low water those Small Willow Islands
are joined to the Sand bars makeing out from the Points) a pond on the
S. S near the prarie we passed yesterday in which G D. Saw Several
young Swans we Came to and Camped on the L. S. and two men Sent out
last evening with the horses did not join us this evening agreeable to
orders–a hard wind with Some rain from the N, E at 7 oClock which
lasted half an hour, with thunder & lightning. river fall a little
[Clark, July 7, 1804]
July the 7th Satturday 1804 Set out early passed Some Swift water,
which obliged us to draw up by roapes, a Sand bare at the point opposit
a butifull Prarie on the S. Side Calld. (1) St. Michul, those Praries
on the river has verry much the appearence of farms from the river
Divided by narrow Strips of wood land, which wood land is Situatd. on
the runs leading to the river. passed a Bluff of yellow Clay above the
Prarie. Saw a large rat on the bank. Killed a Wolf. at 4 oClock pass a
Verry narrow part of the river water Confd. in a bead not more than 200
yards wide at this place the Current runs against the L. Side. no Sand
to Confine the Current on the S. S. passed a Small sand Island above
the Small Islds. Situated at the points, in low water form a part of
the Sand bars makeing out from those points

Incamped on the S. S. at 7 oClock a Violent Ghust of wind from the N.
E. with Some rain, which lasted half an hour (G D. informs me that he
Saw in a Pond on the S. S. which we passed yesterday; a number of young
Swans-,) one man verry Sick, Struck with the Sun, Capt. Lewis bled him
& gave Niter which has revived him much
[Clark, July 8, 1804]
8th of July Sunday Set out early this morning, the Sick man much
better, Serjt. Oddeway was waiting at a Creek on the S. S. below an
Island, passed (1) two Island on the S. S. and came to at the upper
point, G Drewyer went out R. Fields & Guterich, five men Sick to day
with a violent Head ake &c. and Several with Boils, we appoint a Cook
to each mess to take Charge of the Provisions. in Serjt. Pryor’s =
Collens in Sjt. Ordway’s Werner in Sergt. Floyd’s Thompson, The french
men Killed a young Deer on the Bank, (2) passed up a narrow Channel of
about 80 or 100 yds wide about 5 miles to the mouth of Nadawa River
which corns in to this channel from the N W. and is abt. 70 yards wide
at its mouth ____ feet Deep and has a jentle Current, Perogues can
navagate this river near its head, which is between the Missourie & the
Grand River, passed up the gut 3/4 of a mile to the river at the head
of the Island & camped opposit the head of this Island is another
nearest the Middle R this Island Nadawa is the largest I have Seen,
formed by a Channel washing into the Nadawa river.–“8 or 10000 acrs”
[Clark, July 8, 1804]
July the 8th Sunday 1804
Set out early passed a Small Creek on the S. S. and two (1) Small
Islands on the S S. five men Sick to day with a violent head ake &c. we
made Some arrangements as to provisions & Messes, came to for Dinner at
the lower point of a very large Island Situated near the S. S. after a
delay of two hours we passed a narrow channel of 45 to 80 yds wide five
miles to the mouth of (3) Nkdawa River, This river Coms in from the
North and is navagable for Perogues Some distance. it is about 70 yards
wide a little above the mouth, at the mouth not So wide, the mud of the
Gut running out of the Missourie is thrown and Settles in the mouth
half a mile higher up this Channel or gut is the upper point of the
Said Island, This Island is Called Nadawa, & is the largest I have Seen
in the river, containing 7 or 8000 acres of Land Seldom overflowed we
Camped at the head of this Island on the S. S. opposit the head or our
Camp is a Small Island near the middle of the river, river Still
falling. our flank party did not join us this evening
[Lewis, July 8, 1804]
Detachment Orders
Nadawa Island July 8th 1804.-
In order to insure a prudent and regular use of all provisions issued
to the crew of the Batteaux in future, as also to provide for the equal
distribution of the same among the individuals of the several messes,
The Commanding Officers Do appoint the following persons to recieve,
cook, and take charges of the provisions which may from time to time be
issued to their respective messes, (viz) John B. Thompson to Sergt.
Floyd’s mess,

William Warner to Sergt. Ordway’s mess, and John Collins to Sergt.
Pryor’s Mess.–These Superintendants of Provision, are held immediately
respon sible to the commanding Officers for a judicious consumption of
the provi sion which they recieve; they are to cook the same for their
several messes in due time, and in such manner as is most wholesome and
best calculated to afford the greatest proportion of nutriment; in
their mode of cooking they are to exercise their own judgment; they
shall allso point out what part, and what proportion of the mess
provisions are to be consumed at each stated meal (i. e.) morning, noon
and night; nor is any man at any time to take or consume any part of
the mess provisions without the privity, knowledge and consent of the
Superintendant. The superintendant is also held responsible for all the
cooking eutensels of his mess. in considera tion of the duties imposed
by this order on Thompson, Warner, and Collins, they will in future be
exempt from guard duty, tho they will still be held on the royster for
that duty, and their regular tour-shall be per formed by some one of
their rispective messes; they are exempted also from pitching the tents
of the mess, collecting firewood, and forks poles &c. for cooking and
drying such fresh meat as may be furnished them; those duties are to be
also performed by the other members of the mess.
M. Lewis
Wm. Clark
[Clark, July 9, 1804]
July the 9th Monday 1804 Sent one man back to the mouth of the River to
mark a tree, to let the party on Shore See that the Boat had passed the
river, Set out early passed (1) the head of the Island Situated in the
middle of the river a Sand bar at the head, (2) passed the mouth of a
Creek or Bayou on the S. S. leading from a large Pond of about three
miles in length, at 8 oClock it commenced raining, the wind changed
from N E. to S. W. (3) at 6 miles passed the mouth of a Small Creek on
the L. S. called Monters Creek, the river at this place is wide with a
Sand bar in the Middle, passed a place on the L. S. about 2 miles above
the Creek, where Several french men camped two years to hunt–(4)
passed a Island on the S S. of the river in a bend, opsd. a high Land
on the L. S. wind Shifted to the N. W. in the evining, opsd. this
Island, and on the L. S. Loup or Wolf River Coms in, this river is
about 60 yards Wide, but little water running at the mouth, this river
heads with the waters of the Kanzas, and has a perogue navigation Some
distance, it abounds with Beaver, Camped opposit the head of the Island
on the L. S. Saw a fire on the S. S. Supposedly the four flankers, to
be theire, Sent a perogue for them, the Patroon & Bowman of the Perogue
French, they returned & informed, that when they approached the fire,
it was put out, which caused them to return, this report causd. us to
look out Supposeing a pty. of Soux going to war, firierd the bow piec
to allarm & put on their guard the men on Shore everey thing in
readiness for Defence.
[Clark, July 9, 1804]
July 9th Monday 1804
one man Sent back to the river we passed last night to Blase a tree
with a view to notify the party on Shore of our passing Set out and
passed the head of the (1) Island which was Situated opposit to our
Camp last night a Sand bar at the head (2) opsd. this Island a Creek or
Bayaue Corns in from a large Pond on the Starboard Side, as our
flanking party Saw great numbers of Pike in this Pond, I have laid it
down with that name anex’d,v at 8 oClock the wind Shifted from the N, E
to S W and it commenced raining. (3) at Six miles passed the mouth of
Creek on the L. S. Called Monter’s Creek, about two mile above is some
Cabins where our Bowman & Several frenchmen Campd. two years (4) passed
an Island on the S. S. in a Bend of the river opposit Some Clifts on
the L. S. the wind Shifted to the N W opposit this Island and on the L.
Side (Loup) or Wolf River Coms in, this river is about 60 yards wide
and heads with the waters of the Kansis, and is navagable for Perogues
“Some destance up” Camped at a point on the L. S. opposit the head of
the Island, our party was incamped on the Opposit Side, their not
answering our Signals Caused us to Suspect the persons Camped opposit
to us was a war party of Soux, we fired the Bow piece to alarm the
party on Shore, ailed prepared to oppose if attacted
[Clark, July 10, 1804]
July 10th Tuesday Set out this morning with a view to Land near the
fire Seen last night, & recornetre, but Soon discovered that our men
were at the fire, they were a Sleep early last evening, and from the
Course of the Wind which blew hard, their yells were not heard by party
in the perogue, a mistake altogether-. proceeded on, passed Prarie on
the upper Side of Woolf River, at 4 miles passed (1) a Small Creek L.
S. Called R. Pape this Creek is about 15 yds. Wide-and called after a
Spanierd who killed himself at the mouth. (2) Dined on an Island Called
de Selamen and delayed 3 hours, and proceeded on, opposit this Isld. on
the L. S. is a (3) butifull Bottom Prarie whuch will Contain about 2000
acres of Land covered with wild rye & wild Potatoes, gread numbers of
Goslings on the Banks & in the Ponds near the river, Capt Lewis Killed
two this evening, we came to & Camped for the night. at a point on the
S. S. opposit a yellow Clay Clift.–our men all getting well but much
fatigued, the river is on a Stand nether rise nor fall, The bottom on
the S. S. is verry extensive & thick. the Hills or high land is near
the river on the L. S. and but thinly timbered, back of those hills is
open plains.
[Clark, July 10, 1804]
July 10th Tuesday 1804
Set out early this morning and Crossd the river with a view to See who
the party was that Camped on the other Side, we Soon discovered them to
be our men,–proceeded on passed a Prarie on the L. S. at 4 miles
passed a Creek L. S Called (1) Pappie after a man who Killed himself at
its mouth, this Creek is 15 yds wide–(2) Dined on an Isld. Called de
Salamin Delayed 3 hours on this Island to recruit the men opposit on
the L. S. is a butifull bottom Plain of about 2000 acres (3) Covered
with wild rye & Potatoes, intermix’t with the grass, we camped on the
S. S. opposit a yellow Clay Clift, Capt. Lewis Killed two young Gees or
Goslings this evening–The men of the party getting better, but much
fatigued–The river on a Stand–The bottom is verry extensive on the S.
S. and thickly intersperced with Vines The High Land approaches near
the river on the L. S. and well timbered next to the river, back of
those hills the Plains Commence.
[Clark, July 11, 1804]
July 11th Wednesday, Set out early proceeded on passed a Willow (1)
Island in a bend to the S. S. Sent out Dreweyer & Jo. Fields to hunt,
Back of this Island a creek corns in on the S. S. called by the Indians
Little Tarkio Creek I went on Shore above this Island on the S. S.
found the bottom Subject for overflow wet and verry thickly interwoven
with grape Vines–proceeded on at about 1/2 a miles from the river
about 3 ms. and observed fresh Sign of a horse, I prosueed the track,
with an expectation of finding a Camp of Indians on the river, when I
got to the river, I saw a horse on the Beech, this horse as appears was
left last winter by Some hunting party, probable the Othouez, I joined
the Boat on the Sand Island Situated opposit the mouth of the Ne Ma har
River, this river Coms in on the L. S. is about 80 yds Wide and
navagable for Perogues Some Distance up the praries Commnce above the
mouth and Continus on both Sides of this R Drewyer killed 6 Deer to day
J. Field one Several hunters Sent out up the Nemahar R
[Clark, July 11, 1804]
July 11th, Wednesday 1804
Set out early passed a Willow Island (1) in a bend on the S. S. back of
this Island a Creek Corns in Called by the Indians Tar-ki-o

I went on Shore above this Creek and walked up parrelel with the river
at ab ut half a mile distant, the bottom I found low & Subject to
overflow, Still further out, the under groth & vines wer So thick that
I could not get thro with ease after walking about three or 4 miles I
observed a fresh horse track where he had been feeding I turned my
course to the river and prosud the track and found him on a Sand beach
This horse Probably had been left by Some party of Otteaus hunters who
wintered or hunted in this quarter last fall or Wintr. I joined the
party on a large Sand Island imediately opposit the mouth of Ne Ma haw
River, at which place they had Camped, this Island is Sand about half
of it Covered with Small Willows of two different Kinds, one Narrow &
the other a Broad Leaf. Several hunters Sent out to day on both Sides
of the river, Seven Deer Killed to day. Drewyer Killd Six of them, made
Some Luner observations this evening.
[Clark, July 12, 1804]
July 12th Thursday Som hunters out on the S. S. those on the L. S. did
not return last night, our object in delaying here is to tak Some
Observations and rest the men who are much fatigued made Sundery
observations, after an early Brackfast I took five men and went up the
River Ne Ma har about three miles, to an open leavel part of an emence
prarie, at the Mouth of a Small Creek on the Lower Side, I went on
Shore, & passed thro the plain passed Several noles to the top of a
high artificial Noal from the top of this noal I had an emence,
extensive & pleaseing prospect, of the Countrey around, I could See the
meandering of the Little River for at least 10 miles winding thro a
meadow of 15 or 20000 acres of high bottom land covered with Grass
about 41/2 feet high, the high lands which rose irregularly, & were
toped with Mounds or antent Graves which is to me a Strong evidence of
this Countrey haveing been thickly Settled-.This River is about 80
yards wide with a gentle Current and heads up near the Parnee Village
on River Blue a branch of Kansas, a little timbered land near the mouth
for 1 mile above, only a fiew Trees, and thickets of Plumbs Cheres &c
are Seen on its banks the Creeks & little reveens makeing into the
river have also Some timber–I got grapes on the banks nearly ripe,
observed great quantities, of Grapes, plums Crab apls and a wild
Cherry, Growing like a Comn. Wild Cherry only larger & grows on a Small
bush, on the side of a clift Sand Stone 1/2 me. up & on Lower Side I
marked my name & day of the month near an Indian Mark or Image of
animals & a boat Tried Willard for Sleeping on his post, our hunters
killed some Deer, Saw Elk & Buffalow.
[Clark, July 12, 1804]
July 12th, Thursday 1804
Concluded to Delay here to day with a view of takeing equal altitudes &
makeing observations as well as refreshing our men who are much
fatigued–after an early Brackfast I with five men in a Perogue
assended the River Ne-Ma-haw about 2 miles to the mouth of a Small
Creek on the Lower Side, here I got out of the Perogue, after going to
Several Small Mounds in a leavel plain, I assended a hill on the Lower
Side, on this hill Several Artificial Mounds were raised, from the top
of the highest of those Mounds I had an extensive view of the
Serounding Plains, which afforded one of the most pleasing prospects I
ever beheld, under me a Butifull River of Clear water of about 80 yards
wide Meandering thro a leavel and extensive Meadow, as far as I could
See, the prospect Much enlivened by the fine Trees & Srubs which is
bordering the bank of the river, and the Creeks & runs falling into
it,-. The bottom land is covered with Grass of about 41/2 feet high,
and appears as leavel as a Smoth Surfice, the 2 bottom is also covered
with Grass and rich weeds & flours, interspersed with Copses of the
Osage Plumb. on the riseing lands, Small groves of trees are Seen, with
a numbers of Grapes and a Wild Cherry resembling the Common Wild
Cherry, only larger and grows on a Small bush on the tops of those
hills in every derection. I observed artifical mounds (or as I may more
justly term Graves) which to me is a Strong indication of this Country
being once Thickly Settled. (The Indians of the Missouris Still Keep up
the Custom of Burrying their dead on high ground) after a ramble of
about two miles about I returned to the perogue and decended down the
River, gathd. Som grapes nearly ripe, on a Sandstone Bluff about 1/4 of
a mile from its mouth on the Lower Side I observed Some Indian marks,
went to the rock which jutted over the water and marked my name & the
day of the month & year–This river heads near one of the Villages of
the Pania on the River Blue, a branch of the Kansas River.–above this
river about half a mile the Prarie Comes to the Missouri after my
return to Camp on the Island Completed Som observations, Tred tried a
man for sleeping on his Post & inspected the arms amunition &c. of the
party found all complete, Took Some Luner Obsevations. three Deer
killed to day. Latd. 39° 55′ 56″ N.
[Lewis and Clark, July 12, 1804]
Camp New Island July 12th 1804.
A Court matial consisting of the two commanding officers will convene
this day at 1 OCk. P.M. for the trial of such prisoners as may be
brought before them; one of the court will act as judge Advocate.
M. Lewis
Wm. Clark

The Commanding officers. Capt. M. Lewis & W. Clark constituted
themselves a Court martial for the trial of Such prisoners as are
Guilty of Capatol Crimes, and under the rules and articles of War
punishable by Death,

Alexander Willard was brought foward Charged with “Lying down and
Sleeping on his post whilst a Sentinal, on the night of the 11th.
Instant” (by John Ordway Sergeant of the Guard)

To this Charge the prisoner pleads. Guilty of Lying Down, and not
Guilty, of Going to Sleep. The Court after Duly Considering the
evidence aduced, are of oppinion that the Prisoner Alexdn. Willard is
guilty of every part of the Charge exhibited against him. it being a
breach of the rules and articles of War (as well as tending to the
probable distruction of the party) do Sentence him to receive One
hundred lashes on his bear back, at four different times in equal
propation.–and order that the punishment Commence this evening at
Sunset, and Continue to be inflicted, (by the Guard) every evening
untill Completed
Wm Clark
M. Lewis
[Clark, July 13, 1804]
My notes of the 13th of July by a Most unfortunate accident blew over
Board in a Storm in the morning of the 14th obliges me to refur to the
Journals of Serjeants, and my own recollection the accurrences Courses
Distance &c. of that day–last night a violent Storm from the N. N, E.-
(1) passed Tar-ki-o River, at 2 miles a chant. running into this river
3 ms. abov forms St Josephs Isld. Passed an elegt Prarie in the 1st
bend to the left. Containg a grass resmlg Timothy, with Seed like flax,
(2) passed a Island in a bend to the S. S. at 12 ms. I walked on Shore
S. S. lands, low & overflows, Killed two Goslings nearly Grown, Sailed
under a Wind from the South all day, Camped on a Sand Island on the L.
Pt. opposit a high & extensiv Prarie, on the S. S. the Hills about 4 or
5 me. off, this Plain appears extensive, great appearance of a Storm
from the North W. this evening verry agreeable the wind Still from the

from the Osagies Nation with twenty odd of the Natives or chiefs of the
Nation with him sailed dowen the Mississippi bound to St Louis & 3 guns
fired showers of rain Showers of Rain all that night
[Clark, July 13, 1804]
July 13th Friday 1804
Set out at Sun rise, and prosd. on under a gentle Breeze, at two miles
passed the mouth of a Small river on the S. S. Called by the Indians
Tarki-o, a Channel running out of the river three miles above (which is
now filled up with Sand) runs into this Creek & and formed a Island
Called St.

Josephs Several Sand bars parralel to each other above–In the first
bend to the left is Situated a Butifull & extensive plain, Cover’d with
Grass resembling Timothy except the Seed which resembles Flax Seed,
this plain also abounds in Grapes of defferent Kinds Some nearly ripe.
I Killed two Goslings nearly Grown, Several others Killed and cought on
Shore, also one old Goose, with pin fethers, She Could not fly–at
about 12 miles passd. a Island Situated in a bend on the S. S. above
this Island is a large Sand bar Covered with willows. The wind from the
South, Camped on a large Sand Bar makeing out from the L. P. opposit a
high hanson Prarie, the hills about 4 or 5 miles on S. S. this plain
appeard extensive, the Clouds appear to geather to the N. W. a most
agreeable Breeze from the South (I walked on Shore on the S. S. the
lands are low Subject to overflow)

Last night at about 10 oClock a violent Storm of wind from the N. N. E.
which lasted with Great violence for about one hour, at which time a
Shower of rain Succeeded.

The men on Shore did not join us this after noon–The river nearly on a
Stand–the high lands on the S. S. has only been Seen at a Distance
above the Nordaway River, those on the S. L. aproaching the river at
every bend, on the Side next to the river well timbered, the opsd. Side
open & the Commencmt. of Plains.
[Clark, July 14, 1804]
July the 14th Satturday Some hard Shours of rain accompaned with Some
wind detained us untill about 7 oClock, we then Set out and proceeded
on about a mile and th atmispeir became Suddenly darkened by a blak &
dismal looking Cloud, we wer in a Situation, near the upper point of a
Sd. Isd. & the opsd Shore falling in in this Situation a Violent Storm
of Wint from the N, E (passing over an Open plain, Struck the boat
nearly Starboard, quatering, & blowing down the Current) the exerssions
of all our Men who were out in an instant, aded to a Strong Cable and
Anchor was Scrcely Sufficent to Keep the boat from being thrown up on
the Sand Island, and dashed to peices the Waves dasthed over on the
Side next to the wind the lockers which was covered with Tarpoling
prevented them coming into the boat untill the Boat was Creaned on the
Side from the Wind in this Situation we continued about 40 minits, the
two perogues about a quater of a mile above, one of them in a Similer
Situation with the Boat, the other under the charge of George Gibson in
a much better position, with her Ster faceing the wind, this Storm
Suddenly Seased, & 1 minit the river was as Smoth as glass, the wind
Shifted to the S. E and we Set Sail, and proceeded on passed (1) a
Small Island on the S. S. and Dined–R. Fields who has charge of the
horses &c. on Shore did not join us last night-. passed a old fort
where Mr. Bennet of St Louis winttered 2 years & traded with the
Otteaus & Parties on the S. S. 1 me. abov the little Island, I went out
on the L. S. and observed two Elk on a land in the river, in attempting
to get near those elk obseved one near us I Shot one. continued on
Shore & thro the bottom which was extensive, Some Small Praries, and a
peponce of high rich & well timbered bottom, in the Glades I saw wild
Timothy, Lams quarter Cuckle burs & rich weed, on the edges Plumbs of
different kinds Grapes, and Goose berries, Camped on the L. S. Ruben
Fields and Gulrich joined the Party two men unwell, one a Felin on his
finger, river fall
[Clark, July 14, 1804]
July 14th, Satturday 1804
Some hard Showers of rain this morning prevented our Setting out untill
7 oClock, at half past Seven, the atmispr. became Sudenly darkened by a
black and dismal looking Cloud, at the time we were in a Situation (not
to be bettered) near the upper point of the Sand Island, on which we
lay, and the opposit Shore, the bank was falling in and lined with
Snags as far as we could See down,-. in this Situation The Storm which
passd over an open Plain from the N. E. Struck the our boat on the
Starbd. quarter, and would have thrown her up on the Sand Island dashed
to peces in an Instant, had not the party leeped out on the Leward Side
and kept her off with the assistance of the ancker & Cable, untill the
Storm was over, the waves Dashed over her windward Side and She must
have filled with water if the Lockers which is covered with Tarpoling &
Threw of the water & prevented any quantity Getting into Bilge of the

In this Situation we continued about 40 Minits. when the Storm Sudenly
Seased and the river become Instancetaniously as Smoth as Glass.

The two perogus dureing this Storm was in a Similar Situation with the
boat about half a mile above–The wind Shifted to the S. E & We Saled
up passed a Small (1) Isld. Situated on the S. S. and Dined & Continud
two hours, men examine their arms–about a Mile above this Island,
passed a Small Tradeing fort on the S. S. where, Mr. Bennet of St.
Louis Traded with the Otteaus & Panies two years. I went on Shore to
Shoot Some Elk on a Sand bar to the L. S. I fired at one but did not
get him, went out into a large extensive bottom the greater part of
which overflows, the part that dose not overflow, is rich and well
timbered, Some Small open Praries near the hills, the Boat passed the
lower part of a large Island Situated on the S. S. above the Lower
point of this Island on the S. S. a (2) large Creek corns into the
river Called by the Maha’s Indians Neesh-nah-ba-to-na 50 yds this is a
considerable Creek nearly as large as the Mine River, and runs parrelel
with the Missouri, the Greater part of its Course. In those Small
Praries or glades I saw wild Timothey, lambs-quarter, Cuckle burs; &
rich weed. on the edges Grows Sumr. Grapes, Plum’s, & Gooseberries. I
Joined the boat which had Came to and Camped in a bend opposd. the
large Island before mentioned on the L. S. Several men unwell with
Boils, Felns, &c. The river falls a little.
[Clark, July 15, 1804]
July 15th Sunday 1804. a heavy fog this morning which Detained us
untill 7 oClock, put Drewyer Sgt. Floyd on Shore, at 9 I took two Men
and went on Shore, with a view to Kill Some elk, passed thro open
plains, and barroney lands Crossed three butifull Small Streams of
water, Saw great quantity of Cherres Plums, Grapes & Berries of Difft.
Kinds, the lands Generally of a good quallity, on the Streams the wood
escapes the fire, at about 7 miles I Struck the river at the mouth Ne
ma har Creek about 40 yds wide, near this Creek on a high part of the
Prarie I had a extensive View of the river & Countrey on both Sides. on
S. a contnuation of the plain as far as I could See, on the N. a bottom
Prarie of about 5 ms. wide & 18 or 20 long, hills back of this Plain. I
Swam across the Creek and waited for the Boat about three miles above,
we camped opsd. an Island.
[Clark, July 15, 1804]
July 15th, Sunday a heavy Fog this morning prevented our Setting out
before 7 oClock, at nine I took two men and walked on the L. S. I
crossed three butifull Streems of runnig water heading in the Praries
on those Streem the lands verry fine covered with pea Vine & rich weed
the high Praries are also good land Covered with Grass entirely void of
timber except what grows on the water, I proceeded on thro those
praries Several miles to the mouth of a large Creek on the L. S. called
(2) Ne ma har this is a Small river, about 100 yds. above the mouth it
is 40 yards wide, at the mouth (as all other Creeks & rivers falling
into the Missourie are) much narrower than a little distance up. after
continueing at the mouth of this Creek about an hour, I Swam across and
proceeded on about 3 miles and halted to wate for the boat, which was
Some distance below–In all this days march thro woods & Praries, I
only Saw three Deer & 3 fawns–I had at one part of the Prarie a verry
extensive view of all the Countrey around up and down the river a
Considerable distance, on the Larbd. Sd. one Continul Plain, on the S.
S. Some timber on the bank of the river, for a Short distance back of
this timber is a bottom Plain of four or five miles back to the hills
and under the hills between them & the river this plain appeared to
extend 20 or 30 miles, those Hills have but little timber, and the
Plain appears to Continu back of them–I Saw Great quantities of
Grapes, Plums, or 2 Kinds wild Cherries of 2 Kinds, Hazelnuts, and

we Camped in a point of woods on the Larboard S. opsd. a large Island.

[Lewis, July 15, 1804]
Sunday July 15th
This evening I discovered that my Chronometer had stoped, nor can I
assign any cause for this accedent; she had been wound up the preceding
noon as usual. This is the third instance in which this instrument has
stopt in a similar manner since she nas been in my possession, tho the
first only since our departure from the River Dubois. in the two
preceding cases when she was again set in motion, and her rate of going
determined by a series of equal altitudes of the sun taken for that
purpose, it was found to be the same precisely as that mentioned in the
preliminary remarks to these observations, or 15 s & 5 tenths too slow
in 24 h-as her rate of going after stoping, and begin again set in
motion has in two instances proved to be the same, I have concluded,
that whatever this impediment may procede from, it is not caused by any
material injury which her works have sustained, and that when she is in
motion, her error on mean time above stated, may be depended on as
accurate. In consequence of the chronometer’s having thus accedentally
stoped, I determined to come too at the first convenient place and make
such observations as were necessary to ascertain her error, establish
the Latitude & Longitude, and determine the variation of the nedle, in
order to fix a second point of departure.
[Clark, July 16, 1804]
July 16 1804 Monday
Set out verry early and proceeded on the Side of a Prarie passd the
head of the Island opsd. which we Camped last night, (1) passed a Small
willow Island off the L. point, hills make near the river (2) passed a
large Island nearest the L. S. below the pt. a Small willow Isd. also
one on the Side. this large Island is called fair Sun the wind
favourable from the South. Boat run on a Sawyer, (4) pass a place on
the L. S. where the hill abt. 20 acres has Sliped into the river lately
just above passed under a clift of Sand Stone L. S. a number of Burds
Nests in the holes & crevises of this rock which Continus 2 miles, (5)
passed a willow Island in a Deep bend to the S. S. river 2 mile wide at
this place, note Deed Snags across, passed the Lower point of a Island
called Isle Chauvin Situated on the L. Point opposit an extensive
Prarie on the S. S., This prarie I call Ball pated Prarie from the
range ball hills, at from 3 to 6 miles from the river as far as my
Sight will extend, we camped in a point of woods opsd. the Isd. on S.
S. in a bend.
[Clark, July 16, 1804]
July 16th Monday 1804
Set out this morning verry early and proceeded on under a gentle breeze
from the S passed the upper point of the Island an extensive Prarie on
the L. S. passed a large (1) Island Called Fair Sun Isd. a Small willow
Isld. at the lower point on the L. S. the boat passd on the L. S. of
those Islands Several Small Sand Islands in the Channel, the Boat run
on the point of a Snag, (2) passed a place above the Island L. S. where
about 20 acres of the hill has latterly Sliped into the river above a
clift of Sand Stone for about two miles, the resort of burds of
Different Kinds to reare their young. (5) Passed a willow Island in a
Deep Bend to the S. S. opposit the river is about two miles wide, and
not verry Deep as the Snag may be Seen across, Scattering, passed the
Lower point of an Island called by French Chauvin’s Situated off the L.
Point opposit an extensive Prarie on the S. S. This Prarie I call Ball
gated Prarie, from a range of Ball Hills parrelel to the river & at
from 3 to 6 miles distant from it, and extends as far up & Down as I
Can See, we Camped in a point of woods on the L. S. above the Lower
point of the Island. river falling.
[Lewis, July 16, 1804]
Monday 16th we set out at an early hour; the morning was cloudy; could
find no convenient situation for observation; proceeded untill a little
before noon when we came too On the Lard. Shore opposite to the center
of good Island where I observed the meridian altitude of O’s L. L. with
Octant by the back observation, wich gave me the Latitude–40° 20′ 12″ N.

I now set the Chronometer as near noon as this observation would enable
me, and proceeded untill evening, when we came too on the Stard. shore
opposite the lower point of the Island of the Bald prarie where we
[Clark, July 17, 1804]
July 17th Tuesday, we concluded to lay by today to fix the Longitude,
and get the Cronometer right, (She run down Day before yesterday),
Several men out hunting to day Capt. Lewis rode out to Neesh-nahba-to
na Creek which passes thro. the Prarie (on which there is Some few
trees) within ____ Mile of the Missoureis, wind from the S E. Several
of the party have tumers of different Kinds Some of which is verry
troublesom and dificuilty to cure. I took a meridian altitude (43° 27′)
which made the Lattitude of this place 40° 27′ 6″ 4/10 North.–(The Ball
Hills bear N 25° W for 30 mes. The bend on L. S. passing the Isd. on the
right Side is N. 28° W. 4 ms.) Took equal altitudes Tried a part of the
comn pt. of the Current in 40 Seconds the water run 50 fathem 30″ & 20″
in places

Cap Lewers returned, Saw Some hand Som Countrey, the Creek near the
high land is rapid and nearly as muddy as the river, & rising Gutrich
caught two verry fat Cat fish G Drewyer Killed 3 Deer, & R Fields one,
a puff of wind brought Swarms of Misquitors, which disapeared in two
hours, blown off by a Continuation of the Same brees.
[Clark, July 17, 1804]
Bald Pated Prarie July 17th, Tuesday 1804 We Concluded lay by at this
place to day to fix the Lattitude & Longitude of this place to Correct
the cromometer run down Sunday) Several men out by day light hunting
Capt. Lewis Concid. to ride out to Neesh-nah-ba-to-na Creek which
passes under the ball hills near this place and at one place a little
above this Camp is within 300 yards of the Missouris on this Creek
grows Some few trees of oake walnut & mulberry. I took Meridian
altitude of sun L. L. (43° 27′) which made the Lattitude 40° 27′ 5″ 4/10
North–wind from the South E. Several of the party much aflicted with
turners of different Kinds, Som of which is verry troublesom and
dificuelt to cure. Capt. Louis returned in the evening. he Saw Som hand
Some Countrey & Says that the aforesaid Creek is rapid muddey and
running–This Creek which is at 10 or 12 from its mouth, within 300 yds
of the river is at least 16 foot Lower than the river–The high Lands
from our Camp in this Bald Pated Prarie bears N 25° W. up the R.

The Common Current taken with a Log runs 50 fathen in 40″Some places
much Swifter in 30″ and even 20 Seconds of time–five Deer killed to day
[Clark, July 18, 1804]
July 18th Wednesday a fair morning the river falling fast, Set out at
Sunrise under a gentle Breeze from S. E by S. at 3 miles passed the
head of the Island on L. S. called by the French Chauve or bald pate
(1) opsd. the middle of this Island the Creek on L. S. is within 300
yds. of the river. back of this Island the lower point of (2) another
Island in the bend to the L. S. passed large Sand bar making out from
each point with many channels passing through them, “Current runs 50
fathm. in 41 Seconds” but little timber on either Side of the river,
except the Isds. & points which are low wet & Covered with lofty trees,
Cotton wood Mulberry Elm &c. &c. passed the head of a long Island in
high water at this time no water passes thro the Channel (3) opposit
the Lower point of a Island on the L. S. pass the Island and opsd. the
point (4) above & on the L. S. the hills come to the river, This Hill
has Sliped into the river for about 3/4 of a mile, and leaves a Bluff
of considerable hight back of it this Hill is about 200 foot high
compsd. of Sand Stone inter mingled with Iron ore of an inferior
quallity on a bed of Soft Slate Stone.

We passed a verry bad Sand bar (4) a little above the hill and incmpd
on the L. S. opposit a Small Island in the river, Saw a Dog this
evening appeared to be nearly Starved to death, he must have been left
by Some party of Hunters we gave him Some meet, he would not come near,
G Drewrer brought in 2 Deer this evening
[Clark, July 18, 1804]
July 18th Wednesday 1804 a fair morning the river falling fast Set out
this morning at Sun rise under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. by S.
passing over the Prarie, at about 3 Miles we passed the head of the
Island L. S. Called by the French Chaube or Bald pate opposit the
middle of (1) This Island the Creek on the S. S. is nearest the river,
In high water an Island is formed in the bind above the last (2)-
Measured the Current and found that in forty one Seconds it run yo
fathoms but little timber is to be Seen except in the Low points on
Islands & on Creeks, the Groth of timber is generally cotton Mulberry
Elm Sycomore &c &c. passed a Island on the 2d point to the S. S.
opposite the water (3) whin high passes out in the Plain oppsid this
Island on the L. S. the hills jut to the river (4) this Hill has Sliped
from the top which forms a Bluff above & 200 foot above the water,
about 3/4 of a mile in length & about 200 feet in Depth has Sliped into
the river it is Composed of Sand Stone intermixed with an indiffert.
Iron ore near the bottom or next to the water is a Soft Slate Stone,
Som pebble is also intermixt, we passed a verry bad Sand bar and
incamped on the L. S. at the lower point of the oven Islands & opposit
the Prarie Calld. by the french Four le Tourtue Saw a Dog nearly
Starved on the bank, gave him Som meet, he would not follow, our
hunters killed 2 Deer to day
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th after breakfast which was on a rosted Ribs of a Deer a little
and a little Coffee I walked on Shore intending only to Keep up with
the Boat, Soon after I got on Shore, Saw Some fresh elk Sign, which I
was induced to prosue those animals by their track to the hills after
assending and passing thro a narrow Strip of wood Land, Came Suddenly
into an open and bound less Prarie, I Say bound less because I could
not See the extent of the plain in any Derection, the timber appeared
to be confined to the River Creeks & Small branches, this Prarie was
Covered with grass about 18 Inches or 2 feat high and contained little
of any thing else, except as before mentioned on the River Creeks &c,
This prospect was So Sudden & entertaining that I forgot the object of
my prosute and turned my attention to the Variety which presented
themselves to my view after continueing on this rise for Some minits, I
deturmined to make my course to a line of woods to S. E. I found in
this wood a butifull Streem of running water, in prosuing it down
Several others Joined it and at 3 miles fell into the river between 2
clifts, I went up & under one clift of dark rich Clay for 1/2 me. above
this a Clay bank which had Sliped in here I found Sand Stone Containing
Iron ore, this ore appears to be inbeded under the Clay just above the
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th Thursday 1804
Set out early pass between 2 Islands one in mid. & the other L. S.
opsd. wher Prarie aproaches the river S. S. This place is called the
Bakers oven or in french Four le Tour tere passd. Some highlands 41/2
ms. above the Isds. on the L. S. forming a Clift to the river of yellow
earth, on the top a Prarie, passd. many a bad Sand bar in this
distance, & the river wide & Shallow, above this Clift 2 Small
butiffull runs Come from the Plains & fall into the river, a Deer lick
on the first, above those two Creeks, I found in my walk on Shore Some
ore in a bank which had Sliped in to the river 3/4 me. above the
Creeks, I took a cerequite around & found that those two runs mentioned
contained a good proposion of wood Surrounded by a plain, with grass
about 18 Inchs. high, (Capt Lewis walked on Shore after Dinner) in the
first bind to the right above those Runs passed a Small Island opsd. is
a Sand bar I call this Island Butter Island, as at this place we mad
use of the last of our butter, as we approach this Great River Platt
the Sand bars are much more noumerous than they were, and the quick &
roleing Sands much more danjerous, where the Praries aproach the river
it is verry wide, the banks of those Plains being much easier to
undermine and fall than the wood land passed (4) a willow Island
Situated near the middle of the river, a Sand bar on the S. S. and a
Deep bend to the L S. camped on the right Side of the Willow Island-W.
Bratten hunting on the L. S Swam to the Island. Hunters Drewyer killed
2 Deer, Saw great numbers of young gees. The river Still falling a
little Sand bars thick always in view.
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th, Thursday 1804
Set out early passed between two Small Islands, one in the middle of
the river, the other Close on the L S. opposit a prarie S. S. Called
(1) by the french Four le tourtre, The Bakers oven Islands, passed (2)
Some high Clift 41/2 miles above the Islands on the L. S. of yellow
earth passed Several Sand bars that were wide and at one place verry
Shallow (two Small butifull runs falls into the river near each other
at this Clift, a Deer Lick 200 yards up the Lowest of those runs) Those
runs head at no great distance in the plains and pass thro of timber to
the river. In my walk on Shore I found Some ore in the bank above those
runs which I take to be Iron ore (3) at this place the Side of the hill
has Sliped about half way into the river for 3/4 of a Mile forming a
Clift from the top of the hill above. In the first bend to the right
passed a Small Island a Sand bar opposit,–worthey of remark as we
approach this great River Plate the Sand bars much more numerous and
the quick or moveing Sands much worst than they were below at the
places where Praries approach the river it is verry wide those places
being much easier to wash & under Mine than the wood Land’s. (4) passed
a Willow Isd. Situated near the Middle of the river and a large Sand
makeing out from the S. S. a Deep bend to the L S. we Camped at the
head of this Island on the Starboard Side of it, Hunters Killed Two
Deer. Saw great numbers of young Gees River falling a little.
[Clark, July 20, 1804]
July 20th Friday 1804, a fog this morning and verry Cool George Drewyer
Sick proceed on over a Sand bar, Bratten Swam the river to get his gun
& Clothes left last night psd a large willow Isd. on the L. S. (1)
passed the mouth of l’Eau que pleure the English of which is the water
which Cry’s this Creek is about 20 yards wide falls into the river
above a Gift of brown Clay L. S. opposit a willow Island, at this Creek
I went on Shore took R Fields with me and went up this Creek Several
miles & crossed thro the plains to the river above with the view of
finding Elk, we walked all day through those praries without Seeing
any, I killed an emence large yellow Wolf-The Countrey throu which we
walked after leaveing the Creek was good land covered with Grass
interspersed with Groves & Scattering timber near and about the heads
of Branches one of them without Suckcess, Camped above the bar on the
L. S. a verry agreeable Breeze all night Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields
brought in two Deer river Still falling. a large Spring 3/4 me. below
[Clark, July 20, 1804]
July 20th, Friday 1804
a cool morning passed a large willow Island (1) on the S. S. and the
mouth of Creek about 25 yds. wide on the L. S. Called by the french
l’Eue-que pleure, or the the Water Which Cry’s this Creek falls into
the river above a Clift of brown Clay opposit the Willow Island, I went
out above the mouth of this Creek and walked the greater part of the
day thro Plains interspesed with Small Groves of Timber on the branches
and Some Scattering trees about the heads of the runs, I Killed a Verry
large yellow wolf, The Soil of Those Praries appears rich but much
Parched with the frequent fires-” after I returned to the Boat we
proceeded around a large Sand bar makeing out from the L. S. opsd. a
fountain of water comeing out of a hill L. S. and affording water
Suffient to turn a mill

The Praries as far as I was out appeared to be well watered, with Small
Streems of running water Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two Deer
this evening–a verry Pleasent Breeze from the N. W. all night–river
falling a little, It is wothey of observation to mention that our party
has been much healthier on the Voyage than parties of the Same Number
is in any other Situation Turners have been troublesom to them all

From this evenings incampment a man may walk to the Pane Village on the
S bank of the Platt River in two days, and to the Otteaus in one day
all those Indians are Situated on the South bank of the Plate River, as
those Indians are now out in the praries following & Hunting the
buffalow, I fear we will not See them.
[Lewis, July 21, 1804]
July 21, 1804
by a boiling motion or ebolition of it’s waters occasioned no doubt by
the roling and irregular motion of the sand of which its bed is
entirely composed. the particles of this sand being remarkably small
and light it is easily boied up and is hurried by this impetuous
torrent in large masses from place to place in with irristable forse,
collecting and forming sandbars in the course of a few hours which as
suddingly disapated to form others and give place perhaps to the
deepest channel of the river. where it enters the Missouri it’s
superior force changes and directs the courant of that river against
it’s northern bank where it is compressed within a channel less than
one third of the width it had just before occupyed. it dose not furnish
the missouri with it’s colouring matter as has been asserted by some,
but it throws into it immence quantities of sand and gives a celerity
to it’s courant of which it abates but little untill it’s junction with
the Mississippy. the water of this river is turbid at all seasons of
the year but is by no means as much so as that of the Missourie. The
sediment it deposits, consists of very fine particles of white sand
while that of the Missoury is composed principally of a dark rich
loam-in much greater quantity

21st July from the experiments and observations we were enabled to make
with rispect to the comparative velocities of the courants of the
rivers Mississippi Missouri and Plat it results that a vessel will
float in the Mississippi below the entrance of the Missouri at the rate
of four miles an hour. in the Missouri from it’s junction with the
Mississsippi to the entrance of the Osage river from 51/2 to 6 from
thence to the mouth of the Kanzas from 61/2 to 7. from thence to the
Platte 51/2 while the Plat is at least 8.–The Missouri above the
junction of the river plat is equal to about 31/2 miles an hour as far
as the mouth of the Chyenne where its courant still abates and becomes
equal to about three miles an hour from information it dose not
increase it’s volocity for
[Clark, July 21, 1804]
July 21st Satturday, Set out verry early and a Gentle Breeze from the
S. E proceeded on very well, passed a (1) Willow Island L. S. opsd. a
bad Sand bar passed Some high land covered with Timber, in this Hill is
Semented rock & Limestone the water runs out and forms Several little
Islands in (2) high water on the S. S. a large Sand bar on the S. S.
above and opposit the wooded High Land, at about 7 oClock the wind
Seased and it Commenced raining passed many Sand bars opposit or in the
Mouth of the Great River Plate this river which is much more rapid than
the Missourie has thrown out imence quantities of Sand forming large
Sand Banks at its mouth and forced the Missourie Close under the S. S.
the Sands of this river Comes roleing down with the Current which is
Crowded with Sand bars and not 5 feet water at any place across its
mouth, the Rapidity of the Current of this river which is greater than
that of the Missourie, its width at the Mouth across the bars is about
3/4 of a mile, higher up I am told by one of the bowmen that he was 2
winters on this river above and that it does not rise 7 feet, but
Spreds over 3 miles at Some places, Capt Lewis & my Self went up Some
Distance & Crossed found it Shallow. This river does not rise over 6 or
7 feet

Proceeded on passed the mouth of Papillion or Butter fly Creek 3 miles
on the L. S. a large Sand bar opposit on that Side Camped above this
baron L. S. a great number of wolves about us all night R. Fields
killed a Deer hard wind N. W. cold
[Clark, July 21, 1804]
July 21st, Satturday 1804
Set out early under a gentle breeze from the S. E. proceeded on verry
well, passed (1) a willow Island on the L. S. opposit a bad Sand bar,
Some high lands covered with timber L. S in this hill is limestone &
Seminted rock of Shels &c. (2) in high water the opposit Side is cut
thro by Several Small Channels, forming Small Islands, a large Sand bar
opposit the Hill at 7 oClock the wind luled and it Commnc’d raining,
arrived at the lower Mouth of the Great River Platt at 10 oClock (about
3 ms. above the Hill of wood land, the Same range of High land Continus
within 3/4 of a mile of the mouth below) This Great river being much
more rapid than the Missourie forces its current against the opposit
Shore, The Current of This river Comes with great Velocity roleing its
Sands into the Missouri, filling up its Bend & Compelling it to
incroach on the S Shore–we found great dificuelty in passing around
the Sand at the mouth of this River Capt Lewis and My Self with 6 men
in a perogue went up this Great river Plate about 1 miles, found the
Current verry rapid roleing over Sands, passing through different
Channels none of them more than five or Six feet deep, about 600 yards
Wide at the mouth–I am told by one of our Party who wintered two
winters on This river that “it is much wider above, and does not rise
more than five or Six feet” Spreds verry and from its rapidity &
roleing Sands Cannot be navagated with Boats or Perogues–The Indians
pass this river in Skin Boats which is flat and will not turn over. The
Otteaus a Small nation reside on the South Side 10 Leagues up, the
Panies on the Same Side 5 Leagus higher up–about 10 Leagus up this
river on the S. Side a Small river Comes into the Platt Called Salt
River, “The waters So brackish that it Can’t be Drank at Some Seasons”
above this river & on the North Side a Small river falls into the Platt
Called Elk River This river runs Parralal withe the Missouri–at 3
miles passed a Small river on the L. S. Called Papillion or Butterfly
C. 18 yds. wide a large Sand bar off the mouth, we proceeded on to get
to a good place to Camp and Delay a fiew days, passed around this Sand
bar and Came to for the night on the L. S. a verry hard wind from the
N. W. I went on Shore S. S. and proceeded up one mile thro high Bottom
land open a Great number of wolves about us this evening
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd Sunday Set out verry early with a view of getting Some
timbered land & a good Situation to take equil altitudes in time
proceeded on nearly a North 15° W 7 ms. to a pt. S. S. opposit Some high
Lands on L. S. above the upper point of a long willow Island in the
middle of the river 6 Deer killed to Day we deturmined to Stay here 4
or 5 days to take & make obsvts. & refresh our men also to Send
Despatches back to govement–Wind hard N. W. Cold
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
22nd of July 1804
Completlly arranged our Camp, posted two Sentinals So as to Completely
guard the Camp, formd bowers for the min $cc. &. Course from R Plate N
15° W. 10 Ms.
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd, Sunday 1804
Set out verry early with a view of Getting to Some Situation above in
time to take equal altitudes and take Observations, as well as one
Calculated to make our party Comfortabl in a Situation where they Could
recive the benifit of a Shade–passed a large Sand bar opposit a Small
river on the L. S. at 3 miles above Plate Called Papillion or Butterfly
Creek a Sand bar & an Willow Island opposit a Creek 9 ms. above the
Plate on the S. S. Called Mosquitos Creek Prarie on both Sides of the
river. Came too and formed a Camp on the S. S. above a Small Willow
Island, and opposit the first Hill which aproach the river on the L. S.
and covered with timbers of Oake Walnut Elm &c. &. This being a good
Situation and much nearer the Otteaus town than the Mouth of the Platt,
we concluded to delay at this place a fiew days and Send for Some of
the Chiefs of that nation to let them Know of the Change of Government,
The wishes of our Government to Cultivate friendship with them, the
Objects of our journy and to present them with a flag and Some Small

Some of our Provisions in the French Perogue being wet it became
necessary to Dry them a fiew days–Wind hard from N W. five Deer Killed
to day–The river rise a little
[Lewis, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd 1804.
A summary discription of the apparatus employed in the following
observations; containing also some remarks on the manner in which they
have been employed, and the method observed in recording the
observations made with them.

1st–a brass Sextant of 10 Inches radius, graduated to 15 which by the
assistance of the nonius was devisible to 15″; and half of this sum by
means of the micrometer could readily be distinguished, therefore-7.5″
of an angle was perceptible with this instrument; she was also
furnished with three eye-pieces, consisting of a hollow tube and two
telescopes one of which last reversed the images of observed objects.
finding on experiment that the reversing telescope when employed as the
eye-piece gave me a more full and perfect image than either of the
others, I have most generally imployed it in all the observations made
with this instrument; when thus prepared I found from a series of
observations that the quantity of her index error was 8′ 45″-; this sum
is therefore considered as the standing error of the instrument unless
otherwise expressly mentioned. the altitudes of all objects, observed
as well with this instrument as with the Octant were by means of a
reflecting surface; and those stated to have been taken with the
sextant are the degrees, minutes, &c shewn by the graduated limb of the
instrument at the time of observation and are of course the double
altitudes of the objects observed.

2ed–A common Octant of 14 Inches radius, graduated to 20′, which by
means of the nonius was devisbile to 1′, half of this sum, or 30″ was
perceptible by means of a micrometer. this instrument was prepared for
both the fore and back observation; her error in the fore observation
is 2°+, & and in the back observtion 2° r 1′ 40.3″ + at the time of our
departure from the River Dubois untill the present moment, the sun’s
altitude at noon has been too great to be reached with my sextant, for
this purpose I have therefore employed the Octant by the back
observation. the degrees ‘ & “, recorded for the sun’s altitude by the
back observation express only the angle given by the graduated limb of
the instrument at the time of observation, and are the complyment of
the double Altitude of the sun’s observed limb; if therefore the angle
recorded be taken from 180° the remainder will be the double altitude of
the observed object, or that which would be given by the fore
observation with a reflecting surface.

3rd–An Artificial Horizon on the construction recommended and
practiced by Mr. Andrw. Ellicott of Lancaster, Pensyla., in which water
is used as the reflecting surface; believing this artificial Horizon
liable to less error than any other in my possession, I have uniformly
used it when the object observed was sufficiently bright to reflect a
distinct immage; but as much light is lost by reflection from water I
found it inconvenient in most cases to take the altitude of the moon
with this horizon, and that of a star impracticable with any degree of

4th–An Artificial Horizon constructed in the manner recommended by Mr.
Patterson of Philadelphia; glass is here used as the reflecting
surface. this horizon consists of a glass plane with a single
reflecting surface, cemented to the flat side of the larger segment of
a wooden ball; adjusted by means of a sperit-level and a triangular
stand with a triangular mortice cut through it’s center sufficiently
large to admit of the wooden ball partially; the stand rests on three
screws inserted near it’s angles, which serve as feet for it to rest on
while they assist also in the adjustment. this horizon I have employed
in taking the altitude of the sun when his image he has been reather
too dull for a perfect reflection from water; I have used it generally
in taking the altitude of the moon, and in some cases of the stars
also; it gives the moon’s image very perfectly, and when carefully
adjusted I consider it as liable to but little error.

5th–An Artificial Horizon formed of the index specula of a Sextant
cemented to a flat board; adjusted by means of a sperit level and the
triangular stand before discribed. as this glass reflects from both
surfaces it gives the images of all objects much more bright than
either of the other horizons; I have therefore most generally employed
it in observing the altitudes of stars

6th–A Chronometer; her ballance-wheel and escapement were on the most
improved construction. she rested on her back, in a small case prepared
for her, suspended by an universal joint. she was carefully wound up
every day at twelve oclock. Her rate of going as asscertained by a
series of observations made by myself for that purpose was found to be
15 Seconds and a 5 tenths of a second too slow in twenty four howers on
Mean Solar time. This is nearly the same result as that found by Mr.
Andrew Ellicott who was so obliging as to examine her rate of going for
the space of fourteen days, in the summer 1803. her rate of going as
ascertained by that gentleman was 15.6 s too slow M. T. in 24 h. and
that she went from 3 to 4 s. slower the last 12 h, than she did the
first 12 h. after being wound up.

at 12 OCk. on the 14th day of may 1804 (being the day on which the
detachment left the mouth of the River Dubois) the Chronometer was too
fast M. T. 6 m. 32 s. & 2/10.–This time-piece was regulated on
meantime, and the time entered in the following observations is that
shewn by her at the place of observation. the day is recconed on Civil
time, (i e) commencing at midnight.

7th–A Circumferentor, circle 6 Inches diameter, on the common
construction; by means of this instrument adjusted with the sperit
level, I have taken the magnetic azimuth of the sun and pole Star. It
has also been employed in taking the traverse of the river:–from the
courses thus obtained, together with the distances estimated from point
to point, the chart of the Missouri has been formed which now
accompanys these observations. the several points of observation are
marked with a cross of red ink, and numbered in such manner as to
correspond with the celestial observations made at those points
[Clark, July 23, 1804]
Camp 10 Ms. above the river Plate Monday July the 23rd
a fair morning–Sent out a party of 5 men to look to timber for Ores
two other parties to hunt at 11 oClock Sent, G. Drewyer & Peter Crusett
1/2 Indn. to the Otteaus Village about 18 ms. West of our Camp, to
invite the Chiefs & principal men of that nation to come & talk with us
&. &., also the panic if they Should meet with any of that nation (also
on the S. Side of the Plate 30 ms. higher up) (at this Season of the
year all the Indians in this quater are in the Plains hunting the
Buffalow from Some Signs Seen by our hunter and the Praries being on
fire in the derection of the Village induce a belief that the Nation
have returned to get green Corn) raised a flag Staff put out Some
provisions which got wet in the french Perogue to Sun & Dry–I
commenced Coppying my map of the river to Send to the Presdt. of U S.
by the Return of a pty of Soldiers, from Illinois five Deer Killed–one
man a bad riseing on his left breast. Wind from the N. W.
[Clark, July 23, 1804]
Camp White Catfish 10 Miles above the Platt River
Monday the 23rd of July 1804
A fair morning Set a party to look for timber for Ores, two parties to
hunt. at 11 oClock Sent off George Drewyer & Peter Crousett with Some
tobacco to invite the Otteaus if at their town and Panies if they Saw
them to Come and talk with us at our Camp &c. &c. (at this Season the
Indians on this river are in the Praries Hunting the Buffalow but from
Some Signs of hunters near this place & the Plains being on fire near
their towns induce a belief that they this nation have returned to get
Some Green Corn or rosting Ears) raised a flag Staff Sund & Dryed our
provisions &c. I commence Coppying a map of the river below to Send to
the P. ____ U S five Deer Killed to day one man with a turner on his
breast, Prepared our Camp the men put their arms in order

Wind hard this afternoon from the N. W.

Equal altitudes taken at the White Catfish Camp, 10 miles above the
river Platt-
[Clark, July 24, 1804]
White Catfish Camp 24th of July Tuesday. a fair morning the wind rose
with the Sun & blows hard from the S. thos Southerley Breezes are dry
Cool & refreshing. the Northerley Breezes which is more frequent is
much Cooler, and moist, I continue my Drawing. Cap Lewis also ingaged
prepareing Som paper to Send back, one of the men cought a white
Catfish, the eyes Small, & Tale resembling that of a Dolfin.
[Clark, July 24, 1804]
White Catfish Camp 10 Ms. above Platt
24th, of July 1804 Tuesday a fair day the wind blows hard from the
South, the Breezes which are verry frequent on this part of the
Missouri is cool and refreshing. Several hunters out to day; but as the
game of all Kinds are Scarce only two Deer were brought in–I am much
engaged drawing off a map, Capt. Lewis also much engaged in prepareing
Papers to Send back by a pirogue–Which we intended to Send back from
the river Plate–observations at this place makes the Lattitude 41° 3′
19″ North

This evening Guthrege Cought a white Catfish, its eyes Small & tale
much like that of a Dolfin
[Clark, July 25, 1804]
White Catfish Camp 25th of July Wednesday. Several hunters Sent out. at
2 oClock the Two men Sent to the Otteaz Village returned and informed
that no Indians were at the Town they Saw Some fresh Sign near that
place which they persued, but Could not find them, they having taken
precausions to Conceal the rout which they went out from the Villagethe
Inds. of the Missouries being at war with one & the other or other
Indians, move in large bodies and Sometimes the whole nation Continue
to Camp together on their hunting pls. Those men inform that they
passed thro a open Plain all the way to the Town a feiw Trees excepted
on the watercourses–they Cross the papillion or the Butterfly Creek
within a feiw miles of Camp and near the Village a handsm. river of 100
yards Wide Called the Corne de chearf or the Elkhorn, which mouths
below the Town in the Plate N. Side. Wind from the S. E. 2 Deer & a
Turkey Killed to Day Several Grous Seen in the Prarie
[Clark, July 25, 1804]
White Catfish Camp
25th of July Wednesday a fair morning Several hunters out today at 2
oClock Drewyer & Peter returned from the Otteaus Village; and informs
that no Indians were at their towns, They Saw Some fresh Signs of a
Small party but Could not find them. in their rout to the Towns (Which
is about 18 miles West) they passed thro a open Prarie Crossed
papillion or Butterfly Creek and a Small butifull river which run into
the Platt a little below the Town Called Corne de charf or Elk Horn
river this river is about 100 yards wide with Clear water & a gravely
Channel.–wind from the S. E two Deer Killed to day 1 Turkey Several
Grous Seen to day.
[Clark, July 26, 1804]
Whit Catfish Camp 26th of July Thursday. the wind blew Verry hard all
Day from the South with Clouds of Sand which incomoded me verry much in
my tent, and as I could not Draw in the Boat was obliged Combat with
the Misqutr. under a Shade in the woods-. I opened the Breast of a man
the discharge gave him ease &c. 5 beaver Caught near Camp-only 1 Deer
Killed to day. The Countrey back from Camp on the S. S. is a bottom of
about 5 ms. wide one half the Distn. timber, the other high bottom
Prarie, the opsd. Side a high Hill about 170 foot rock foundatio.
Timbered back & below. a Prarie
[Clark, July 26, 1804]
Catfish which is White Camp
26th of July Thursday 1804 the wind blustering and hard from the South
all day which blowed the Clouds of Sand in Such a manner that I could
not complete my pan in the tent, the Boat roled in Such a manner that I
could do nothing in that, I was Compessed to go to the woods and Combat
with the Musqutors, I opened the Turner of a man on the left breast,
which discharged half a point.

five Beever Cought near this Camp the flesh of which we made use of-
This evening we found verry pleasent–only one Deer Killed to day. The
Countrey back from Camp on the S. S. is a bottom of about five mile
wide, one half the distance wood & the ball. plain high & Dry. the
opposed Side a high Hill about 170 foot rock foundation, Covd. with
timber, back & below is a Plain.
[Lewis, July 27, 1804]
white Catfish Camp July 27th Friday,
Charged the Boat and Perogue after a Small Shower of rain, Completed
our ores & poles, Crossed over the two horses, with a View of their
going on the S W. Side of the Missouri and Set out at Half past 1
oClock proceeded on Verry well under a gentle Breeze. passed a high
Island of high wood land on the L. Side just above Camp, this Island is
formed by a pond Supplied by a great number of Springs from this hill,
this Pond has 2 out lets, & when the river is high the water passes
thro the pond, passed a Sand Island in the 2nd bend to the right.
Camped in a bend to the L. S. in Some wood, I took R. Fields & walked
on Shore & Killed a Deer, and did not get to the Boat untile after
night a butifull Breeze from the N W. this evening which would have
been verry agreeable, had the Misquiters been tolerably Pacifick, but
thy were rageing all night, Some about the Sise of house flais
[Clark, July 27, 1804]
White Catfish Camp 10 ms above Platt
27th of July Friday, a Small Shower of rain this morning, at 10 oClock
Commence Loading the Boat & perogue; had all the Ores Completely fixed;
Swam over the two remaining horses to the L. S. with the view of the
Hunters going on that Side, after Getting everry thing Complete, we Set
Sale under a gentle breeze from the South and proceeded on, passed a
Island (formd by a Pond fed by Springs) on the L. S. of high Land
Covered with timber, in the 2nd bend to the right a large Sand Island
in the river a high Prarie on the S. S.-. as we were Setting out to day
one man Killed a Buck & another Cut his Knee verry bad Camped in a Bend
to the L. Side in a Coops of Trees, a verry agreeable Breeze from the N
W. this evening. I Killed a Deer in the Prarie and found the Misquitors
So thick & troublesom that it was disagreeable and painfull to Continue
a moment Still.

I took one man R. Fields and walked on Shore with a View of examoning
Som mounds on the L. S. of the river–those mounds I found to be of
Deffirent hight Shape & Size, Some Composed of Sand Some earth & Sand,
the highest next to the river all of which covered about 200 acres of
land, in a circular form on the Side from the river a low bottom &
Small Pond. The Otteaus formerly lived here I did not get to the boat
untile after night.
[Clark, July 28, 1804]
July 28th Satturday Set out this morning early, the wind blou from the
N. W. by N. a Dark Smokey Morning, Some rain at 1 me. passed a Bluff on
the S. S. it being the first high land approachig the river above the
Nodaway, a Island and Creek S. S. just abov this creek I call Indian
Knob G. Drewyer Came with a Deer &informs he heard fireing to the S. W.
I walked on Shore on the S. S. found some good Prarie out from the S.
pt. The High Lands approach the river 1st bend to left The party on
Shore brought in a Missouri Indian who resides with the Otteauz, this
Indian & 2 others were Hunting in the Prarie their Camp is about 4
miles off. This Indian informs that his nation is in the Plains hunting
the Buffalow, the party with which he is encamped is about 20 familey
Hunting the Elk, we landed on S. S. below an Island
[Clark, July 28, 1804]
July the 28th, Satturday 1804
Set out this morning early, the wind from the N W. by N. a Dark Smokey
morning Some rain passed at 1 me. a Bluff on the S. S. the first high
land above the Nodaway aproaching the river on that Side a Island and
Creek 15 yds. wide on the S. S. above this Bluff, as this Creek has no
name call it Indian Knob Creek our party on Shore Came to the river and
informs that they heard fireing to the S W. below this High Land on the
S. S. the Aiawuay Indians formerly lived, The flank came in & informed
they heard two Guns to the S. W. the highland approaches in the 1st
bend to the left, we camped on the S. S. below the point of an Island,
G Drewyer brought in a Missourie Indian which he met with hunting in
the Prarie This Indian is one of the fiew remaining of that nation, &
lives with the Otteauz, his Camp about 4 miles from the river, he
informs that the great gangue of the nation were hunting the Buffalow
in the Plains. hs party was Small Consisting only of about 20 Lodges,
____ miles furthr a nother Camp where there was a french man, who lived
in the nation, This Indian appeard spritely, and appeared to make use
of the Same pronouncation of the Osarge, Calling a Chief Inca
July 29th SundayWe Sent one frenchman le Liberty & the Indian to the
Camp to envite the party to meet us at the next bend of High Land on
the L. S. a Dark morning wind from the W. N. W. rained all last night
Set out at 5 oClock &, proceeded on passed the Island, opposit this
Island on the S. S. the Creek called Indian Knob Creek which mouths
Several miles on a Direct line below, is within 20 feet of the Missouri
& about 5 feet higher

Cought three large Cat fish to day verry fat one of them nearly white
those Cat are So plenty that they may be Cought in any part of this
river but fiew fish of any other Kind.

(4) at the commencement of this course passed much fallen timber
apparently the ravages of a dreadful haricane which had passed
obliquely across the river from N. W. to S. E. about twelve months
since. many trees were broken off near the ground the trunks of which
were sound and four feet in diameter.

Willard lost his gun in Bowyers R. R. Fields Dive & brought it up All
the Wood Land on this part of the Missouries Appear to be Confined to
the Points & Islands.

Boyers River is provably 25 yds. Wide, Willard near loseing his Gun in
this river, two men Sick & Sevral with Boils, a Cold Day Wind from the
N W. Som rain the fore part of the Day.
[Clark, July 29, 1804]
July 29th Sunday 1804
Sent a french man la Liberty with the Indian to Otteaze Camp to invite
the Indians to meet us on the river above–a Dark rainey morning wind
from the W. N. W.–rained all the last night–Set out at 5 oClock
opposit the (1) Island, the bend to the right or S. S. is within 20
feet of Indian Knob Creek, the water of this Creek is 5 feet higher
than that of the River. passed the Isld. we Stoped to Dine under Some
high Trees near the high land on the L. S. in a fiew minits Cought
three verry large Catfish (3) one nearly white, Those fish are in great
plenty on the Sides of the river and verry fat, a quart of Oile Came
out of the Surpolous fat of one of these fish (4) above this high land
& on the S. S. passed much falling timber apparently the ravages of a
Dreadfull harican which had passed obliquely across the river from N.
W. to S E about twelve months Since, many trees were broken off near
the ground the trunks of which were Sound and four feet in Diameter,
(2) about 3/4 of a Me. above the Island on the S. S. a Creek corns in
Called Boyers R. this Creek is 25 yards wide, one man in attempting to
Cross this Creek on a log let his gun fall in, R. Fields Dived &
brought it up proceeded on to a Point on the S. S. and Camped.
[Clark, July 30, 1804]
July the 30th Monday Set out early & proceeded on West 33/4 mes. passd.
one pt. to the L. S and one to the S. S. to a Clear open Prarie on the
L. S. which is on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which
is also a prarie covered with high grass Plumbs Grape Vine & Hezel-both
forming a Bluff to the River, the Lower Prarie is above high water mark
at the foot of the riseing ground & below the High Bluff we came to in
a grove of timber and formed a Camp raised a flag Pole, and deturmind
to waite for the Ottu Indians–The white Horse which we found below
Died last night, after posting out the Guards &c. &. Sent out 4 men to
hunt I am ingaged in ____ and Drawing off my courses to accompany the
map Drawn at White Catfish Camp, Capt. Lewis and my Self walked in the
Prarie on the top of the Bluff and observed the most butifull prospects
imagionable, this Prarie is Covered with grass about 10 or 12 Inch
high, (Land rich) rises about 1/2 a mile back Something higher and is a
Plain as fur as Can be Seen, under those high Lands next the river is
butifull Bottom interspersed with Groves of timber, the River may be
Seen for a great Distance both above & below meandering thro the plains
between two ranges of High land which appear to be from 4 to 20 ms.
apart, each bend of the river forming a point which Contains tall
timber, principally Willow Cotton wood some Mulberry elm Sycamore &
ash. the groves Contain walnit coffeenut & Oake in addition & Hickory &
Lynn Jo. Fields Killed Brarow or as the Ponie call it Cho car tooch,
this animale burrows in the ground & feeds on Bugs and flesh
principally the little Dogs of the Prarie, also Something of Vegetable
Kind his Shape & Size is like that of a Beever, his head Mouth &c. is
like a Dog with its ears Cut off, his tale and hair like that of a
Ground hog Something longer and lighter, his interals like a Hogs, his
Skin thick & loose, white & hair Short under its belly, of the Species
of the Bear, and it has a white Streake from its nose to its Sholders,
the Toe nails of its fore feet which is large is 1 Inch and 3/4 qtr.
long and those of his hind feet which is much Smaller is 3/4 long. We
have this animale Skined and Stuffed. Short legs, raseing himself just
above the ground when in motion Jo & R. fields Killed Som Deer at a
Distance and Came in for a horse to bring them in, they have not
returned this evening, a gred number of Swans in a pond above L. S. to
our Camp. Serjt. Floyd verry unwell a bad Cold &c. Several men with
Boils, great qts. of Catfish G. D. Cought one Small Beever alive. Som
Turkey & Gees Killed to day. arms & all things in order. a fair
evining, and Cool.
[Clark, July 30, 1804]
July 30th Monday 1804
Set out this morning early proceeded on to a Clear open Prarie on the
L. S. on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a
Prarie both forming Bluffs to the river of High Grass & Plumb bush
Grapes &c. and Situated above high water is a Small Grove of timber at
the foot of the Riseing Ground between those two priraries, and below
the Bluffs of the high Prarie we Came too and formed a Camp, intending
to waite the return of the french man & Indians–the white horse which
we found near the Kanzeis River, Died Last night

posted out our guard and Sent out 4 men, Captn. Lewis & went up the
Bank and walked a Short Distance in the high Prarie. this Prairie is
covered with Grass of 10 or 12 inches in hight. Soil of good quallity
&, Still further back at the Distance of about a mile the Countrey
rises about 80 or 90 feet higher, and is one Continual Plain as fur as
Can be Seen, from the Bluff on the 2d rise imediately above our Camp
the most butifull prospect of the River up & Down and the Countrey
opsd. prosented it Self which I ever beheld; The River meandering the
open and butifull Plains, interspursed with Groves of timber, and each
point Covered with Tall timber, Such as willow Cotton Sun Mulberry,
Elm, Sucamore, Lynn & ash (The Groves Contain Hickory, Walnut,
Coffeenut & Oake in addition)

Two ranges of High Land parrelel to each other and from 4 to 10 miles
Distant between which the river & its bottoms are Contained. (from 70
to 300 feet high)

Joseph Fields Killed and brought in an Anamale Called by the French
Brarow, and by the Ponies Cho car tooch this Anamale Burrows in the
Ground and feeds on Flesh, (Prarie Dogs), Bugs, & vigatables–“His
Shape & Size is like that of a Beaver, his head mouth &c. is like a
Dogs with Short Ears, his Tail and Hair like that of a Ground Hog, and
longer, and lighter. his Interals like the interals of a Hog,” his Skin
thick and loose, his Belly is White and the Hair Short–a white Streek
from his nose to his Sholders.

The toe nails of his fore feet is one Inch & 3/4 long, & feet large;
the nails of his hind feet 3/4 of an Inch long, the hind feet Small and
toes Crooked, his legs are Short and when he Moves Just Suffcent to
raise his body above the Ground He is of the Bear Species. we hav his
Skin Stuffed

Jo. & R. Fields did not return this evening, Several men with Verry bad
Boils–Cat fish is Cought in any part of the river Turkeys Gees & a
Beaver Killed & Cought every thing in prime order men in high Spirits.
a fair Still evening Great no. misquitors this evening
[Lewis, July 30, 1804]
July the 30th
this day Joseph Fields killed a Braro as it is called by the French
engages. this is a singular anamal not common to any part of the United
States. it’s weight is sixteen pounds.–it is a carniverous anamal. on
both sides of the upper jaw is fexed one long and sharp canine tooth.-
it’s eye are small black and piercing.
[Clark, July 31, 1804]
July 31st Tuesday a fair Day 3 hunters out this morning G. Drewyer
Killed a verry fat Buck one Inch fat on the ribs Merdn. altd Latd. is 41°
18′ 0″ 5/10-North. R & Jo. Fields returned at 10 oClock the Killed 3
Deer, and lost the horses, Cought a Small Beever which is already taim,
Several men out hunting the horses without Sukcess, The Ottoes not yet
arrived, I complete the Copy of the Courses &c. &c. Musqueters verry
[Clark, July 31, 1804]
July 31st, Tuesday a fair Day three Hunters out, Took meridian altitude
made the Lattd. 41° 18′ 1″ 5/10 N. R. & Jo. Fields returned to Camp They
Killed 3 Deer.–The Horses Strayed off last night. Drewyer Killed a
Buck one inch of fat on the ribs, R. & Jo. Fields returned without any
meet haveing been in persuit of the horses–The Indians not yet
arrived. Cought a young Beever alive which is already quit tame-.
Cought a Buffalow fish–The evening verry Cool, The Musqutors are yet
[Clark, August 1, 1804]
August the 1st 1804 a fair morning, Sent out two men after the horses &
one back to examine if the Indians have been there, ____ Beever Cought
last night, the air is Cool and pleasing

Prepared the Pipe of Peace verry flashey. wind rose at 10 oClock and
blowed from the W. S. W. very pleasent all day Several men geathering
grapes &c. two men after the horses which Strayed the night before
last. those Praries produce the Blue Current Common in the U. S. the
Goose Berry Common in the U. S, two Kind of Honeysuckle, the Bush which
I have Seen in Kentucky, with a paile Pink flower, also one which grow
in Clusters about 4 or 5 feet high bearing a Short flour in clusters of
the like Colour. the leaves Single. 3 Deer & an Elk Killed to day. This
being my birth day I order’d a Saddle of fat Vennison, an Elk fleece &
a Bevertail to be cooked and a Desert of Cheries, Plumbs, Raspberries
Currents and grapes of a Supr. quallity. The Indians not yet arrived. a
Cool fine eveninge Musquetors verry troublesom, the Praries Contain
Cheres, Apple, Grapes, Currents, Rasp burry, Gooseberris Hastlenuts and
a great Variety of Plants & flours not Common to the U S. What a field
for a Botents and a natirless
[Clark, August 1, 1804]
August the 1st 1804 a fair morning Despatched two men after the horses
lost yesterday, one man back to the place from which the messinger was
Sent for the Ottoes to See if any Indians was or had been there Since
our deptr. he return’d and informed that no person had been there Sence
we left it. The Prarie which is Situated below our Camp is above the
high water leavel and rich Covered with Grass from 5 to 8 feet high
intersperced with Copse of Hazel, Plumbs, Currents (like those of the
U.S.) Rasberries & Grapes of Dift. Kinds. also produceing a Variety of
Plants and flowers not Common in the United States, two Kind of honey
Suckle one which grows to a kind of a Srub. Common about Harrods burgh
in Kentucky the other are not So large or tall and bears a flower in
Clusters Short and of a light Pink Colour, the leaves differ from any
of the othe Kind in as much as the Lieves are Distinkd & does not
Surround the Stalk as all the other Kind does one Elk and three Deer
Killed to day also two Beever Cought

The wind rose at 10 oClock from the W. S. W. and blew a Steedy and
agreeable Breeze all Day.

The Musqutors verry troublesom this evening in the bottoms.

Took equal altitudes to day and the azmuth with the Commencement of the
[Clark, August 2, 1804]
August 2nd 1804 wind from the SE G. Drewery returned with the horses &
one Doe Elk the countrey thro which he passed is like what we See from
the Bluff above Camp three men out Hunting one Beaver caught this

at Sunset 6 chiefs and their warries of the Ottos, and Missoures, with
a french man by the name of Far fonge, we Shook hands and gave them
Some Tobacco & Provisions, they Sent us Water Millions Three verry
large & fat Bucks Killed to day the wind Continue hard from the S. E.-
the 4 qtr. of one Buck weigh’d 147 wt 11/2 Inch fat on the ribs
[Clark, August 2, 1804]
August 2nd Thursday 1804
A verry pleasent Breeze from the S. E. The Two men Drewyer & Colter
returned with the horses loaded with Elk, those horses they found about
12 miles in a Southerly Derection from Camp.

The Countrey thro which they passed is Similar to what we See from
Camp. one Beaver & a foot of Beaver caught in trap Cought this morning
at Sunset Mr. Fairfong and a pt. of Otteau & Missourie Nation Came to
Camp, among those Indians 6 were Chiefs, the principal Chiefs Capt.
Lewis & myself met those Indians & informed them we were glad to See
them, and would Speak to them tomorrow, Sent them Som rosted meat Pork
flour & meal, in return they Sent us Water millions. every man on his
Guard & ready for any thing Three fat Bucks Killed this evening the 4
qtrs. of one weighed 147 lbs.
[Lewis, August 2, 1804]
August 2ed 1804.
This day one of our Hunters brought me a white Heron. this bird as an
inhabitant of ponds and Marasses, and feeds upon tadpoles, frogs, small
fish &c–they are common to the Mississipi and the lower part of the
ohio River, (ie) as high as the falls of that river.

this bird weighed two lbs.–it’s plumage is perfectly white and very

F I.
from extremity of beak to the extremity of toe 4 71/4
from tipp to tip of wing on the back 4 11

it’s beak is yellow pointed, flated crosswise and 5 Inches in length
from the upper region of the bill to the eye is one inch in length,
covered with a smoth yellow skin the plumage of the head projecting
towards the upper bill and coming to a point a an Inch beyond the eyes
on the center of the upper bill. The mouth opens to distance of the
eyes–The eye is full and projecting reather, it is 7/10 of half an
inch. four joints in the wing

1st joint from body in length 6
2ed Do. 81/4
3rd Do. 31/2
4th Do. 1
1st joint Number of feathers 7 Length of 3
2nd 18 6
3 6 from 10 to 12
4th 5 12

it’s legs are black–the neck and beak occupy 1/2 it’s length. it has
four toes on a foot–the outer toe on the right foot is from the
joining of the leg to extremity of toe nale 4 Inch & 1/4 has four
joints exclusive of the nail joint–the next is 43/4 inches has three
joints exclusive of the nale joint. the next is 33/4 and has two
joints, the heel toe has one joint only and is 3 Inches in length. the
nails are long sharp and black–the eye is of a deep seagreen colour,
with a circle of of pale yellow around the sight forming a border to
the outer part of the eye of about half the width of the whole eye. the
tale has 12 feathers of six inches in length.–the wings when folded
are the same length with the tale.

has 2 remarkable tufts of long feathers on each side joining the body
at the upper joint of the wing. these cover the feathers of the 1st
joint of the wings when they are over extended
[Clark, August 3, 1804]
August 3rd Friday prepare a Small preasent for those Indians and hold a
Councul Delivered a Speech & made 8 6 chief… gave a fiew preasents
and, a Smoke a Dram, Some Powder & Ball–the man we Sent not yet come
up, Those people express great Satisfaction at the Speech Delivered
they are no Oreters, big, open Counternances, ottoes large Missor Small

at 4 oClock Set out under a gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on N.
5° E 5 Ms. Passed a Pt. on the S. S. and round a large Sand bar on the L.
S. and Camped above, below a great number of Snags quit across the
river, The Musquitors more numerous than I ever Saw them, all in
Spirrits, we had Some rough Convasation G. Dr. about boys.

The Osage & Kansies are the Same language

the Ottoes & Mahars Speek many words of the Osarge language

The Ottos, Aiaways, & Missouries Speake the Same language the Panies &
Recreries Speak the Same language also the Loups & repub. the Mahar, &
Poncarar the Same Language The Cheaun, Mandin & Grovanter the Same The
Probibility is that those defferant tribes have once formed 3 great
nats. Viz: the Missouries, Osarge, Kanzes, Ottoes, Mahars, & Poncaras &
Aiauaies one nation.

The Panies, Loups, Republican, Recrerees the 2nd

The Mandans Cheeons, & Grovanters the 3rd The tribes of the Soux all
retain the name 4th

It is possible that the, Mahar & Poncarear may have been a Distinct
nation, as they only Speek Some words of the osage which have the Same
Signification 25 Days to St Ta fee S. of W. Cross the heads of
Arkansies around the head of Kanzies River after Delivering a Speech
informing thos Children of ours of the Change which had taken place,
the wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship & good
understanding, the method of have good advice & Some Directions, we
made 1 Great Chief to the who was not present, to whom we adresed the
Speech & Sent Some presents or Meadels & flag, we made 2 Second Chiefs
one for the Missouris & another for the Ottos (those two tribes are
nearly equal 1’70 each) and 4 principal men, to thos principal men to
thos we gave a Small Comtn. to each man to whom we gave authority, a
preasn of Br. Ch. Gart. g. Paint & a med. or Contn a Small Corns. was
delivered for the whole each Chief & principal man delivered a Speech
acknowledging ther approbation to what they had heard and promised to
prosue the good advice and Caustion, they were happy w new fathers who
gave good advice & to be Depended on all Concluded by asking a little
Powder & a Drop of Milk.

I answered those Speeches gave them 50 balls one Canister of Powder & a
Dram–after Cap Lewis Shot his air gun a few times which astonished the
nativs, we Set Sail. recved from thos people water millions & The
Cheifs & Principal men of the Ottoes & Missouris made by M L. & W C the
3rd August 1804

Viz. Indian Names Tribe English

1. We-ar-ruge-nor Ottoe Little Thief

2. Shingo-ton go Otto Big horse
We tha a Missourie Hospatallity

3. Wau-pe-ur Miss.
Au-ho-ning ga M
Ba Za con ja Ottoe
Au-ho-ne-ga Miss.

from this place I am told by Mr. Faufong the interpeter that it will
take a man 25 Days to go to St. a fee pass, the heads of Arkansas,
round the Kansas head, across Some mountains from the top of which the
City may be Seen the Spaniards have envited those Indians & the Panies
to trade with them & Some french & a few indians are gorn from the
Panias to that City this Summer-

The Situation of this place which we Call Council Bluff which is
handsom ellevated a Spot well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment,
the Bank high & leavel on top well Calculated for a fort to Command the
Countrey and river the low bottom above high water & well Situated
under the Command of the Hill for Houses to trade with the Natives a
butifull Plain both abov and below at no other bend on either Side does
the High land touch the river for Some distance up, as I am told.

those Bluffs afford good Clay for Brick, a great quantity on the 3
points one Opsd. one abov &one below.–the Situation I am informed is,
within 1 Days march of the Ottoes, 11/2 of the Panias, 2 of the Mahars,
& 21/2 of the Loups Villages, also Convenient to the roveing Bands of
Soux, Those people are now at war with each other, an establishment
here would bring about peace and be the means of Keeping of it.

Augt. 3d Camped on the upper point of a large Sand bar L. S. Misquters
verry bad. Some place near Conncill Bluff will be the most proper place
for a tradeing establishment, for maney of the nations, the distance is
to the Ottoes one Days, Ponies 11/2 days, to the Mahar, 2 days, to
Loups 2 Days & a half 16 or 1800 men-and convenient for Some bands of
the Sues,
[Clark, August 3, 1804]
August 3rd, Friday 1804
made up a Small preasent for those people in perpotion to their
Consiqunce. also a package with a meadile to accompany a Speech for the
Grand Chief after Brackfast we Collected those Indians under an orning
of our Main Sail, in presence of our Party paraded & Delivered a long
Speech to them expressive of our journey the wirkes of our Government,
Some advice to them and Directions how They were to Conduct themselves,
the princapal Chief for the nation being absente we sent him the Speech
flag Meadel & Some Cloathes. after hering what they had to say
Delivered a medal of Second Grade to one for the Ottos & and one for
the Missourie present and 4 medals of a third Grade to the inferior
Chief two for each tribe. Those two parts of nations, Ottos &
Missouries now residing together is about 250 men are the Ottoes
Composeing 2/3d and Missourie 1/3 part

The names of the Chiefs we acknowledged Made this day are as follows Viz

Indian name English signftn.

1st We ar ruge nor Ottoe Called Little Theif

2 Shon go ton go ” ” Big Horse
We the a Miss. ” Hospatality

Shon Guss Con Ottoe ” White horse
Wau pe uh M.
Ah ho ning ga M.
Baza cou ja Ottoe
Ah ho ne ga M.

Those Chiefs all Delivered a Speech acknowledgeing Their approbation to
the Speech and promissing to prosue the advice & Derictions given them
that they wer happy to find that they had fathers which might be
depended on &c.

We gave them a Cannister of Powder and a Bottle of whiskey and
delivered a few presents to the whole after giveing a Br. Cth. Some
Paint guartering & a Meadele to those we made Cheifs after Capt Lewis’s
Shooting the air gun a feiw Shots (which astonished those nativs) we
Set out and proceeded on five miles on a Direct line passed a point on
the S. S. & round a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped on the upper
point. The Misquitors excessively troublesom this evening Great
appearance of wind and rain to the N. W. we prepare to rec’ve it–The
man Liberty whome we Sent for the Ottoes has not Come up he left the
Ottoes Town one Day before the Indians. This man has eithered tired his
horse or, lost himself in the Plains Some Indians are to hunt for him,
The Situation of our last Camp Councill Bluff or Handssom Prarie
appears to be a verry proper place for a Tradeing establishment &
fortification The Soil of the Bluff well adapted for Brick, Great deel
of timbers abov in the two Points. many other advantages of a Small
nature. and I am told Senteral to Several nations Viz. one Days march
from the Ottoe Town, one Day & a half from the great Pania village, 2
days from the Mahar Towns, two 1/4 Days from the Loups Village, &
Convenient to the Countrey thro which Bands of the Soux hunt. perhaps
no other Situation is as well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment.
The air is pure and helthy So far as we can judge.-
[Clark, August 4, 1804]
August 4th at 7 oClock the heavens darkened and a violent wind from the
N W. Suckceeded which lasted about an hour, with a little rain.

Set out this morning early thro a narrow part of the, the whole Channel
Confined in Some parts between the (1) Sand on one Side & the bank on
the other (which is washing in) within 200 yards, this Chanl. Crouded
with Snags. at 11/2 m. passed an old tradeing house L. S. where one of
our Crew passed 2 years P. C tradeing with the Mahar; & Ponies-above 1
me. a (3) Creek Coms in opsd. a large bad (2) Sand bar this (3) Creek
is the outlett of 3 ponds, which recved ther water from the Smaller
Streams running from the hills on the L. S, Great qts. of Gees, passed
in the next bend L. S. an out let to the Pond, Butifull bottom Prarie
on both Sides of the river, Pumey Stone is found on the Sides of the
river of various Sizes. Wind a head. Reed the man who went back to the
Camp of last night for his Knife has not Come up this evening-we Camped
at a pt. on the L. S. at a Beaver house. 1 Buck Killed to daye.
[Clark, August 4, 1804]
August 4th Satturdaye
Set out early–(at 7 oClock last night we had a Violent wind from the N
W Som little rain Succeeded, the wind lasted with violence for one hour
after the wind it was clear Sereen and Cool all night.) proceeded on
passed thro betwen Snags which was quit across the Rivr the Channel
Confined within 200 yards one Side a Sand pt. S S. the other a Bend,
the Banks washing away & trees falling in constantly for 1 mile, abov
this place is the remains of an old Tradeing establishment L. S. where
Petr. Crusett one of our hands Stayed two years & traded with the
Mahars a Short distance above is a Creek (3) the out let of Three Ponds
comunicateing with each other, those Ponds or rether Lakes are fed by
Springs & Small runs from the hills. (2) a large Sand Island opposit
this Creek makeing out from the L. Point, from the Camp of last night
to this Creek, the river has latterly Changed its bed incroaching on
the L. Side, in this Sand bar I Saw great Nos. of wild gees–passed a
Small Creek on the L. S about 3 miles above the last both of those
Creek’s are out lets from the Small Lake which reive their water from
the Small Streems running from the high land–great many Pamey Stones
on the Shore of various Sises the wind blew hard–Reed a man who went
back to Camp for his knife has not joined us. we camped at a Beaver
house on the L. Buck Killed to day-
[Clark, August 5, 1804]
August 5th Set out early wind from N E. Great appearance of Wind &
rain, (I have remarked that I have not heard much thunder in this
Countrey) a verry large Snake was Killed to day called the Bull Snake,
his Colour Some thing like a rattle Snake Something lighter–the bends
of the river to day is washing away the banks, haveing nothing to
oppose the turbelance of the river when Confined by large hard Sand
Points, forceing this Current against the bends–the Soil of the entire
bottom between the high land, being the mud or Ooze of the river of
Some former period mixed with Sand & Clay easely melts and Slips, or
washies into the river the mud mixes with the water & the Sand collects
on the points Camped on the S. S.–I went on Shore S. S. this evening
Saw Some turkeys and in persueing them Struk the river 12 miles below
the place by water I went out, I think the Peninsuly is about 370 yards
across Subjuct to overflow; & washes into numerous Channels, Great
quantities of Graps ripe & of three Defferent Kind Some large & fine. I
Killed a Turkey, and made Camp in the Night, Musqutors verry
troubleson–Reed the man who went back for his Knife has not yet joined
[Clark, August 5, 1804]
5th of August Sunday 1804
Set out early great appearance of wind and rain (I have observed that
Thundor & lightning is not as common in this Countrey as it is in the
atlantic States) Snakes are not plenty, one was killed to day large and
resembling the rattle Snake only Something lighter-. I walked on Shore
this evening S. S. in Pursueing Some Turkeys I struck the river twelve
miles below within 370 yards, the high water passes thro this
Peninsulia; and agreeable to the Customary Changes of the river I
Concld. that in two years the main Current of the river will pass
through. In every bend the banks are falling in from the Current being
thrown against those bends by the Sand points which inlarges and the
Soil I believe from unquestionable appearns. of the entire bottom from
one hill to the other being the mud or ooze of the River at Some former
Period mixed with Sand and Clay easily melts and Slips into the River,
and the mud mixes with the water & the Sand is washed down and lodges
on the points–Great quantites of Grapes on the banks, I observe three
different Kinds at this time ripe, one Of the no. is large & has the
flaver of the Purple grape. camped on the S. S. the Musquitors verry
troubleson. The man who went back after his Knife has not yet come up,
we have Some reasons to believe he has Deserted
[Lewis, August 5, 1804]
August 5th 1804
Killed a serpent on the bank of the river adjoining a large prarie.

F Inch
Length from nose to tail 5 2
Circumpherence in largest part– 41/2
Number of scuta on belly–221
Do. on Tale–53

No pison teeth therefore think him perfectly inocent–eyes, center
black with a border of pale brown yellow Colour of skin on head
yellowish green with black specks on the extremity of the scuta which
are pointed or triangular colour of back, transverse stripes of black
and dark brown of an inch in width, succeeded by a yellowish brown of
half that width the end of the tale hard and pointed like a cock’s spur
the sides are speckled with yellowish brown and black.–two roes of
black spots on a lite yellow ground pass throughout his whole length on
the upper points of the scuta of the belly and tale 1/2 Inch apart this
snake is vulgarly called the cow or bull snake from a bellowing nois
which it is said sometimes to make resembling that anamal, tho as to
this fact I am unable to attest it never having heard them make that or
any other noise myself.

I have frequently observed an acquatic bird in the cours of asscending
this river but have never been able to procure one before today, this
day I was so fortunate as to kill two of them, they are here more
plenty than on the river below. they lay their eggs on the sand bars
without shelter or nest, and produce their young from the 15th to the
last of June, the young ones of which we caught several are covered
with down of a yellowish white colour and on the back some small specks
of a dark brown. they bear a great resemblance to the young quale of
ten days oald, and apear like them to be able to runabout and peck
their food as soon as they are hatched–this bird, lives on small fish,
worms and bugs which it takes on the virge of the water it is seldom
seen to light on trees an quite as seldom do they lite in the water and
swim tho the foot would indicate that they did it’s being webbed I
believe them to be a native of this country and probly a constant

the weight of the male bird is one ounce and a half, its length from
beak to toe 71/2 inches from tip to tip of wing across the back one
foot seven inches and a half the beak is one 1/8 inch lonong, large
where it joins the head Elated on the sides and tapering to a sharp
point, a little declining and curvated, a fine yellow, with a shade of
black on the extremity of upper beak; the eye is prominent, black and
on a angular scale of 1/2 Inc; occupyse 3 1/3 in width. the upper part
of the head is black from the beak as low as the middle of the eye and
a little below the joining of the neck except however some white which
joins the upper part of the beak which forks and passing over the sides
of the forehead terminate above each eye–the under part of the bird,
that is the throat and cheeks as high as the eye, the neck brest belly
and under part of the wings and tail are of a fine white, the upper
part of the neck, back, and wings are of a fine, quaker colour, or
bright dove colour with reather more of a bluish tint-except however
the three first or larger feathers in the wing which on upper side are
of a deep black. the wing has four joints

No. Joint
Length of joint
No. of feathers
Length of do.
a Clump of feathers not strong but loosly connect with the flesh of the
from 21/2 to 41/2

the tail has eleven feathers the outer of which are an inch longer than
those in the center gradually tapering inwards which gives the tale a
forked appearance like that of the swally the largest or outer feather
is 23/4 that of the shortest 13/4–the leg and thye are three inches
long the leg occupying one half this length the thye is covered with
feathers except about 1/4 of an inch above the knee the leg is of a
bright yellow and nails long sharp and black the foot is webbed and has
three toes forward; the heel or back toe is fixed to the leg above the
palm of the foot, and is unconnected by a web to the other toes, it has
no nail. the wings when foalded lap like those of the swallow and
extend at least an inch and a half beyond the tale. this bird is very
noysey when flying which is dose exttreemly swift the motion of the
wing is much like that of kildee it has two notes one like the squaking
of a small pig only on reather a high kee, and the other kit’-tee’-
kit’-tee’–as near as letters can express the sound–the beak of the
female is black and the black and quaker colour of the male in her is
yellowish brown mixed with dove colour
[Clark, August 6, 1804]
August 6th Monday 1804 at 12 oClock last night a Violent Storm of wind
& rain from the N. W. one perogue (Bapteest Le joness Patroon) lost her
Colours Set out early & proceeded on passed a large Island on the S. S.
back of this Island Rivie de Soldiert Come in on the S. S.–the
Solder’s River is about the Sise of Nodaway 20 yd. wide at the mouth,
passed two remarkable places, where the River had once Passed–We have
every reason to belive that one man has Deserted Moses B. Reed he has
been absent three Days and one french man we Sent to the Indian Camps
has not joined us, we have reasons to beleve he lost himself in
attempting to join us at the Council Bluff–we are deturmind to Send
back 4 men to take reede Dead or alive, also hunt La Liberty and to
meet us at the Mahar nation as Soon as the order is executed.
[Clark, August 6, 1804]
6th August, Monday 1804
At 12 oClock last nigh a violent Storm of wind from the N W. Some rain
one pr. of Colours lost in the Storm from the bige Perogue. Set out
early and proceeded on passed a large Island on the S. S. back of this
Isd. Soldiers River mouths, I am told by one of the men that this river
is about the Size of Nadawa river 40 yards wide at the mouth. Reed has
not yet come up. neither has La Liberty the frenchman whome we Sent to
the Indian Camps a fiew miles below the Council Bluffs.
[Clark, August 7, 1804]
August 7th Tuesday last night about 8 oClock a Storm of wind from the
N. W. which lasted 3/4 of an hour mosquitors more troublesom last night
than I ever Saw them, Set out late this morning wind N.
[Clark, August 7, 1804]
7th August Tuesday 1804
last night at 8 oClock a Storm from the N W. lasted 3/4 of an hour let
out late this morning wind from the North–at 1 oClock dispatched
George Drewyer, R. Fields, Wm. Bratten & Wm. Labieche back after the
Deserter reid with order if he did not give up Peaceibly to put him to
Death &c. to go to the Ottoes Village & enquire for La Liberty and
bring him to the Mahars Village, also with a Speech on the occasion to
the Ottoes & Missouries–and directing a few of their Chiefs to come to
the Mahars, & we would make a peace between them & the Mahar and Souex,
a String of wompom & a Carrot of Tobacco. proceeded on and Camped on
the S. S.

I walked on Shore with one man Collies,-the bottoms Covered with very
Collin Killed an elk, I fired 4 times at one & have reasons to think I
Kiled him but could not find him, The Misqutors were So troublesom and
Misqutors thick in the Plains that I could not Keep them out of my
eyes, with a bush. in my absens Capt Lewis Killed a Pelican on Pelicans
Island, at which place maney Hundreds had Collected, they left 3 fish
which was. fresh and very good, we camped on the S. S. in a Streght
part of the river-
[Clark, August 8, 1804]
August the 8th 1804 Set out this morning at the usial time at about 2
miles (1) passed a part of the river So choked up with Snags that we
found a little dificult to get thro with Safty, the wind as usial from
the N W. one of the Soldiers Killed a Pilican on the Sand Isd. passed
the mouth of Little (2) River de Cueoux on the S. S. this river is
about 80 yards wide & navagable for Pirogus Some distance & runs
parrelel to the Missourie it corns in from the River from the N E, it
contains great Quantitys offish Common to the Countrey. two Miles above
is (3) an Island the Channel formerly run on the right with Sand.–the
Current runs to the left. many hundreds of Pelicans on this Island–we
call it Pelican Isld. Cap Lewis Killed one This river Soux Called by
the Sueoux Ed-Neah Wau-de-pon i’e Stone R heads in three Leagues of the
river Demoin, and passes thro a Lake about 20 Legues in Sircfs. which
is also within 5 Leagus of the Demoin, this lake at one place is
confined by two rocks within a narrow Space–this lake of Different
widths, with many Small Islands, from the Lake to the Mahars about
distant 4 Days march to the Dog Plains 90 Leagues, one Principal branch
of the Demoin is calld. Cat river, the Lake which this river Litt Souex
heads in is Called Despree
[Clark, August 8, 1804]
8th August Wednesday 1804
Set out this morning at the usial time at two miles passed (1) a bend
to L. S. Choaked up with Snags our boat run on two in turning to pass
through, we got through with Safty the wind from N W. (2) passed the
mouth of a River on the S. Side Called by the Soux Indians Ed-neah Wau
de pon (or Stone river) the French call this river Petite Rivre de
Cuouex it is about 80 yards wide and as (Mr. Durion Says whos been on
the heads of it and the Country abt) is navagable for Perogues Som
Distance runs Parrelel to the Missourie Some Distance, then falls down
from N E thro a roleing Countrey open, the head of this river is 9
miles from the R Demon at which place the Demoin is 80 yd wide, this
Little Cuouex passes thro a lake called Despree which is within 5
Leagues of the Deemoin the Said Lake is about 20 Leagues in
Circumfrance and is divided into 2 by two rocks approaching Verry near
each other, this Lake is of various width, Containing many Islands-
from this Lake to the Maha 4 days march, as is Said to be near the Dog
Plains one princpal branch of the Demoin is Called Cat River The Demoin
is Sholey

Capt. Lewis took Medn. Altitude of the Sun made it 56° 9′ 00″ Lat 41° 42′
34″ and I took one man and went on Shore the man Killed an Elk I fired
4 times at one & did not Kill him, my ball being Small I think was the
reason, the misqutors So bad in the Praries that with the assistance of
a bush I could not Keep them out of my eyes, the boat turned Several
tims to day on Sand bars–in my absenc the boat passed a Island 2 miles
above the litte Scouex R on the upper point of the Isld Some hundreds
of Pelicans were Collected, they left 3 fish on the Sand which was
verry fine, Capt Lewis Killed one & took his dimentions, I joined the
boat and we Camped on the S S.

worthe of remark that Snakes are not plenty in this part of the
[Lewis, August 8, 1804]
August 8th 1804
we had seen but a few aquatic fouls of any kind on the river since we
commenced our journey up the Missouri, a few geese accompanied by their
young, the wood duck which is common to every part of this country &
crains of several kinds which will be discribed in their respective
places–this day after we had passed the river Souix as called by Mr.
MacKay (or as is more properly called the stone river,) I saw a great
number of feathers floating down the river those feathers had a very
extraordinary appearance as they appeared in such quantities as to
cover pretty generally sixty or seventy yards of the breadth of the
river. for three miles after I saw those feathers continuing to run in
that manner, we did not percieve from whence they came, at length we
were surprised by the appearance of a flock of Pillican at rest on a
large sand bar attatched to a small Island the number of which would if
estimated appear almost in credible; they apeared to cover several
acres of ground, and were no doubt engaged in procuring their ordinary
food; which is fish, on our approach they flew and left behind them
several small fish of about eight inches in length, none of which I had
seen before–the Pellican rested again on a sand bar above the Island
which we called after them from the number we saw on it. we now
approached them within about three hundred yards before they flew; I
then fired at random among the flock with my rifle and brought one
down; the discription of this bird is as follows.


They are a bird of clime remain on the coast of Floriday and the
borders of the Gulph of mexico & even the lower portion of the
Mississippi during the winter and in the Spring (see for date my
thermometrical observations at the river Dubois.-) visit this country
and that farther north for the purpose of raising their young–this
duty seems now to have been accomplished from the appearance of a young
Pilacon which was killed by one of our men this morning, and they are
now in large flocks on their return to their winter quarters. they lay
usually two eggs only and chuise for a nest a couple of logs of drift
wood near the water’s edge and with out any other preperation but the
thraught formed by the proximity of those two logs which form a trough
they set and hatch their young which after nurture with fish their
common food



From beak to toe 5 8
Tip to tip of wing 9 4
Beak Length 1 3
Do. Width from 2 to 1 1/2
Neck Length 1 11
1st joint of wing 1 1
2ed Do. 1 4 1/2
3rd Do. — 7
4th do. — 2 3/4
Length of leg including foot 10
Do. of thy 11

Discription of Colour &c

The beak is a whiteish yellow the under part connected to a bladder
like pouch, this pounch is connected to both sides of the lower beak
and extends down on the under side of the neck and terminates in the
stomach–this pouch is uncovered with feathers, and is formed two skins
the one on the inner and the other on the center side a small quantity
of flesh and strings of which the anamal has at pleasure the power of
moving or drawing in such manner as to contract it at pleasure. in the
present subject I measured this pouch and found it’s contents 5 gallons
of water

The feet are webbed large and of a yellow colour, it has four toes the
hinder toe is longer than in most aquatic fouls, the nails are black,
not sharp and 1/2 an inch in length

The plumage generally is white, the feathers are thin compared with the
swan goose or most aquatick fouls and has but little or no down on the
body. the upper part of the head is covered with black feathers short,
as far as the back part of the head–the yellow skin unfeathered
extends back from the upper beak and opening of the mouth and comes to
a point just behind the eye

The large feathers of the wings are of a deep black colour–the 1st &
2nd joint of from the body above the same is covered with a second
layer of white feathers which extend quite half the length of those
large feathers of the wing–the thye is covered with feathers within a
quarter of an inch of the knee.

1st joint of wing has feathers No. 21 Length 9 Black
2ed Do. No. 17 Length 13 Inch
3rd Do. No. 5 Length 18 Inch
4th Do. No. 3 Length 19 Inch

it has a curious frothy substance which seems to devide its feathers
from the flesh of the body and seems to be composes of globles of air
and perfectly imbraces the part of the feather which extends through
the skin.the wind pipe terminates in the center of the lower part of
the upper and unfeathered part of the pouch and is secured by an
elastic valve commanded at pleasure.

The green insect known in the U States by the name of the sawyer or
chittediddle, was first heard to cry on the 27th of July, we were then
in latitude 41° some minutes.

The prarie hen or grouse, was seen in the praries between the Missouri
and the river platte
[Clark, August 9, 1804]
9th Augt Thursday 1804 The fog of this morning detained us untill 1/2
passed 7 oClock at which time we left our moreing and proceeded on
under a gentle Breeze from the S. E, I went on Shore found the Land the
Same as yesterday Killed a Turkey and Camped on the L. S. great deel of
Beaver Sign to day one Beaver Cought Musquetors worse this evening than
ever I have Seen them.
[Clark, August 9, 1804]
9th August Thursday 1804
The fog being thick detained us untile half pasd. 7 oClock at which
time we Set out and proceeded on under Gentle Breeze from the S E I
walked on Shore, Saw an Elk, crossed a Istmust of 3/4 of a mile to the
river, & returned to the boat Camped on the L. S. above a Beaver Den.
Musqutors verry troubleson.
[Clark, August 11, 1804]
August 11th Satturday 1804 about day this morning a hard wind from the
N. W. followed by rain, we landed at the foot of the hill on which
Black Bird The late King of the mahar who Died 4 years ago & 400 of his
nation with the Small pox was buried (1) and went up and fixed a white
flag bound with Blue white & read on the Grave which was about 12 foot
Base & circueller, on the top of a Penical about 300 foot above the
water of the river, from the top of this hill may be Seen the bends or
meanderings of the river for 60 or 70 miles round & all the County
around the base of this high land is a Soft Sand Stone Bluff of about
40 or 150 foot, the Crooked, passed a Creek Called Wau-Con di peche C
or Bad God Creek of bad Spirits on the L. S above the Bluff on this
Creek the Mahars had the Small pox 4 years ago, Lattitude 42° 1’3″ 8/10
taken on the Point above the Creek. the river is verry Crooked, we are
now within 3/4 of a mile of the river at a place we Shall not get
around to untill tomorrow noon–We er 3 Legues from the Mahars by land
and the great deel of Beaver sign induce a belief that those people do
not hunt much.

I have observed a number of places where the river has Changd its Bead
at different times
[Clark, August 11, 1804]
11th August Satturday 1804. about day light this Morning a hard wind
from the N W. with Some rain proceeded on arround the right of the Isld.

a hard wind accompanied with rain from the S. E. after the rain was
over Capt. Lewis myself & 10 men assended the Hill on the L. S. under
which there was Some fine Springs to the top of a high point where the
Mahars King Black Bird was burried 4 years ago. a mound of earth about
12 Diamuter at the base & 6 feet high is raised over him turfed, and a
pole 8 feet high in the Center on this pole we fixed a white flage
bound with red Blue & white; this hill about 300 feet above the water
forming a Bluff between that & the Water of Various hight from 40 to
150 feet in hight yellow Soft Sand Stone from the tops of this Nole the
river may be Seen Meandering for 60 or 70 Miles, we Decended & Set out
N. 24 to W. 1/2 me. passing over a Sand bar on the S. pt. along the
Willows. to the river opposit a Small Beyeau on the L. S. which is the
Conveyance of the high water from a bend which appears near in a
northerly direction, haveing passed a Creek in a Deep bend to the L. S.
Called by the Mahars Wau can di Peeche (Great Spirrit is bad) on this
Creek & Hills near it about 400 of the Mahar Died with the Small Pox-
Took Medn. Altitude & made the Latd. 42° 1′ 3″ 8/10 N. also the Moons
Distanc from the Sun I have observed a number of places where the River
has onced run and now filled or filling up & growing with willows &
[Clark, August 12, 1804]
12th August Sunday 1804 a South wind We Set out early the river wider
than usial, and Shallow, at 12 we halted in a bend to the left to take
the Meridian altitude, & Dine, & Sent one man across where we took
Dinner yesterday to Step off the Distance across Isthmus, he made it
974 yards, and the bend around is 183/4 miles above this bend about 4
miles, a yellow & Brown Bluff Comnuces and Continus 3 or 4 miles on the
L. S. this Bluff has Some Sand Stone, Some rich Black mole mixed with
yellow Clay, a fiew Red Ceeder on the tope, which is, from 20 to 150
foot high the hill Still riseing back, I think may be estemated at 200
foot on the top is timber, the wind for a few hours this evening was
hard and from the S. E. In the evening about 5 oClock Cap L. & My Self
wen on Shore to Shoot a Prarie wolf which was barking at us as we
passed This Prarie Wolf barked like a large fest and is not much
larger, the Beaver is verry plenty, not with Standing we are almost in
Sight of the Mahar Town–Cought a verry Large Catfish this morniong,
prepared the Indian present which we intend given to the Mahars. P.
Wiser apt. Cook to Serjt. Floyds Squad from to day
[Clark, August 12, 1804]
12th August Sunday 1804
Set out early under a gentle Breeze from the South the river wider than
usial and Shallow (1) at 12 oClock we halted to take a meridian altd.
of the Sun & Sent a man back or I may Say across to the Bind of the
river where Capt. Lewis took the Mdn. altitude yesterday, to Step off
the distance, he made it 974 yards across, the Distance arround the
bend is 183/4 miles–about 4 miles above the bend on the L. S. is the
Commencement of a Bluff which is about 4 miles extending on the river,
of yellow and brown Clay in Some parts in it near the river a Soft Sand
Stone is inbeded on the top (which is from 20 to 150 feet above the
water, & rises back) is Covered with timber, a fiew red Ceider is on
this Bluff, the wind Comes round to the S. E. a Prarie Wolf Come near
the bank and Barked at us this evening, we made an attempt but could
not git him, this Animale Barkes like a large feste Dog. Beever is
verry Plenty on this part of the river. I prepare Some presents for to
give the Indians of the Mahars nation. Wiser apt. Cook & Supentdt. of
the Provisions of Sergt. Floyds Squad. we Camped on a Sand Island in a
bend to the S. S. Musquitors verry troublesom untile the wind rose. at
one or 2 oClock
[Clark, August 13, 1804]
13th of August Munday 1804. Set out this morning at Day light the usial
time and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. passed the

From this Fish Camp the River is N 55° West as far as Can be Seen, the
Sand bar only changeing the Derection of the Current the Hills leave
the river on the L. Side
[Clark, August 13, 1804]
August 13th Monday 1804
Set out this morning at Light the usial time and proceeded on under a
gentle Breeze from the S E
[Clark, August 14, 1804]
14th of August at 12 oClock the Party Sent yesterday to the Towns
returned, and informed that they Could not find any Indians, they had
not returned from hunting the Buffalow in the Praries, wind Shifted to
the N W. Our party Sent after the Deserter and to the Otteau towns,
have not Came up as yet

The Situation of this Village, now in ruins Siround by enunbl. hosts of
grave the ravages of the Small Pox (4 years ago) they follow the Buf.
and tend no Corn
[Clark, August 14, 1804]
14th August Tuesday 1804
a fine morning wind from the S E The men Sent to the Mahar Town last
evening has not returned we Conclude to Send a Spye to Know the cause
of Their delay at about 12 oClock the Party returned and in-formed. us
that they Could not find the Indians nor any fresh Sign, those people
have not returned from their Buffalow hunt, Those people haveing no
houses no Corn or any thing more than the graves of their ancesters to
attach them to the old Village, Continue in pursuite of the Buffalow
longer than others who had greater attachments to their native
Villagethe ravages of the Small Pox (which Swept off 400 men & women &
Children in perpoposion) has reduced this Nation not exceeding 300 men
and left them to the insults of their weaker neighbours which before
was glad to be on friendly turms with them–I am told whin this fatal
malady was among them they Carried ther franzey to verry extroadinary
length, not only of burning their Village, but they put their wives &
Children to Death with a view of their all going together to Some
better Countrey–They burry their Dead on the tops of high hills and
rais mounds on the top of them,–The cause or way those people took the
Small Pox is uncertain, the most Probable from Some other Nation by
means of a warparty

Observed Time and Distance of the Sun & Moon the Moon East the 13th of
August Monday 1804, three Miles NE of the Mahars old village at Fish
[Clark, August 15, 1804]
August 15th Wendesday I took ten men & went out to Beaver Dam across a
Creek about a mile S W from Camp, and with a Brush Drag caught 308
fish, of the following kind (i’e) Pike, Samon, Bass, Pirch, Red horse,
Small Cat, & a kind of Perch Called on the Ohio Silverfish I also
Caught the Srimp which is Common to the Lower part of the Mississippi,
in this Creek & in the Beaver Pond is emince beads of Mustles Verry
large & fat–in my absence Capt Lewis Send the Souex interpr & a party
to a Smoke which appeared to rise at no great distance to the north
with a view to find Some Band of that nation, they returned and
informed that they had been made Some time by Some Small party, and the
hard wind of to day had set the Prarie on fire from Some high trees,
which was left burning all well, Party from Ottoes not come up.

Camp three Miles N. E of the Mahar Village
[Clark, August 15, 1804]
August 15th Wednesday 1804
I went with ten men to a Creek Damed by the Beavers about half way to
the Village, with Some Small willow & Bark we mad a Drag and haulted up
the Creek, and Cought 318 fish of different kind i’e Peke, Bass,
Salmon, perch, red horse, Small Cat, and a kind of perch Called
Silverfish, on the Ohio.–I cought a Srimp prosisely of Shape Size &
flavour of those about N. Orleans & the lower party of the Mississippi
in this Creek which is only the pass or Streight from Beaver Pond to
another, is Crouded with large Mustles Verry fat, Ducks, Pliver of
different Kinds are on those Ponds as well as on the river in My
absence Capt. Lewis Sent Mr. Durioue the Souix interpeter & three men
to examine a fire which threw up an emence Smoke from the Praries on
the N. E. Side of the River and at no great distance from Camp–the
Object of this party was to find Some Bands of Seouex which the inptr.
thought was near the Smoke and get them to Come in–in the evening this
Party returned and infoermed, that the fire arrose from Some trees
which had been left burning by a Small party of Seoux whom had passed
Several Days–the wind Setting from that point, blew the Smoke from
that pt. over our Camp. our party all in health and Sperrits the men
Sent to the Ottoes & in pursute of the Deserter Reed has not yet
returned or joined our party.
[Clark, August 16, 1804]
Aug. 16th 1804
a Verry cool morning the winds as usial from the N W. Capt Lewis with
men went out to the Creek & Pond & Caught about 800 fine fish with a
Bush Drag of the following kind i.e. 79 Pike, 8 Salmon, 1 Rock, 1 flat
Back, 127 Buffalow & readHorse, 4 Bass & 490 Cat, with many Small &
large Silver fish,–I had a mast made & fixed to day The Party Sent to
the Ottoes not yet arrived. the wind Shifted around to the S E. the
night’s are Cool & a Breeze rises after generally; Sometimes before
night which Blows off the Musquitors cools the atmospere.
[Clark, August 16, 1804]
16th August Thursday 1804 Fishing Camp 3 ms. N. E. of the Mahars. a
verry cool morning the wind as usial from the N W.

Capt Lewis took 12 men & went to the Pond & Crek between Camp and the
old Village and Cought upwards of Boo fine fish, 79 Pike, 8 Salmon, 1
Rock,flat Back, 127 Buffalow & red horse 4 Bass & 490 Catt. with many
Small Silver fish I had a Mast made &fixed to the Boat to day, the
Party Sent to the Ottoes not yet joined us–the wind Shifted arround to
the S. E. everry evening a Breeze rises which blows off the Musquitors
& Cools the atmispeire.
[Clark, August 17, 1804]
17th August 1804. a fine morning Wind from the S. E. I will here annex
the Latds & Distances of the Different notable placies from the River
Dubois or Mouth up.

The Longitudes are not yet Calculated, We must be at this time about 99°
45′ 00″ West of Greenwich–I Collected a grass much resembling wheet
with a grain like Rye, much fuller of grain, one like Rye & one like
Barley Grass Small, a Grass like Timothey except the Seed which is on
branches from the main Stalk-

Late this evening one of the party Sent after the deserters returned &
joined us, he left the party 3 miles back, they cought both Deserters,
one of them La liberty, got away from them, the Great Chief & 2nd Chief
of the ottoes accompaned the Party with a view to bring about a Peice
between themselves & the Mahar a great missfortune that the Mahars have
not returned from the hunt–Sent & fiered the Prarie near Camp to bring
in the Mahars & Souex if any are near. a Cool evening, 2 Beever Cought
[Clark, August 17, 1804]
17th August Friday 1804.
a fine Morning the wind from the S. E. I collected a grass much
resembling wheat in its grouth the grain like Rye, also Some resembling
Rye & Barly. a kind of Timothey, the Seed of which branches from the
main Stalk & is more like flax Seed than that of a Timothey

at 6 oClock this evening Labieche one of the Party Sent to the Ottoes
joined, and informed that the Party was behind with one of the
Deserters M B. Reed and the 3 principal Chiefs of the Nations–La
Liberty they cought but he decived them and got away–the object of
those Chiefs comeing forward is to make a peace with the Mahars thro
us-. as the Mahars are not at home this great object cannot be
accomplished at this time Set the Praries on fire to bring the Mahars &
Soues if any were near, this being the usial Signal.

a Cool evining two Beaver Cought to day.
[Clark, August 18, 1804]
18th August 1804 a fine morning, despatched Jo. Fields for the Party
from the Ottoes, whom did not Come up last night Wind from the S. E.
(Panies returned from their hunt, the 12th of August) in the after Part
of the Day the Party arrived, we had a Short talk after which we gave
them Provisions to eate & proceeded to the trial of Reed, he confessed,
& we Sentenced him only to run the Ganelet four times thro the
Detachment & party, and not to be considered in the future as one of
the Permonant Party, after the Punihment of about 500 Lashes, at night
we had Some talk with the Chiefs about the Cause of War between them
and the Mahars. posponed the further consultation untill tomorrow. had
a Dance which lasted untile 11 oClock, the Close of Cap Lewis Birthday.
a fine evening wind S. E

Sent to the Towns, i e Reiubin Fields Will. Brattin G. Drewyer & W
[Clark, August 18, 1804]
18th August Satday 1804
a fine morning. Wind from the S. E. in the after part of the Day the
Party with the Indians arrivd. we meet them under a Shade near the Boat
and after a Short talk we gave them Provisions to eat & proceeded to
the trail of Reed, he Confessed that he “Deserted & Stold a public
Rifle Shot-pouch Powder & Bals” and requested we would be as favourable
with him as we Could consistantly with our Oathes-which we were and
only Sentenced him to run the Gantlet four times through the Party &
that each man with 9 Swichies Should punish him and for him not to be
considered in future as one of the Party

The three principal Chiefs petitioned for Pardin for this man After we
explained the injurey Such men could doe them by false representation,
& explang. the Customs of our Countrey they were all Satisfied with the
propriety of the Sentence & was witness to the punishment. after which
we had Some talk with the Chiefs about the orrigan of the war between
them & the Mahars &c. &c.–it commenced in this way i’e’ in two of the
Missouries Tribe resideing with the Ottoes went to the Mahars to Steel
horses, they Killed them both which was a cause of revenge on the part
of the Missouris & Ottoes, they also brought war on themselves Nearly
in the Same way with the Panea Loups and they are greatly in fear of a
just revenge from the Panies for takeing their Corn from the Pania
Towns in their absence hunting this Summer.

the evening was Closed with an extra Gill of Whiskey & a Dance untill
11 oClock.
[Clark, August 19, 1804]
19th of August Sunday 1804 a fine morning wind from the S. E I prepd. a
present from the Chiefs & Warriers, the main Chief Brack fast with us
naked; & beged for a Sun glass.–at 10 oClock we assembled the Cheifs &
Warriers under an Orning and delivered a Speech, explanitary of the One
Sent to this Nation from the Council Bluff, &c. &c.-

Children When we Sent the 4 men to your towns, we expected to See &
Speake with the Mahas by the time you would arrive and to lay the
foundation of a peace between you and them

The Speech of Petieit Villeu Little Thief, If you think right and Can
waite untill all our Warriers Come from the Buffalows hunt, we Can then
tell you who is our men of Consequnce–My fathers always lived with the
father of the B together & we always live with the Big hose-all the men
here are the Suns of Chief and will be glad to get Something from the
hands of their fathers.–My father always directed me to be friendly
with the white people, I have always done So and went often to the
french, give my party pieces of Paper & we will be glad–The names

a Meddel to Car ka pa ha or Crow’s head

a Comsi or Cfte. Sar na no ne or Iron Eyes
a Ottoe approves & says he is Brave
Nee Swor un ja Big ax
a Ottoe approves
Star gra hun ja Big blue Eyes
a Ottoe Delivers up his comm
Ne ca sa wa-Black Cat
a Missouris approves the Council & he wants paper for his men at home,
he after wards came & petitioned for his Paper
War-sar sha co-Brave Man

The Speach of the Big Horse I went to the hunt Buffalow I heard your
word and I returned, I and all my men with me will attend to your
wordsyou want to make peace with all, I want to make peace also, the
young men when they want to go to war where is the goods you give me to
Keep them at home, if you give me Some Whisky to give a Drop to my men
at home.

I came here naked and must return home naked. if I have Something to
give the young men I can prevent their going to war. You want to make
peace with all, It is good we want Something to give my men at home. I
am a pore man, and cant quiet without means, a Spoon ful of your milk
will quiet all.

2nd Speech of the Little Thief I want Mr. Faufon & Mr. La bieche to
make a piece with the Panies Loups. I want William to go & make a piece
with the Loups, he can Speake english & will doe will to go.–refused
that William LaBiech shall accompany Faufon

Those people were not well Satisfied with the Presents given them, they
were much Surprised at the air gun and Several curiosities which were
Shown them none more than the magnet, those people became extreemly
troublesom to us begging Whisky & little articles. Sergt. Floyd was
taken violently bad with the Beliose Cholick and is dangerously ill we
attempt in Vain to releive him, I am much concerned for his Situation-
we could get nothing to Stay on his Stomach a moment nature appear
exosting fast in him every man is attentive to him york prlly
[Clark, August 19, 1804]
19th August Sunday 1804
a find morning wind from the S. E. prepared a Small Present for the
Cheifs and warriers present. the main Cheif Brackfast with us, & beged
for a Sun glass, those People are all naked, Covered only with Breech
Clouts Blankits or Buffalow Roabes, the flesh Side Painted of Differant
Colours & figures. At 10 oClock we assembled the Chiefs & warriers 9 in
number under an orning, and we explained the Speech Sent to the nation
from the Council Bluffs by Mr. Faufon. The 3 Chiefs and all the men or
warriers made Short Speeches approveing the advice & Council their
great father had Sent them, and Concluded by giveing themselves Some
Credit for their acts.

We then brought out the presents and exchanged the Big horses Meadel &
gave him one equal to the one Sent to the Little Thief & gave all Some
Small articls & 8 Carrots of Tobacco, we gave one Small Meadel to one
of the Cheifs & a Sertificate to the others of their good intentions.


The Little Theif Grd. Cheif I have mentioned before
The Big horse
Crows Head (or) Kar Ka paha–Missory
Black Cat (or) Ne ma Sa wa–do
Iron Eyes (or) Sar na no no–Ottoe
Big ax (or) Nee Swar Un ja–do
Big Blue Eyes–Star gea Hun ja–do
Brave Man (or) War Sar Sha co

One of those Indians after reciving his Certificate delivd. it again to
me the Big blue eyes the Chief petitioned for the Ctft. again, we would
not give the Certft. but rebuked them verry roughly for haveing in
object goods and not peace with their neighbours–this language they
did not like at first, but at length all petitioned for us to give back
the Certificate to the Big blu eyes he came forward and made a
plausible excuse, I then gave the Certificate the Great Cheif to bestow
it to the most Worthey, they gave it to him, we then gave them a,Dram
& broke up the Council, the Chiefs requested we would not leave them
this evening. we deturmed to Set out early in the morning we Showed
them many Curiosities and the air gun which they were much asstonished
at. those people beged much for wishey–Serjeant Floyd is taken verry
bad all at one with a Beliose Chorlick we attempt to relieve him
without Success as yet, he gets wordse and we are muc allarmed at his
Situation, all attention to him.
[Clark, August 20, 1804]
20th August Monday after gieving faufon Some goods the Indians a
Canister of whiskey, we Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. E
Shields went with the horses–I am Dull & heavy been up the greater
Part of last night with Serjt. Floyd, who is as bad as he can be to
live the motion of his bowels having changed &c. &c. is the Cause of
his violent attack &c. &c.

we Came to make a warm bath for Sergt. Floyd hopeing it would brace him
a little, before we could get him in to this bath he expired, with a
great deel of composure, haveing Said to me before his death that he
was going away and wished me to write a letter–we Buried him to the
top of a high round hill over looking the river & Countrey for a great
distance Situated just below a Small river without a name to which we
name & call Floyds river, the Bluffs Sergts. Floyds Bluff-we buried him
with all the honors of War, and fixed a Ceeder post at his head with
his name title & Day of the month and year Capt Lewis read the funeral
Service over him after paying everry respect to the Body of this
desceased man (who had at All times given us proofs of his impatiality
Sincurity to ourselves and good will to Serve his Countrey) we returned
to the Boat & proceeded to the Mouth of the little river 30 yd. wide &
Camped a butifull evening
[Clark, August 20, 1804]
20th August Monday 1804
Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better. Made Mr. Fauforn the
interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of whisky we Set
out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. and proceeded on verry well-
Serjeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse & nothing will Stay a
moment on his Stomach or bowels

Passed two Islands on the S. S. and at first Bluff on the S S. Serj.
Floyd Died with a great deel of Composure, before his death he Said to
me, “I am going away. I want you to write me a letter”–We buried him
on the top of the bluff 1/2 Miles below a Small river to which we Gave
his name, he was buried with the Honors of War much lamented; a Seeder
post with the (1) Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804
was fixed at the head of his grave–This Man at all times gave us
proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolution to doe Service to his
Countrey and honor to himself after paying all the honor to our Decesed
brother we Camped in the mouth of floyds river about 30 yards wide, a
butifull evening.-
[Clark, August 21, 1804]
21st August Tuesday we Set out verry early this morning under a Gentle
Breeze from the S. E Course S. 82° E 3 mes to the upper pt. of a Bluff on
the S. S. passed Willow Creek and Some rock below the mouth of the
Seouex river on the Starboard Side those Clifts are about 170 feet
high, this river heads with the St. peters and is navagable 75 Leagues
(by the act. of Mr. Durien) to a fall of near 200 for, 2 large & Som
Small Pitchs below the falls on the right a Creek corns in on which the
red pipe Stone is percured, & in the praries about, a place of Peace
with all nations.
[Clark, August 21, 1804]
21st August Tuesday 1804
We Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle
Breeze from the S. E. passed willow creek Small on the S. S. below a
Bluff of about 170 feet high and one 1/2 mes. above Floyds river at
11/2 miles higher & above the Bluff passed the Soues River S. S. this
River is about the Size of Grand river and as Mr. Durrien our Scones
intptr. says “navagable to the falls 70 or 80 Leagues and above these
falls” Still further, those falls are 200 feet or there abouts & has
two princapal pitches, and heads with the St. peters passing the head
of the Demoien, on the right below the falls a Creek Coms in which
passes thro Clifts of red rock which the Indians make pipes of, and
when the different nations Meet at those queries all is piece, passed a
place in a Prarie on the L. S. where the Mahars had a Village formerly.
the Countrey above the Platt R has a great Similarity. Campd. on the L.
Side. Clouds appear to rise in the west & threten wind. I found a verry
excellent froot resembling the read Current, the Scrub on which it
grows resembles Privey & about the Common hight of a wild plumb-

The two men Sent with the horses has not joined us as yet
[Clark, August 22, 1804]
22nd of August Wendesday 1804 Set out early wind from the South. G
Shannon joined the Boat last night. Course this morning is S 47° W. 11/4
on the S. point West 11/4 me. to the Commencement of a Bluff on the L.
S. the High land near the river for Some distance below. This Bluff
contain Pyrites alum, Copperass & a Kind Markesites also a clear Soft
Substance which will mold and become pliant like wax) Capt lewis was
near being Poisened by the Smell in pounding this Substance I belv to
be arsenic or Cabalt. I observe great Quantity of Cops. ans and almin
pure & Straters of white & brown earth of 6 Inch thick. a Creek Corns
in above the Bluffs on which there is great quantities of those
minerals, This Creek I call Roloje a at those Allom banks Shields
joined in with two Deer

Camped on the S. S. a Great Deel of Elk Sign fresh Capt. Lewis took a
Dost of Salts this evening to carry off the effects of (arsenec) or
cobalt which he was trying to find out the real quallity (2) passed a
Clift of Rock much impregnated with alum, Containing also a great
quantity of Cabalt

ordered a Vote of the men for a Sergeant of the three highest numbers a
choice to be made Gass Bratton & Gibson–Gass is worth remark, that my
Ink after Standing in the pot 3 or four days Soaks up & becons thick
[Clark, August 22, 1804]
22nd August Friday 1804
Set out early wind from the South at three miles we landed at a Bluff
where the two men Sent with the horses were waiting with two Deer, by
examonation of this (1) Bluff Contained alum, Copperas, Cobalt,
Pyrites; a alum rock Soft & Sand Stone. Capt. Lewis in proveing the
quality of those minerals was near poisoning himself by the fumes &
tast of the Cabalt which had the appearance of Soft Isonglass–Copperas
& alum is verry pure, Above this Bluff a Small Creek Coms in from the
L. S. passing under the Clifts for Several miles, this Creek I Call
Roloje a name I learned last night in my Sleep. (2) Eight) Seven miles
above is a Clift of Allom Stone of a Dark Brown Colr. Containing also
in crusted in the Crevices & Shelves of the rock great qts. of Cabalt,
Semented Shels & a red earth. from this the (3) river bends to the East
and is within 3 or 4 miles of the River Soues at the place where that
river Coms from the high land into the Low Prarie & passes under the
foot of those Hills to its mouth.

Capt Lewis took a Dost of Salts to work off the effects of the Arsenic,
we Camped on the S. S. Sailed the greater part of this day with a hard
wind from the S. E. great deel of Elk Sign, and great appearance of
wind from the N. W.

ordered a vote for a Serjeant to chuse one of three which may be the
highest number the highest numbers are P. Gass had 19 Votes, Bratten &
[Clark, August 23, 1804]
23rd August Thursday 1804 Set out this morning verry early, the two men
R. Fields & Shannon did not Come up last night, I went out and Killed a
fine Buck, J. Fields Killed a Buffaloes, 2 Elk Swam by the boat whilst
I was out and was not Killed, many guns fired at it R. Fields Came up
with the horses & brought two Deer, Collins Killed a Small doe, Several
Prarie wolves Seen Course West 4 Mls. to the mouth of a Small run
between two Bluffs of yellow Clay North 31/4 miles to the upper Pt. of
Some timber in the bend to S. S. near where R. fields Killed the
Buffalow passed the pt. of High Land on S. S at 1/4 of a mile, Capt.
Lewis went out with 8 men & brought the buffalow to the river at this
bend, C. Lewis Killed a Goose, wind blew hard of the flying Sands which
rasies like a Cloud of Smoke from the Bars when the wind Blows, the
Sand being fine and containing a breat perpotion of earth and when it
lights it Sticks to every thing it touches at this time the grass is
white S 48° 3 miles to a point of willows on the S. S. haveing passed the
Sand Island L. S Camped on the L S above the Island Saw an elk Standing
on a Sand bar. Shields Shot it thro the neck 101/4
[Clark, August 23, 1804]
23rd August Thursday 1804
Set out this morning verry early the two men with the horses did not
Come up last night I walked on Shore & Killed a fat Buck–J. Fields
Sent out to hunt Came to the Boat and informed that he had Killed a
Buffalow in the plain a head Cap Lewis took 12 men and had the buffalow
brought to the boat in the next bend to the S S. 2 Elk Swam the river,
and was fired at from the boat R. Fields came up with the Horses and
brought two Deer one Deer Killed from the Boat. Several Prarie Wolves
Seen to day Saw Elk Standing on the Sand bar

The Wind blew hard West and raised the Sands off the bar in Such Clouds
that we Could Scercely See this Sand being fine and verry light Stuck
to every thing it touched, and in the Plain for a half a mile the
distance I was out every Spire of Grass was covered with the Sand or
Dust We Camped on the L. S. above a Sand Island one Beaver Cought
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
24th August Friday 1804. Some rain last night & this morning, we Set
out at the usial time and proceeded on the Same Course of last night
Continued S. 48° W. 21/4 mes. to the Commencement of a Blue Clay Bliff on
LS. about 180 or 190 feet high West under rugged Bluffs 13/4 ms.
passing Several Small Dreens, falling into the river those Bluffs has
been lately on fire and is yet verry Hott, Great appearance of Coal, &
imence quantities of Cabalt in Side of that part oft the Bluff which
Sliped in, on the Sides of the hill great quanities of a kind of
Current or froot resembling the Current in appearance much richer and
finer flavd. grows on a Scrub resembling a Damsen and is now fine and
makes a Delightful) Tart above this Bluff I took my Servent and a
french boy I have and walked on Shore I killed a Deer which york Packed
on his back In the evening I Killed two Buck Elk and wounded two others
which I could not pursue by the Blood as my ball was So Small to bleed
them well, my boys each Shot an elk–it was late and I Crossed a Point
Struck the river above and halted the boat and 12 men went out brought
in the meat all the after part of the day it rained we are all wet.
Capt Lewis and my Self Concluded to visit a High Hill Situated in an
emence Plain three Leagues N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone river,
this hill appear to be of a Conic form and by all the different Nations
in this quater is Supposed to be a place of Deavels ors that they are
in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 inches high;
that they are very watchfull and ar armed with Sharp arrows with which
they can kill at a great distance; they are said to kill all persons
who are so hardy as to attemp to approach the hill; they state that
tradition informs them that many indians have suffered by these little
people and among others that three Maha men fell a sacrefice to their
murceyless fury not meany years since–so much do the Mahas Souix
Ottoes and other neibhbouring nations believe this fable that no
consideration is sufficient to induce them to approach this hill.
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
24th August Friday 1804
Some rain last night, a Continuation this morning; we Set out at the
usial time and proceeded on the Course of last night to the (1)
Commencement of a blue Clay Bluff of 180 or 190 feet high on the L. S.
Those Bluffs appear to have been laterly on fire, and at this time is
too hot for a man to bear his hand in the earth at any debth, gret
appearance of Coal. An emence quantity of Cabalt or a Cristolised
Substance which answers its discription is on the face of the Bluff-
Great quantities of a kind of berry resembling a Current except double
the Sise and Grows on a bush like a Privey, and the Size of a Damsen
deliciously flavoured & makes delitefull Tarts, this froot is now ripe,
I took my Servent and a french boy and Walked on Shore Killed Two Buck
Elks and a faun, and intersepted the Boat and had all the meat
butchered and in by Sun Set at which time it began to rain and rained
hard, Cap Lewis & my Self walk out & got Verry wet, a Cloudey rainey
night,–In my absence the Boat Passed a Small (2) River Called by the
Indians White Stone River. this river is about 30 yards wide and runs
thro a Plain & Prarie in its whole Course In a northerley direction
from the mouth of this Creek in an imence Plain a high Hill is
Situated, and appears of a Conic form and by the different nations of
Indians in this quarter is Suppose to be the residence of Deavels. that
they are in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 Inches
high, that they are Very watchfull, and are arm’d with Sharp arrows
with which they Can Kill at a great distance; they are Said to Kill all
persons who are So hardy as to attempt to approach the hill; they State
that tradition informs them that many Indians have Suffered by those
little people and among others three Mahar men fell a Sacrefise to
their murceyless fury not many years Since–So much do the Maha, Souis,
Ottoes and other neighbouring nations believe this fable that no
Consideration is Suffecient to induce them to apporach the hill
[Lewis, August 24, 1804]
Friday, August 24th
This day the Chronometer stoped again just after being wound up; I know
not the cause, but fear it procedes from some defect which it is not in
my power to remedy.-
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
(1) About the center of this Sand Island the river of white Stone (as
Called by Mr. Evins Kenvill R.) falls in on the Stard. Side it appear
to be about 25 or 30 yards Wide; at the mouth of this river 10 Indians
had latterly cross Supposed be be Soues, the part of a band which are
at war with the Mahars, This Soues nation are divided into bands Som
100 to 500 men in a band at peace with eath other, ther Interest &
prejudices different, for instance one band the most envetterate enimy
of the mahars, all the other Bands in the greatest harmony with that
nation and even go with thim to War, those Soues, follow the Buffalow,
& Kill them on foot, they pack their Dogs, which carry ther Bedn.
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
Augt. 25th Satturday 1804 This morning Capt Lewis & my Self G D. Sjt.
Ouderway Shields J. Fields colter Bratten Cane Labeeche corp Wovington
Frasure & York Set out to Visit this mountain of evel Spirits, we Set
out from the mouth of the White Stone Creek, at 8 oClock, at 4 miles
Cross the Creek in an open plain, at 7 ms. the dog gave out & we Sent
him back to the Creek at 12 oClock we rose the hill Some time before we
got to the hill we obsevd. great numbers of Birds hovering about the
top of this Mound when I got on the top those Birds flw off. I
discovered that they wer Cetechig a kind of flying ant which were in
great numbers abought the top of this hill, those insects lit on our
hats & necks, Several of them bit me verry Shart on the neck, near the
top of this nole I observed three holes which I Supposed to be Prarie
Wolves or Braroes, which are numerous in those Plains. this hill is
about 70 foot high in an emince Prarie or leavel plain from the top I
could not observe any woods except in the Missourie Points and a few
Scattering trees on the three Rivers in view. i e the Soues River
below, the River Jacque above & the one we have crossed from the top of
this Mound we observed Several large gangus of Buffalow & Elk feeding
upwards of 800 in number Capt Lewis being much fatigued and verry
thursty obliged us to go to the neares water which we Could See, which
was the W Stone Creek at right angles from the Course we came out, and
we got water in three miles in the Creek above whre the beaver had
darned it up after a Delay of about one hour & a half we Set out for
our boat, Cross the Creek three times wast deep, passing down an
ellgent bottom of about a mile in width bordered by a ridge of about 50
feet from the top of which it was leavel to the river, we proceeded on
by a Circular Derection to the place we Crossed this Creek going out
where we delayed for the men to rest themselves about 40 minits in a
small grove here we got Great quantities of the best largest grapes I
ever tasted, Some Blue Currents still on the bushes, and two kind of
Plumbs, one the Common wild Plumb the other a large Yellow Plumb
growing on a Small bush, this blumb is about double the Size of the
Common and Deliscously flavoured–Those plains are leavel without much
water and no timber all the timber on the Stone River would not thickly
timber 100 acres of land–we returned to the boat at Sunset, my Servent
nearly exosted with heat thurst and fatigue, he being fat and un
accustomed to walk as fast as I went was the Cause–we Set fire to the
Praries in two Places to let the Sons know we were on the river and as
a Signal for them to Come to the river above, our Party in the Boat &
one Perogue undr. the Comd of Sergt. Pryor answered us by firing a
prarie near them. we proceeded on to the place we Camped last night,
and as it began to rain and verry dark, we Concluded to Stay all night,
our boys prepared us a Supper of jurked meet and two Prarie Larks
(which are about the Size of a Pigeon and Peculier to this country) and
on a Buffalow roabe we Slept verry well in the morning we proceeded on
and joined the boat at 6 miles, they had camped & were Jurking an Elk &
5 Deer which R. Fields & Shannon had brough in. from the Mound to the
Hill S. S. mo. of R. Soues S 70° E. to the opsd. Hills S. 45° E. and to the
woods near River au Jacque is West
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
Augt. 25th Satturday wind S E The Boat under Serjt Pryor after drying
some goods which got wet in the french Perogue & jurking the meet
killed yesterday Set out at 12 oClock and proceeded on Six miles and
Camped on the L. S. passed a Bluff of blue earth at 3 miles and a large
Sand Island in a bend to the S. S. at 5 miles, R Fields brought in 5
Deer, G Shannon an Elk this eveng. rain at 3 oClock Murcky. 86 abo 0,
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
25th August Satturday 1804
a Cloudy morning Capt Lewis & my Self Concluded to go and See the Mound
which was viewed with Such turrow by all the different Nation in this
quarter, we Selected Shields J. Fields, W Bratten, Sergt. Ordway, J
Colter, Can, and Corp Worbington & Frasure, also G. Drewyer and droped
down to the mouth of White Stone River where we left the Perogue with
two men and at 200 yards we assended a riseing ground of about Sixty
feet, from the top of this High land the Countrey is leavel & open as
far as Can be Seen, except Some few rises at a Great Distance, and the
Mound which the Indians Call Mountain of little people or Spirits this
mound appears of a Conic form & is N. 20° W. from the mouth of the Creek,
we left the river at 8 oClock, at 4 miles we Crossed the Creek 23 yards
wide in an extensive Valley and continued on at two miles further our
Dog was So Heeted & fatigued we was obliged Send him back to the Creek,
at 12 oClock we arrived at the hill Capt Lewis much fatigued from heat
the day it being verry hot & he being in a debilitated State from the
Precautions he was obliged to take to provent the affects of the
Cobalt, & Mini. Substance which had like to have poisoned him two days
ago, his want of water, and Several of the men complaining of Great
thirst, deturmined us to make for the first water which was the Creek
in a bend N. E. from the mound about 3 miles–aftr a Delay of about 1
hour & a half to recrut our party we Set out on our return down the
Creek thro the bottom of about 1 mile in width, Crossed the Creek 3
times to the place we first Struck it, where we geathered Some
delisious froot Such as Grapes Plumbs, & Blue Currents after a Delay of
an hour we Set out on our back trail & arrived at the Perogue at Sun
Set we proceedd on to the place we Campd. last night and Stayed all

This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and extensive
prarie, bearing N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone Creek Nine Miles,
the base of the Mound is a regular parallelagram the long Side of which
is about 300 yards in length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards–from the
longer Side of the Base it rises from the North & South with a Steep
assent to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the
top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. the North & South part of this
mound is joins by two regular rises, each in Oval forms of half its
hight forming three regular rises from the Plain the assent of each
elivated part is as Suden as the principal mound at the narrower Sides
of its Bass

The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify a belief
that it owed its Orrigin to the hand of man; but as the earth and loos
pebbles and other Substances of which it was Composed, bare an exact
resemblance to the Steep Ground which border on the Creek in its
neighbourhood we Concluded it was most probably the production of

The only remarkable Charactoristic of this hill admiting it to be a
naturial production is that it is insulated or Seperated a considerable
distance from any other, which is verry unusial in the naturul order or
disposition of the hills.

The Surrounding Plains is open void of Timber and leavel to a great
extent; hence the wind from whatever quarter it may blow, drives with
unusial force over the naked Plains and against this hill; the insects
of various kinds are thus involuntaryly driven to the mound by the
force of the wind, or fly to its Leward Side for Shelter; the Small
Birds whoes food they are, Consequently resort in great numbers to this
place in Surch of them; Perticularly the Small brown Martin of which we
saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side of the hill, when we
approached it in the act of Catching those insects; they were So gentle
that they did not quit the place untill we had arrivd. within a fiew
feet of them-

One evidence which the Inds Give for believeing this place to be the
residence of Some unusial Spirits is that they frequently discover a
large assemblage of Birds about this mound–is in my opinion a Suffient
proof to produce in the Savage mind a Confident belief of all the
properties which they ascribe it.

from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull landscape;
Numerous herds of buffalow were Seen feeding in various directions, the
Plain to North N. W & N E extends without interuption as far as Can be
Seen From the Mound to the mouth of Stone River is S. 20° E 9 miles.

to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is West

to the High land near the mouth of Souis River is S. 70 E.

to the high land opposit Side or near the Maha Town is S. 45 E.

Some high lands to be Seen from the mound at a Great distance to the N.
E Some Nearer to the N W. no woods except on the Missouris Points

if all the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 acres it would
not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains are delightfull Great
numbers of Birds are Seen in those Plains, Such as black bird, Ren or
Prarie burd a kind of larke about the Sise of a Partridge with a Short
tail &c. &.

25th Augt the Boat under the Comd. of Sergt. Pryor proceeded on in our
absence (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles and Camped
on the Larboard Side R Fields brought in five Deer. George Shannon
Killed an Elk Buck Some rain this evening.

we Set the Praries on fire as a Signal for the Soues to Come to the
[Lewis, August 25, 1804]
August the 25th
on our return from the mound of sperits saw the first bats that we had
observed since we began to ascend the Missouri

also saw on our return on the Creek that passes this mound about 2 M.
distant S. a bird of heron kind as large as the Cormorant short tale
long leggs of a colour on the back and wings deep copper brown with a
shade of red. we could not kill it therefore I can not describe it more
[Clark, August 26, 1804]
26th August Sunday 1804 arrived at the boat at 9 oClock A.M. Set out at
10 oClock after Jurking the meet & Cutting the Elk Skins for a Toe Roap
and proceeded, leaveing G. Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses, the
river verry full of Sand bars and Wide Course S. 66° W. 2 mes. to a Sand
bar Makeing out from the S. S. N. 82° W. 7 mes. to a pt. of willows S S
passd. a Island & large Sand bars on both sides river wide and a Clift
of White earth on the L. S of 2 ms. in length to a point of Willows on
the S. S opposit Arch Creek above the mouth of this Creek a Chief of
the Maha nataton displeased with the Conduct of Black bird the main
Chief came to this place and built a Town which was called by his name
Petite Arch (or Little Bow) this Town was at the foot of a Hill in a
handsom Plain fronting the river and Contained about 100 huts & 200
men, the remains of this tribe Since the Death of Petite arch has
joined the remaining part of the nation This Creek is Small–we apt.
Pat Gass Sergeant Vice Floyd Dicesed, Geathered great quantites of
Grapes & three Kinds of Plumbs, one yellow round, & one ovel, & the
Common wild Plumb. Misquetors bad to night–I have apt. you
[Clark, August 26, 1804]
26th August Sunday 1804
(Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A M) after Jurking the meat Killed
yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe Roape we Set out
Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses which was lost with
directions to follow us Keeping on the high lands.

proceeded on passed a Clift of White & Blue or Dark earths of 2 miles
in extent on the L. S. and Camped on a Sand bar opposed the old village
Called Pitite Arc a Small Creek falls into the river 15 yds wide below
the Village on the Same Side L. S this village was built by a Indian
Chief of the Maha nation by the name of Pitite arc (or little Bow)
displeasd. with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seperated
with 200 men and built a village at this place. after his death the two
villages joined, apt. Pat Gass a Sergt. Vice Floyd Deceased

Great qts. of Grape, Plumbs of three Kinds 2 yellow and large of one of
which is long and a 3rd kind round & red all well flavored.
perticularly the yellow Sort.
[Lewis, August 26, 1804]
Orders August 26th 1804.
The commanding officers have thought it proper to appoint Patric Gass,
a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery, he
is therefore to be obeyed and respected accordingly.

Sergt. Gass is directed to take charge of the late Sergt. Floyd’s mess,
and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other duties, as by
their previous orders been prescribed for the government of the
Sergeants of this corps.

The Commanding officers have every reason to hope from the previous
faithfull services of Sergt. Gass, that this expression of their
approbation will be still further confirmed, by his vigilent attention
in future to his duties as a Sergeant. the Commanding officers are
still further confirmed in the high opinion they had previously formed
of the capacity, deligence and integrety of Sergt. Gass, from the wish
expresssed by a large majority of his comrades for his appointment as

Meriwether Lewis
Capt. 1st U.S. Regt Infty.
Wm Clark
Cpt &.
[Clark, August 27, 1804]
27th August Monday, this morning the Morning Star was observed to be
very large, G Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find
Shannon or the horses, he had walked all night–we Sent Shields & J.
Fields back to look for Shannon & the horses and to Come up with us on
the river above at the grand Callemet or River KaCure & we Set out
under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. proceeded on passed a Bluff at 7
mes. Several mile in extent of white Clay Marl or Chalk, under this
bank we discovered Large Stone resembling lime incrusted with a
Substanc like Glass which I take to be Cabolt, also ore, three mes
above this Bluff we Set the Prarie on fire, to let the Soues Know, we
wished to see them at two oClock an Indian Swam to the Perogue, we
landed & two other Came they were boys, they informed us that the Souex
were Camped near, on the R Jacke one Maha boy informed us his nation
was gorn to make a peace with the Pania’s we Send Sjt. Pryor & a
frenchman with the Interptr. Mr. Durion to the Camp to See & invite
their Great Chiefs to Come and Counsel with us at the Callemet Bluffs
____ Mile abov on L. S.–we proceed on 11/2 miles farther & Camped S S.
[Clark, August 27, 1804]
27th August Monday 1804
This morning the Star Calld. the morning Star much larger than Common
G. Drewyer Came up and informed that he Could neither find Shannon nor
horses, we Sent Shields & J Fields, back to hunt Shannon & the horses,
with derections to Keep on the Hills to the Grand Calumet above on
River Ka cure.

We Set Sail under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. at 7 miles passed a
white Clay marl or Chalk Bluff under this Bluff is extensive I
discovered large Stone much like lime incrusted with a Clear Substance
which I believe to be Cabalt, also ore is imbeded in the Dark earth,
resembling Slate much Softer–above this Bluff we had the Prarie Set on
fire to let the Souix See that we were on the river, & as a Signal for
them to Come to it.

at 2 oClock passed the mouth of River Jacque, or Yeankton one Indian at
the mouth of this river Swam to the Perogue, we landed and two others
came to us, those Inds. informed that a large Camp of Soues, were on R.
Jacque near the mouth. we Sent Sergt. Pryor & a Frenchman with Mr.
Durioin the Souls interpeter to the Camp with derections to invite the
Principal Chiefs to councel with us at a Bluff above Called the
Calumet–two of those Indians accompanied them and the third continued
in the Boat Showing an inclination to Continue, this boy is a Mahar,
and inform that his nation, were gorn to the Parnias to make a peace
with that nation.

We proceeded on about one and a half miles and in Camped on a bar
makeing out from the S. S. the wind blew hard from the South. a Cool &
Pleasent evening, The river has fallen verry Slowly and is now low.
[Lewis, August 27, 1804]
Monday August 27th
On the Stard. shore, opposite to the lower point, or commencement of
the white Calk Bluff-
[Clark, August 28, 1804]
28th August Tuesday, 1804 The wind blew hard last night one Indian
Stayed with us all night, Set out under a Stiff Breeze from S and
proceedd on passe a Willow Island at two miles Several Sand bars the
river here is wide & Shallow full of Sand bars–The High land appear to
be getting nearer to each other passed a Bluff containing Some white
earth on the L. S. below this Bluff for Some mile the Plain rises
gradually to the hight of the Bluff which is 70 or 80 foot, here the
Indian boy left us for his Camp–Capt Lewis & my Self much indisposed-
I think from the Homney we Substitute in place of bread, (or Plumbs) we
proceeded on about 3 Miles higher and Camped below the Calumet Bluff in
a Plain on the L. S. to waite the return of Sergt Pryor & Mr. Durioun,
who we Sent to the Soues Camp from the mouth of R. Jacque, before we
landed the French rund a Snag thro their Perogue, and like to have
Sunk, we had her on loaded, from an examonation found that this Perogue
was unfit for Service, & Deturmined to Send her back by the Party
intended to Send back and take their Perogue, accordingly Changed the
loads, Some of the loading was wet wind blows hard from the South. J
Shields & J. Fields joined they did not overtake Shannon with the
horses who is a head of us.
[Clark, August 28, 1804]
28th August Tuesday 1804.
Set out under a Stiff Breeze from the South and proceeded on passd. a
willow Island at 2 miles Several Sand bars, the river wide & Shallow at
4 Miles passed a Short White Bluff of about 70 or 80 feet high, below
this Bluff the Prarie rises gradually from the water back to the Hight
of the Bluff which is on the Larboard Side here the Indian who was in
the boat returned to the Sisouex Camp on the R Jacque, Capt. Lewis & my
Self much indisposed owing to Some Cause for which we cannot account
one of the Perogues run a Snag thro her and was near Sinking in the
opinions of the Crew–we came too below the Calumet Bluff and formed a
camp in a Butifull Plain near the foot of the high land which rises
with a gradual assent near this Bluff I observe more timber in the
valey & on the points than usial–The Perogue which was injurd I had
unloaded and the Loading put into the other Perogue which we intended
to Send back, the Perogue & changed the Crew after examoning her &
finding that She was unfit for Service deturmined to Send her back by
the party Some load which was in the Perogue much inju’d

The wind blew hard this after noon from the South–J. Shields & J.
Fields who was Sent back to look for Shannon & the Horses joined us &
informed that Shannon had the horses a head and that they Could not
over take him This man not being a first rate Hunter, we deturmined to
Send one man in pursute of him with Some Provisions.-
[Lewis, August 28, 1804]
Orders August 28th 1804.
The commanding officers direct that the two messes who form the crews
of the perogues shall scelect each one man from their mess for the
purpose of cooking and that these cooks as well as those previously
appointed to the messes of the Barge crew, shall in future be exempted
from mounting guard, or any detail for that duty; they are therefore no
longer to be held on the royaster.

M. Lewis Capt.
1st US. Regt. Infty.
Win Clark Cpt. &.
[Clark, August 29, 1804]
29th August Wednesday 1804–rained last night and Some this morning
verry cloudy Set Some men to work to make a Toe rope of Elk Skin, and
my Self to write, Sent one man to pursue Shannon a head with Some
provisions, I am much engaged writeing a Speech at 4 oClock Sergt.
Pryor & Mr. Durion the Soues interpeter with about 70 Soues arrived on
the opposit Side of the river we Sent over for them, who came over Mr.
D. & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over Mr. Durion
informed that three Chiefs were of the Party, we Sent over Serjt. Pryor
with young Mr. Durion, Six Kettles for the Indians to Cook the meat
they Killed on the way from their Camp (2 Elk & 6 Deer) a bout a bucket
of Corn & 2 twists of Tobacco to Smoke intending to Speak to them
tomorrow–G. Drewyer Killed a Deer-. Sergt. Pryor informs that when he
approached the Indian Camp they Came to meet them Supposeing Cap Lewis
or my Self to be of the party intending to take us in a roabe to their
Camp-he approached the Camp which was handsum made of Buffalow Skins
Painted different Colour, their Camps formed of a Conic form Containing
about 12 or 15 persons each and 40 in number, on the River Jacque of
100 yds wide & Deep Containing but little wood, They had a fat dog
Cooked as a feest; for them, and a Snug aptmt for them to lodge on
their march they passed thro plains Covd. with game &. &. &.
[Clark, August 29, 1804]
29th August Wednesday 1804
Some rain last night & this morning, Sent on Colter with Provisions in
pursute of Shannon, had a Toe roap made of Elk Skin, I am much engaged
reriteing–at 4 oClock P M. Sergt. Pryor & Mr. Dorion with 5 Chiefs and
about 70 men &c. arrived on the opposite Side we Sent over a Perogue &
Mr. Dorrion & his Son who was tradeing with the Indians Came over with
Serjt Pryer, and informed us that the Chiefs were there we Sent Serjt.
Pryor & yound Mr. Dorion with Som Tobacco, Corn & a few Kitties for
them to Cook in, with directions to inform the Chiefs that we would
Speek to them tomorrow. Those Indians brought with them for their own
use 2 Elk & 6 Deer which the young men Killed on the way from their
Camp 12 miles distant.

Serjt. Pryor informs me that when Came near the Indian Camp they were
met by men with a Buffalow roabe to Carry them, Mr. Dorion informed
“they were not the Owners of the Boats & did not wish to be Carried”-
the Sceouex Camps are handson of a Conic form Covered with Buffalow
Roabs Painted different Colours and all Compact & hand Somly arranged,
covered all round an orpen part in the Center for the fire, with
Buffalow roabs each Lodg has a place for Cooking detached, the lodges
contain 10 to 15 persons–a Fat Dog was presented as a mark of their
Great respect for the party of which they partook hartily and thought
it good & well flavored

The River Jacque is Deep & is navagable for Perogues a long distance up
at the mouth it is Shallow & narrow but above it is 80 or 90 yards wide
passing thro rich Praries with but little timber this river passes the
Souex River and heads with the St Peters and a branch of Red river
which which falls into Lake Winepik to the North
[Clark, August 30, 1804]
30th August Thursday 1804 A Foggeie morning I am much engagd. after
Brackfast we sent Mr. Doroun in a Perogue to the other Side i’e L S.
for the Chiefs and warriers of the Soues, he returned at 10 oClock with
the Chiefs, at 12 oClock I finished and we delivered a Speech to the
Indians expressive of the wishes of our government and explaining of
what would be good for themselves, after delivering the Speech we made
one grand Chief 1 2d Cheif and three third Chiefs and deliverd. to each
a few articles and a Small present to the whole the grand Chief a
Parole, Some wampom & a flag in addition to his present, they with Drew
and we retired to dinner, Mr. Durions Sun much displeased that he could
not dine with Cap Lewis and my Self–the number of Soues present is
about 70 men–Dressed in Buffalow roabes a fiew fusees, Bows and
arrows, and verry much deckerated with porcupine quills, a Society of
which only four remains is present, this Society has made a vow never
to giv back let what will happen, out of 22 only 4 remains, those are
Stout likely men who Stay by them Selves, fond of mirth and assume a
degree of Superiority-, the air gun astonished them verry much after
night a circle was forrm around 3 fires and those Indians danced untill
late, the Chiefs looked on with great dignity much pleased with what
they had, we retired late and went to bead. wind hard from the South.
[Clark, August 30, 1804]
30th of August Thursday 1804
a verry thick fog this morning after Prepareing Some presents for the
Chiefs which we intended make by giving Meadals, and finishing a Speech
what we intend’d to give them, we Sent Mr. Dorion in a Perogue for the
Chiefs & warreirs to a Council under an Oak tree near wher we had a
flag flying on a high flag Staff at 12 OClock we met and Cap L.
Delivered the Speach & thin made one great Chiff by giving him a meadal
& Some Cloathes one 2d. Chief & three third Chiefs in the Same way,
They recvd. those thing with the goods and tobacco with pleasure To the
Grand Chief we gave a Flag and the parole & wampom with a hat & Chiefs
Coat, we Smoked out of the pipe of peace, & the Chiefs retired to a
Bourey made of bushes by their young men to Divide their presents and
Smoke eate and Council Capt Lewis & my Self retired to dinner and
Consult about other measures–Mr. Daurion Jr. much displeased that we
did not invite him to dine with us (which he was Sorry for after
wards)–The Souix is a Stout bold looking people, (the young men hand
Som) & well made, the greater part of them make use of Bows & arrows,
Some fiew fusees I observe among them, not with Standing they live by
the Bow & arrow, they do not Shoot So well as the Northern Indians the
Warriers are Verry much deckerated with Paint Porcupin quils &
feathers, large leagins & mockersons, all with buffalow roabs of
Different Colours. the Squars wore Peticoats & and a white Buffalow
roabes with the black hair turned back over their necks & Sholders

I will here remark a Society which I had never before this day heard
was in any nation of Indians–four of which is at this time present and
all who remain of this Band–Those who become members of this Society
must be brave active young men who take a Vow never to give back let
the danger be what it may; in War Parties they always go foward without
Screening themselves behind trees or any thing else to this Vow they
Strictly adheer dureing their Lives–an instanc which happened not long
Since, on a party in Crossing the R Missourie on the ice, a whole was
in the ice imediately in their Course which might easily have been
avoided by going around, the foremost man went on and was lost the
others wer draged around by the party–in a battle with the Crow
Indians who inhabit the Coul Noir or black mountain out of 22 of this
society 18 was Killed, the remaining four was draged off by their Party
Those men are likely fellows the Sit together Camp & Dance together-
This Society is in imitation of the Societies of the de Curbo or Crow
Indians from whome they imitate-
[Clark, August 31, 1804]
31st of August Friday rose early a fair Day–a curioes Society among
this nation worthey of remark, ie, formed of their active deturmined
young men, with a vow never to give back, let the danger or deficuelty
be what it may, in war parties they always go forward, without
Screening themselves behind trees or anything else, to this vow they
Strictly adheer dureing their Lives, an Instance of it, is last winter
on a march in Crossing the Missourei a hole was in the ice immediately
in their Course which might easily be avoided by going around, the fore
most man went on and was drowned, the others were caught by their party
and draged aroundin a battle with the Crow de Curbo Indians out of 22
of this Society 18 was killed, the remaining four was draged off by
their friends, and are now here–they assocate together Camp together
and are merry fellows, This Custom the Souex learned of the de Carbours
inhabiting the Gout Noie or Black mountain all the Chiefs Delivered a
Speech agreeing to what we Said &. &. & beged which I answered from my
notes. We made or gav a certificate to two Brave men the attendants of
the Great Chief gave them Some tobacco and prepared a Commission for
Mr. Darion to make a peace with all the nations in the neighbourhood,
Mahas, Porncases, Panic, Loups, Ottoes and Missouries–& to take to the
President Some of the Gt Chiefs of each nations who would accompany him
allso to do certain other things, and wrot Instructions–gave him a
flag and Some Cloaths–the Chiefs Sent all their young men home, and
they Stayed for Mr. Dorion–in the evening late we gave the Comsn. &
Instruction to Mr. Durion & he recved them with pleasa, & promised to
do all which was necessary. I took a Vocabulary of the Seouex language,
and a fiew answers to Some queries I put to Mr. Pitte Dorion respecting
the War No. Situation Trad &c. &. of that people which is divided into
20 tribes possessing Sepperate interest they are numerous between 2 &
3000 men, divided into 20 tribes who view their interests as defferent
Some bands at War with Nations which other bands are at peace–This
nation call themselves-Dar co tar. The french call them Souex Their
language is not perculiar to themselves as has been Stated, a great
many words is the Same with the Mahas, Ponckais, Osarge, Kanzies &c.
Clearly proves to me those people had the Same Oregean–this nations
inhabit the red river of Hudson bay St. Peters Missippi, Demoin R.
Jacque & on the Missourie they are at War with 20 nations, and at piece
with 8 only–they recved their trade from the British except a few on
the Missourie they furnish Beaver Martain Loues orter, Pekon Bear and
Deer and have forty Traders at least among them. The names of the
Different bands of this nation are-

1st Che the ree or Bois ruley (the present band) Inhabit the Souex
Jacque & Demoin Rivers

2nd Ho in de bor to or poles. They live on the head of the Suouex River

3rd Me ma car jo (or make fence on the river.) the Country near the Big
bend of the Missouri.

4th Son on to ton (People of the Prarie) they rove North of the
Missourie in the Praries above.

5th Wau pa Coo do (Beeds) they live near the Prarie de Chaine on the

6th Te tar ton (or Village of Prarie) on the waters of the Mississippi
above Prate de Chain (Dog Prarie)

7th Ne was tar ton (Big Water Town) on the Mississippi above the mouth
of the St. Peters River.

8th Wau pa to (Leaf Nation). 10 Leagues up St. Peters

9th Cass car ba (White man) 35 Lgs. up St Peters

10 Mi ac cu op si ba (Cut Bank) reside on the head of St. Peters river

11 Son on–on St. Peters in the Praries

12th Se si toons–40 Leagues up St Peters.

The names of the other tribes I could not get In

31st August 1804 Speeches

at 8 oClock the Chiefs and warriers met us in Council all with their
pipes with the Stems presented towards us, after a Silence of abt. ____
The great Chief Dressed himself in his fine Cloathes and two warriers
in the uniform and armer of their Nation Stood on his left with a War
Club & Speer each, & Dressed in feathurs.

The Shake hand 1st Chief Spoke

My Father. I am glad to here the word of my G. F. and all my warriers
and men about me are also glad.

My Father.–now I see my two fathers the Children, of my great father,
& what you have Said I believe and all my people do believ also

My Father–We are verry glad you would take pitty on them this Day, we
are pore and have no powder and ball.

My Father.–We are verry Sorry our women are naked and all our
children, no petiecoats or cloathes

My Father–You do not want me to Stop the boats going up if we See,

I wish a man out of your boat to bring about a peace, between all the
Indians, & he can do So.

My Father–Listen to what I say I had an English medal when I went to
See them, I went to the Spanoriards they give me a meadel and Some
goods, I wish you would do the Same for my people.

My Father.–I have your word I am glad of it & as Soon as the Ice is
don running I will go down & take with me, Some great men of the other
bands of the Soues

My Father–I will be glad to See My Grand Father but our Women has got
no Cloathes and we have no Powder & Ball, take pity on us this day.

My Father–I want to listen and observe wath you Say, we want our old
friend (Mr. Durion) to Stay with us and bring the Indians with my Self
down this Spring.

My Father–I opend my ears and all my yound men and we wish you to let
Mr. Durion Stay, and a Perogue for to take us down in the Spring.

The speach of th White Crain Mar to ree 2d Chief

My Fathr’s listen to my word, I am a young man and do not intend to
talk much, but will Say a few words.

My Father–my father was a Chief, and you have made me a Chief I now
think I am a chief agreeable to your word as I am a young man and
inexperienced, cannot say much What the Great Chief has Said is as much
as I could Say

Par nar ne Ar par be Struck by the Pana 3d Chief

My father’s I cant Speek much I will Speek a litle to you

My fathers.–ther’s the Chiefs you have made high, we will obey them,
as also my young men, the Pipe I hold in my hand is the pipe of my
father, I am pore as you See, take pity on me I believe what you have

My fathers–You think the great meadel you gave My great Chief pleases
me and the small one you gave me gives me the heart to go with him to
See my Great father. What the Great Chief has Said is all I could Say.
I am young and Cant Speek.

A Warrier by name Tar ro mo nee Spoke

My father–I am verry glad you have made this man our great

Chief, the British & Spaniards have acknowledged him before but never
Cloathed him. you have Cloathed him, he is going to see our Great
father, We do not wish to spear him but he must go and see his great

My Fathr’s, my great Chief must go and See his Gd father, give him some
of your milk to Speek to his young men,

My father. our people are naked, we wish a trader to Stop among us, I
would be verry glad our two fathers would give us some powder and ball
and some Milk with the flag.

Speech of Ar ca we char chi the half man 3d Chief

My fathr’s I do not Speak verry well, I am a pore man and

My Fathr’s. I was once a Chiefs boy now I am a man and a Chief of Some

My Fat hr’s–I am glad you have made my old Chief a fine and a great
man, I have been a great warrier but now I here your words, I will
berry my hatchet and be at peace with all & go with my Great Chief to
see my great father.

My fath-s. When I was a young man I went to the Spaniards to see ther
fassion, I like you talk and will pursue you advice, Since you have
given me a meadal. I will tell you the talk of the Spaniards

My Father’s.–I am glad my Grand father has sent you to the read people
on this river, and that he has given us a flag large and handsom the
Shade of which we can Sit under

My Fathr’s.–We want one thing for our nation very much we have no
trader, and often in want of goods

My Fathers–I am glad as well as all around me to here your word, and
we open our ears, and I think our old Frend Mr. Durion can open the
ears of the other bands of Soux. but I fear those nations above will
not open their ears, and you cannot I fear open them

My Fathers. You tell us that you wish us to make peace with the Ottoes
& M. You have given 5 Medles I wish you to give 5 Kigz with them

My Fathers.–My horses are pore running the Buffalow give us

Some powder and ball to hunt with, and leave old Mr. Durion with us to
get us a trader

My Father.–The Spaniards did not keep the Medal of the Token of our
Great Chief when they gave him one You have Dressed him and I like it I
am pore & take pitey on me

My fathers–I am glad you have put heart in our great Chief he can now
speak with confidence, I will support him in all your Councilsafter all
the chief presented the pipe to us

The Half man rose & spoke as follows viz.

My father–What you have Said is well, but you have not given any thing
to the attendants of the Great Chiefs after which

In the evening late we gave Mr. Dorion a bottle of whiskey and himself
with the Chiefs Crossed the river and Camped on the opposit bank Soon
after a violent Wind from the N W. accompanied with rain
[Clark, August 31, 1804]
31st of August
We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on the Chief gave
to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco–had a talk with Mr. Dorion, who
agreed to Stay and Collect the Chiefs from as many Bands of Soux as he
coud this fall & bring about a peace between the Sciuex & their
neighbours &. &c. &c.

after Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Darion, a Comission to act with a flag &
some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions to bring about a peace with
the Scioux Mahars, Panies, Ponceries, Ottoes & Missouries–and to
employ any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of
those nations as he Could Perticularly the Sceiouex–I took a
Vocabulary of the Scioux Language–and the Answer to a fiew quaries
Such as refured to ther Situation, Trade, number War, &c. &c.–This
Nation is Divided into 20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests-
Collectively they are noumerous Say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests
are so unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations which other
bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great Nation who the French
has given the nickname of Sciouex, Call them selves Dar co tar their
language is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of
words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, Poncaser,
Osarge & Kanzies. which Clearly proves that those nation at Some Period
not more that a century or two past the Same nation–Those Dar ca ter’s
or Scioux inhabit or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake
Winipeck, St. Peter’s & the West of the Missippie above Prarie De chain
heads of River Demoin, and the Missouri and its waters on the N. Side
for a great extent. They are only at peace with 8 Nations, & agreeable
to their Calculation at war with twenty odd.–Their trade Corns from
the British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with the
Traders of St Louis–The furnish Beaver Martain, Loues Pikon, Bear and
Deer Skins-and have about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or
Sceouex rove & follow the Buffalow raise no corn or any thing else the
woods & praries affording a Suffcency, the eat Meat, and Substitute the
Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread The names of the
Different Tribes or Canoes of the Sceoux or Dar co tar Nation

1st Che cher ree Yank ton (or bois rulay) now present inhabit the
Sciouex & Demoin rivers and the Jacques.

2nd Hoin de borto (Poles) they rove on the heads of Souix & Jacqus

3rd Me ma car jo (make fence of the river) rove on the Countrey near
the big bend of the Missouries

4th Sou on, Teton (People of the Prarie) the rove in the Plains N. of
the Riv Missouries above this

5th Wau pa coo tar (Leaf beds) the live near the Prare de Chain near
the Missippi

6th Te tar ton (or village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the
Mississippi above Prarie de Chain

7th Ne was tar ton (big water Town) rove on the Missippi above the St.
Peters River

8th Wau pa tow (Leaf nation) live 10 Leagues up St Peters river

9th Cas Car ba (white man) live 35 Leagus up St Peters river

10th Mi ca cu op si ba (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters

11th Sou on (-) rove on St peters river in the Prareis

12th Sou si toons (-) live 40 Legus up the St peters river

The names of the other bands neither of the Souex’s interpters could
inform me. in the evening late we gave Mr. Dourion a bottle of whiskey,
& he with the Cheifs & his Son Crossed the river and Camped on the
Opposit bank–Soon after night a violent wind from the N W. with rain
the rain Continud the greater part of the night The river a riseing a
[Clark, August 31, 1804]
August the 31st 1804
after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and arranged
themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all pointing to our
Seets, we Came foward and took our Seets, the Great Cheif The Shake han
rose and Spoke to Some length aproving what we had Said and promissing
to pursue the advice.

Mar to ree 2d Cheif (White Crain) rose and made a Short Speech and
refured to the great Chief

Par nar ne Ar par be 3rd Cheif rose and made a Short Speech

Ar ca we char the (the half man) 3d Chief rose & spoke at Some length.
Much to the purpose.

The othe Cheif Said but little one of the warreirs Spoke after all was
don & promissed to Support the Chiefs, the promisd to go and See their
Great father in the Spring with Mr. Dorion, and to do all things we had
advised them to do. and all Concluded by telling the distresses of ther
nation by not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the
wanted Powder Ball & a little milk

last night the Indians Danced untill late in their dances we gave them
Som knives Tobaco & belts & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied
[Clark, September 1, 1804]
September 1st Satturday 1804 Mr. Durion left his Kettle which we gave
him, which we Sent to him and Set out under a gentle Breeze from the
South (raind half the last night,) proceded on–pass Calumet Bluff of a
yellowish read & a brownish white Hard clay, this Bluff is about 170 or
180 foot high here the highlands aproach the river on each Side with a
jentle assent, opsd. the Bluff a large Island Covered with timber is
Situated Close to the L. S. we passed the Island opposit which the high
land approach the river on both Side (river ros 3 Inchs last night)
passed a large Island Covered with wood on the L. S. Some rain, cloudy
all day–the river wide & Hils close on each Side, Came to before night
to go & See a Beaver house which is 11/2 Miles to the L. S. of the riv
Cap Lewis & my self with two men went to See this house which was
represented as high & situated in a Small pond. we could not find the
Pon. Drewyer Killed a Buck Elk, it is not necessary to mention fish as
we catch them at any place on the river, Camped at the lower point of
Bonhomme Island-
[Clark, September 1, 1804]
September 1st Satturday 1804
Mr. Dourion left his Kettle & Sent back for it &c. We Set out under a
jentle Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last night) proceeded on
pass the Bluffs Compsd. of a yellowish red, & brownish White Clay which
is a hard as Chalk this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, here the High
lands approach near the river on each Side, that on the S. S. not So
high as that on the L. S. opposit the Bluffs is Situated a large Island
Covered with timber close under the L. S. above the Isd the high land
approach & form a Clift to the river on the S. S. this Clift is Called
White Bear Clift one of those animals haveing been killed in a whole in
[Clark, September 1, 1804]
1st of September Satturday 1804
Some hard wind and rain, Cloudy all day, the river wide & hills on each
Side near the river, passd. a large (1) Island which appeared to be
composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton wood close under the S. S. we
landed at the Lower point of a large Island on the S. S. Called bon
homme or Good man, here Capt Lewis & my Self went out a Short distance
on the L. S. to See a Beave house, which was Said to be of Great hite &
Situated in a Pond we could not find the house and returned after night
Drewyer killed an Elk, & a Beaver. numbers of Cat fish cought, those
fish is so plenty that we catch them at any time and place in the river
[Clark, September 2, 1804]
2nd of Sept. Sunday 1804–Set out early & proceeded on passed the
Island & Came too above below a yellow Bluff on the S S. the Wind being
hard from the N W. verry Cold Some rain all day much Thunder &
lightning G Drewyer R. Fields Howard & Newmon Killed four fat Elk on
the Isld. we had them Jurked &the Skins Stretched to Cover the Perogues
water riseing, I observe Bear grass & Rhue in the Sides of the hills at
Sunset the wind luled and cleared up cool–Aired the meet all in high
Spirits–Shannon & the man Sent after him has not yet joind us

2 Sepr. description of a antient fortification

(1) From the river on the top of the antient fortification at this the
12 foot high 75 feet Base first Corse is from the river is S 76° W 96
yards. S 84° W. 53 yds. at this angle a kind of ravilene covering a
Saleport, bearing East widing N 69 W 300 yds. passed a gate way at 280
yds. the bank lower & forming a right angle of 30 yards–two wings or
mounds running from a high nold to the West of the way one 30 yards
back of the other Covering the gate (at this place the mound is 15 feet
8 Inches higher than the plain forming a Glassee outwards & 105 feet
base N. 32 W. 56 yards N. 20 W. 73 yards this part of the work is about
12 feet high, leavel & about 16 feet wide on the top) at the experation
of this course a low irregular work in a Direction to the river, out
Side of which is several ovel mounds of about 16 feet high and at the
iner part of the Gouge a Deep whole across the Gauge N.

32 W 96 yds. to the Commencment of a wall of about 8 feet high N.81° W.
533 yards to a Deep pond 73 yds in Deamuter, and 200 yards further to a
Saleport, where there is evident marks of its being Covered, the Same
Course Contined 1030 yards to the river bottom.

One half of the first part of the Fortification is washed into the
river, a Second line, has run from the Northrn extremity parrelel with
the river (as it appears to have run at that time) N. 56 W. this of
different hith from 4 to to 10 feet–The high land is about 3 me. from
this fortress, and rise to Small mountains Say from 3 to 400 feet the
high land on the opposit or North Side of the Missourie is 110 feet
forming a yellow Clay bluff to the water and is leavel back as fur as
can be Seen. I am informed by the inteperter & french, that they have
Seen, numbers of those fortifications in different parts of this Cty.
pirtcularly on the Platt Kansies and the North of this place on the
river Jacque.

two Small fortifications is on the Arc Creek on the upper side 1st 1/4
of a mile up & the 2d 1/4 higher, nearly Square each angle 100 yards
[Clark, September 2, 1804]
2nd September Sunday 1804
Set out early and proceeded on Passed the Island and Landed on the S. S
above under a yellow Clay bluff of 110 feet high, the wind blew verry
hard a head from the N. W. with Some rain and verry Cold, G. Drewnyer
R. Fields Newman & howard Killed four fine Elk we had the meat all
jurked and the Skins Dried to Cover the Perogue, on the Side of the
Bluff I observed Bear Grass & Rhue, at Sun Set the wind luled and
Cleared up Cold, the high land on the L. S. is verry high, & uneaven,
that on the S. S from 80 to 120 foot & is leavel back but fiew Small
Streems falling into the river.

I went out and made a Survey of the antient works which is Situated in
a level plain about 3 miles from the hills which are high.

A Discription of the Fortification

(1) Commenceing on the river opsid the Good Mans Island, first Course
from the river is

S. 76d W. 96 yards thence

S. 84 W. 53 yards (at this angle a kind of angle or horn work)

N. 69 W. 300 yards to a high part, passing the gateway Covered by two
half Circler works one back of the other lower than the main work the
gate forms a right angle projecting inward

N.32 W. 56 yards

N 20 W. 73 yards This part of the work appears to have either double,
or a covered way. from this Some irregular works appear to have been on
mounds between this and the river with a Deep round whole in the center
of a gorge formed by another angle

This part of the work is from 10 to 15 feet 8 Inches–the mounds of
various hights–the base of the work is from 75 to 105 feet, steep
inward and forming a kind of Glassee out wards

the Same Cours continued i e

N. 32°W. 96 yards to the Commencement of a wall from 8 to 10 feet high
this corse not on the wall but thro to the commencment of another

N. 81° W 1830 yards to the river & above where this bank Strikes the
river is the remains of a Circular work

in this Course at 533 yards a Deep Pond of 73 yards Diameter perfectly
round is in the Course of the bank which is about 8 feet high, from
this Pond the bank it lowers gradually–a bank about the Same hight
runs near the river, and must have joined the main work at a part which
is now washed into the river, this is also perfectly Streight and
widens from the main work, as the river above has washed in its banks
for A great distance I cannot form an Idear How those two long works
joined–where they Strike the river above, they are about 1100 yds
apart, I am informed by our freench interpeters that a great number of
those antint works are in Different parts of this Countrey, on the
Platt River, Kansus, Jacque, Osarge Mine river &c.

Small one is on Island opposit the one I have Discribed, and two of our
Party Saw two of those antient frtresses on the Pittiet Arc Creek on
the upper Side near the mouth, each angle of which were 100 yards and
about 8 feet high-
[Clark, September 3, 1804]
3rd September Monday 1804. Set out at Sun rise, verry Cold morning
clear and but little wind from the N W. we proceeded on, the river
wide, took an obsivation below Plumb Creek which mouths on the S S.
this Creek is Small & corns in between 2 white banks, Great quantities
of Plumbs of a most delisious flavour, I have collected the Seed of 3
Kinds which I intend to Send to my brother, also Som grapes of a
Superior quallity large & well flavoured, the river is riseing a
little, Several wild Goats Seen in the Plains they are wild & fleet Elk
& Buffalow is verry plenty, Scercely any timber in Countrey except a
little on the river in the Points. Saw Some Signs of the 2 men who are
a head, Colter has not over taken Shannon Camped on the L. S. at the
edge of a Plain-
[Clark, September 3, 1804]
3rd of September Monday 1804
a verry Cold morning wind from N. W. we Set out at Sun rise, &
proceeded on to a Bluff below the mouth of Plumb 12 yds. Creek on the
S. S. and took an obsevation of the Suns Altitude

This Creek is Small it “abounds with blumbs of a Delicious flavour” the
River is wide and Crouded with Sand bars–it is riseing a little but
little timber in this Countrey all that is, is on the river in the
points. we Came too on the L. Sin the edge of a Plain an Camped for the
night–we Saw Some Signs of the two men Shannon & Colter, Shannon
appeared to be a head of Colter–The White banks appear to Continu on
both sides of the river. Grapes plenty and finely flavered-
[Clark, September 4, 1804]
4th of September Tuesday 1804. a verry Cold wind from South E. by S. we
Set out early proceeded on to the mouth of a Small Creek in the bend to
the L. S. Called white line at 11/2 miles furthr passed the mouth of a
R au platte or White paint Cr about 25 yd. on Same Side Called, I
walked on the top of the hill forming a Cliff Covd. with red Ceeder an
extensive view from this hill, at 3 Miles from the Creek the high land
jut the river forming a Bluff of Bluish Clay Continu 11/2 miles Came to
at the mouth of Qui courre (rapid) this river Comes roleing its Sands
whuch (is corse) into the Missouris from the S W by W. this river is
152 yards across the water and not exeeding 4 feet Deep it does not
rise high when it Does it Spreds over a large Surface, and is not
navagable it has a Great many Small Islands & Sand bars I went up this
river 3 miles to the Spot the Panis once had a large Village on the
upper Side in a butifull extensive Plain riseing gradially from the
river I fel into a Buffalow road joined the boat late at night at the
Pania Island.
[Clark, September 4, 1804]
4th September Tuesday 1804
a verry Cold wind from the S. S. E, we Set out early and proceeded on
the mouth of a Small Creek in a bend to the L. S. Called White lime, at
11/2 miles higher up passed a large Creek on the L. S. Called or white
paint between those two Creeks (the latter of which is abt. 30 yds.
wide) we passed under a Bluff of red Ceeder, at 4 mes. 1/2 passed the
mouth of the River Que Courre (rapid R) on the L. S. and Came to a
Short distance above, this River is 152 yards wide at the mouth & 4
feet Deep Throwing out Sands like the Platt (only Corser) forming bars
in its mouth, I went up this river three miles to a butifull Plain on
the upper Side where the Panias once had a Village this river widens
above its mouth and is devided by Sand and Islands, the Current verry
rapid, not navagable for even Canoos without Great dificulty owing to
its Sands; the colour like that of the Plat is light the heads of this
river is not known, it Corns into the Missourie from the S. W. by West,
and I am told that is Genl. Course Some distance up is parrelel with
the Missourie
[Clark, September 5, 1804]
5th September 1804 Wednesday, Set out early the wind blew hard from the
South as it has for Some Days past, we Set up a jury mast & Sailed, I
saw a large gangue of Turkeys, also Grous Seen Passed a large Island of
about 3 miles long in the Middle of the river opposit the head of this
Island the Poncarre River Coms into the Missourei on the L. S.–the S.
S is a Clift under which great numbers of Springs run out of mineral
water, Saw Several wild goats on the Clift & Deer with black tales,-
Sent Shields & Gibson to the Poncas Towns, which is Situated on the
Ponca river on the lower side about two miles from its mouth in an open
butifull Plain, at this time this nation is out hunting the biffalow
they raise no corn or Beens, Gibson killed a Buffalow in the Town, The
two men which has been absent several Days is ahead, we came to on the
upper pt. of a large Island at 3 oClock to make a mast Sent out Some
hunters on the Island (which I call no preserve Island, at this place
we used the last of our Preservs) They killed 3 bucks, & two Elk which
[Clark, September 5, 1804]
September 5th Wednesday 1804
Set out early the winds blew hard from the South, Goats turkeys Seen to
day, passed a large Island (1) opsd. this Island near the head the
Poncasar River Coms into the Missourie from the West this river is
about 30 yards wide. dispatched two men to the Poncaries Village
Situated in a handsom Plain on the lower Side of this Creek about two
miles from the Missourie (the Poncasars nation is Small and at this
time out in the praries hunting the Buffalow), one of the men Sent to
the Village Killed a Buffalow in the town, the other, a large Buck near
it, Some Sign of the two men who is a head.

above the Island on the S. S We passed under a Bluff of Blue earth,
under which Seveal Mineral Springs broke out of the water of which had
a taste like Salts, we Came too on the upper point of a large Island
(which I call No preserves Island) here we made a Ceeder Mast, our
hunters brought in three bucks, and two elks this evening which we had

One of the hunter Shields, informed that he Saw Several black tailed
Deer, near the Poncaser Village
[Lewis, September 5, 1804]
Sept 5th
saw some wild goats or antelopes on the hill above the Glauber Salts
Springs they ran off we could not discover them sufficiently distinctly
to discribe even their colour their track is as large as a deer reather
broader & more blont at the point

This day one of our hunters brought us a Serpent beautifully variagated
with small black spotts of a romboydal form on a light yellow white
ground the black pedominates most on the back the whiteis yellow on the
sides, and it is nearly white on the belly with a few party couloured
scuta on which the black shews but imperfectly and the colouring matter
seems to be underneath the Scuta–it is not poisonous it hisses
remarkably loud; it has 221 Scuta on the belly and 51 on the tale, the
eyes are of a dark black colour the tale terminates in a sharp point
like the substance of a cock’s spur–Length 4 Ft. 6 I.
[Clark, September 6, 1804]
6th Septr Thursday 1804, a Storm this morning from the N W. at day
light which lasted a fiew minits, Set out after the Storm was over and
proceeded on a hard wind ahead passed the island which is Seperated
from the L. Side by a narrow Channel. the morning is verry Cold.

Camped on S. Side before night no timbering in reach ahead, R. Fields
killed 2 Deer Saw Buffalow, & Goats this evening, the river riseing a
[Clark, September 6, 1804]
Septr. 6th Thursday 1804
a Storm this morning from the N. W. which lasted a fiew minits, we Set
out and proceeded on passed the head of the Isd. which is Seperated
from the L. S by a narrow Channel, a hard wind from the N. W. a verry
Cold day–we Camped on the S. S. at the upper point of Some timber,
Some time before night, no timber, no timber being in reach.

I saw Several goats on the hills on the S. S. also Buffalow in great
[Clark, September 7, 1804]
7th September Friday 1804. a verry Cold morning Set out at Day light

near the foot of this high Nole we discovered a Village of an annamale
the french Call the Prarie Dog which burrow in the grown & with the
rattle Snake and Killed one & Caught one Dog alive caught in a whole 2
frogs near the hole Killed a Dark Rattle Snake with a Prairie dog in him

The Village of those little dogs is under the ground a conisiderable
distance we dig under 6 feet thro rich hard clay without getting to
their Lodges Some of their wholes we put in 5 barrels of water without
driveing them out, we caught one by the water forceing him out. ther
mouth resemble the rabit, head longer, legs short, & toe nails

long ther tail like a ground Squirel which they Shake and make
chattering noise ther eyes like a dog, their colour is Gray and Skin
contains Soft fur
[Clark, September 7, 1804]
7th Septr. 1804
Septr. 7th Friday a verry Cold morning Set out at day light we landed
after proceding 51/2 miles, near the foot of a round mounting which I
saw yesterday resembling a dome.

Capt Lewis & my Self walked up, to the top which forms a Cone and is
about 70 feet higher than the high lands around it, the Bass is about
300 foot in decending this Cupola, discovered a Village of Small
animals that burrow in the grown (those animals are Called by the
french Pitite Chien) Killed one & Cought one a live by poreing a great
quantity of water in his hole we attempted to dig to the beds of one of
thos animals, after diging 6 feet, found by running a pole down that we
were not half way to his Lodges, we found 2 frogs in the hole, and
killed a Dark rattle Snake near with a Ground rat in him, (those rats
are numerous) the Village of those animals Covs. about 4 acrs of Ground
on a Gradual decent of a hill and Contains great numbers of holes on
the top of which those little animals Set erect make a Whistleing noise
and whin allarmed Slip into their hole–we por’d into one of the holes
5 barrels of water without filling it, Those Animals are about the Size
of a Small Squrel Shorter & thicker, the head much resembling a Squirel
in every respect, except the ears which is Shorter, his tail like a
ground Squirel which thy Shake & whistle when allarmd. the toe nails
long, they have fine fur & the longer hair is gray, it is Said that a
kind of Lizard also a Snake reside with those animals. Camped
[Lewis and Clark, September 8, 1804]
8th of September 1804 Satturday. Set out early and proceeded on under a
Gentle breese from the S. E. at 3 mes passed the place where Trodow
wintered one winter

I went out to day on the S. S with a view to find Some of the little
dogs, and Coats, Traveled over a riged and mountanious Countrey without
water & riseing to 5 or 600 hundred feet, Islands & Sands interveneing
prevt. my getting to the boat untill after night, in my absent Capt.
Lewis killed a Buffalow, I saw Greid many Buffalow & white wolves.
(Sailed all day)
[Clark, September 8, 1804]
8th of September Satturday
Set out early and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E, at
3 mes. passed the house of Troodo where he wintered in 96. Called the
Pania house, above is high hills on the S. S. on the S. S. much higher
hills than usial appear to the North distant 8 miles recently burnt-
pass 3 Small Islands at about 5 miles on this Course on the S. S. here
Capt. Lewis Killed a Buffalow in the river, and this men one other Came
to on the lower point of an Island in the midlle of the river Called
Boat Island and incamped, jurked the meet Killed to day Consisting of 2
buffalow, one large Buck Elk one Small, 4 Deer 3 Turkeys & a Squirel, I
joined the boat at this Camp, The Countrey on the S S. is pore & broken.
[Clark and Whitehouse, September 9, 1804]
9th Septembr Sunday, Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the
Island Several gangus of Buffalow on the Sides of the hils on the L. S.
halted on L. Side took breakfast. Capt. Clark walked on Shore, we
proceeded on

R. Fields came to the Boat had killed one Buffalow. passed red ceeder
on the edge of the hills on bouth Sides of the river but most on the
bluff on
[Clark, September 9, 1804]
9th September Sunday 1804
Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on passed the head of the Island on
which we Camped, passed three Sand & willow Islands, the Sand bars So
noumerous, it is not worth mentioning them, the river Shoal or Shallow
wind S E Came too and Camped on a Sand bar on the L. S. Capt Lewis went
out to Kill a buffalow. I walked on Shore all this evening with a view
to Kill a Goat or Some Prarie Dogs in the evening after the boat
landed, I Derected my Servent York with me to kill a Buffalow near the
boat from a numbr. then Scattered in the plains, I saw at one view near
the river at least 500 Buffalow, those animals have been in view all
day feeding in the Plains on the L. S. every Copse of timber appear to
have Elk or Deer. D. Killed 3 Deer, I Kiled a Buffalow Y. 2, R. Fields
[Lewis, September 9, 1804]
Sept. 9th
Capt. Clark found on the Lard shore under a high bluff issuing from a
blue earth a bittuminus matter resembling molasses in consistance,
colour and taste-
[Clark, September 10, 1804]
10th September Monday a Cloudy morning Set out early under a Gentle
Breeze from the S E. passed two Small Islands one on the L. S. & the
other on the S. S. both in the first Course at 101/2 miles passed the
lower pt. of Ceder Island Situated in a bend to the L. S. this Island
is about 2 miles long Covered with red Ceder, the river is verry
Shallow opsd. this Island–below the Island on the top of a ridge we
found a back bone with the most of the entire laying Connected for 45
feet those bones are petrified, Some teeth & ribs also Connected. at 3
mes. above ceder I passed a large Island on the S. S. to this Island
Several Elk Swam above this Island on the Midle is Situated 2 Islands
small one above the other, those Islands are Called mud Islands and
camped on the upper Island of them 3 Buffalow 1 Elk &c. Killed to day,
river falling a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt water much
frequented by Buffalow, Some Smaller Springs on the Side of the hill
above less Salt, the water excesiv Salt, and is 11/2 miles from the
river on the S. W. or L. S. opposit Ceder Island-
[Clark, September 10, 1804]
10th September Monday 1804.
a Cloudy dark morning Set out early, a Gentle breeze from the S. E,
passed two Small Islands on the L. S. and one on the S. S. all in the
first Course at 101/2 miles passed the lower point of an (2) Island
Covered with red Ceeder Situated in a bend on the L. S. this Island is
about 2 Moles in length (1) below this on a hill on the L. S. we found
the back bone of a fish, 45 feet long tapering to the tale, &c. those
joints were Seperated and all petrefied, opposit this Island 11/2 miles
from the river on the L. S. is a large Salt Spring of remarkable Salt
water. one other high up the hill 1/2 me. not So Salt.

we proceeded on under a Stiff Breeze. three miles above Ceder Island
passed a large Island on the S. S, no water on that Side (3) Several
elk Swam to this Island passed a Small Island near the Center of the
river, of a mile in length, and Camped on one aboav Seperated from the
other by a narrow Chanel, Those Islands are Called Mud Islands–the
hunters killed 3 fuffalow & one Elk to day. The river is falling a
little, Great number of Buffalow & Elk on the hill Sides feeding deer

we came too at the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. at Dark in a heavy
Shower of rain, it Continued to rain the greater part of the night,
with a hard wind from the N W Cold
[Clark, September 11, 1804]
Septr. 11th Tuesday 1804 Set out early a Cloudy morning the river verry
wide from one hill to the other, with many Sand bars passed the Isd. on
which we lay at a mile passed three Isds. one on the L. S. (1/4 of a
mile from it on the L. S. a village of little Dogs. I Killed four, this
village is 800 yards wide & 970 yds. long on a jentle Slope of a hill
in a plain, those animals are noumerous) the other two Islands are on
the S. S. the river is verry Shallow & wide, the boat got a ground
Several times–The man G Shannon, who left us with the horses above the
Mahar Village, and beleving us to be ahead pushed on as long as he
Could, joined us he Shot away what fiew Bullets he had with him, and in
a plentiful) Countrey like to have Starvd. he was 12 days without
provision, Subsisting on Grapes at the Same the Buffalow, would Come
within 30 yards of his Camp, one of his horses gave out & he left him
before his last belluts were Consumed–I saw 3 large Spoted foxes today
a black tailed Deer, & Killed a Buck elk & 2 Deer, one othr Elk 2 Deer
& a Porkipine Killed to day at 12 oClock it became Cloudy and rained
all the after noon, & night.
[Clark, September 11, 1804]
Sept. 11th Tuesday 1804
a cloudy morning, Set out verry early, the river wide & Shallow the
bottom narrow, & the river Crouded with Sand bars, passed the Island on
which we lay at one mile-, pased three Islands one on the L. S. and 2
on the S. S. opposit the Island on the L. S. I Saw a village of Barking
Squriel 970 yds. long, and 800 yds. wide Situated on a gentle Slope of
a hill, those anamals are noumerous, I killed 4 with a view to have
their Skins Stufed.

here the man who left us with the horses 22 days ago and has been a
head ever Since joined, us nearly Starved to Death, he had been 12 days
without any thing to eate but Grapes & one Rabit, which he Killed by
shooting a piece of hard Stick in place of a ball-. This man Supposeing
the boat to be a head pushed on as long as he Could, when he became
weak and fiable deturmined to lay by and waite for a tradeing boat,
which is expected Keeping one horse for the last resorse,–thus a man
had like to have Starved to death in a land of Plenty for the want of
Bulletes or Something to kill his meat we Camped on the L. S. above the
mouth of a run a hard rain all the after noon, & most of the night,
with hard wind from the N W. I walked on Shore the fore part of this
day over Some broken Country which Continus about 3 miles back & then
is leavel & rich all Plains, I saw Several foxes & Killed a Elk & 2
Deer. & Squirels the men with me killed an Elk, 2 Deer & a Pelican

Some rain all day to day & Cold

I walked on Shore Saw Several foxes Several Villages of Prarie dogs,
and a number of Grouse
[Clark, September 12, 1804]
Septr. 12th Wednesday 1804
a Dark Cloudy Day the wind hard from the N. W. we passed (1) a Island
the middle of the river at the head of which we found great dificuelty
in passing between the Sand bars the water Swift and Shallow, it took
3/4 of the day to make one mile, we Camped on the L. S. opsd. a Village
of Barking Prarie Squriels

I walked out in the morning and Saw Several Villages of those little
animals, also a great number of Grous & 3 foxes, and observed Slate &
Coal mixed, Some verry high hills on each Side of the river. rains a
little all day.
[Clark, September 13, 1804]
13th Septr. Thursday 1804
a Dark Drizzley Day, G D Cought 4 Beaver last night the winds from the
N W. Cold Set out early and proceeded on verry well passed a number of
Sand bars, Capt Lewis killed a Porcupin on a Cotton treee fieeding on
the leaves & bowers of the Said tree, the water is verry Shallow being
Crouded with Sand bars Camped on the S. Side under a Bluff. the Bluffs
on the S. S. not So much impregnated with mineral as on the L. S.
muskeetors verry troublesom-.
[Lewis, September 13, 1804]
September 13th
Killed a bluewinged teal and a Porcupine; found it in a Cottonwood tree
near the river on the Lard. Shore–the leaves of the Cottonwood were
much distroyed–as were those of the Cottonwood trees in it’s
neighbourhood. I therefore supposed that it fed on the folage of trees
at this season, the flesh of this anamal is a pleasant and whoalsome
food–the quills had not yet obtained their usual length–it has four
long toes, before on each foot, and the same number behind with the
addition of one short one on each hind foot on the inner side. the toes
of the feet are armed with long black nails particularly the fore feet-
they weigh from 15 to 20 lbs–they resemble the slowth very much in the
form of their hands, or fore feet. their teeth and eyes are like the
[Clark, September 14, 1804]
Septr 14th Friday 1804 Course Dists & rifur. Set out early proceeded on
passed Several Sand bars water wide & Shallow N. 68° W. 23/4 mes. to a
pt. of high Land on the L. S. passed a round Island on the S S.–Caught
3 beaver last night, Some drizzeley rain Cloudy & Disagreeable and Som
hard Showers, I walked on Shore with a view to find an old Volcano Said
to be in this neghbourhood by Mr. McKey I was Some distance out Could
not See any Signs of a Volcanoe, I killed a Goat, which is peculier to
this Countrey about the hite of a Grown Deer Shorter, its horns Coms
out immediately abov its eyes broad 1 Short prong the other arched &
Soft the color is a light gray with black behind its ears, white round
its neck, no beard, his Sides & belly white, and around its taile which
is Small & white and Down its hams, actively made his brains on the
back of its head, his noisterals large, his eyes like a Sheep only 2
hoofs on each foot no antelrs (more like the antelope or gazella of
Africa than any other Specis of Goat). Shields Killed a Hare weighing
61/2 lb. verry pore, the head narrow and its ears 3 Inches wide and 6
long, from the fore to the end of the hind foot; is 2 feet 11 Inch.
hite 1 foot 13/4 its tail long & thick white, clearly the mountain Hare
of Europe, a rainy evening all wett The Soil of those Plains washes
down into the flats, with the Smallest rain & disolves & mixes with the
water we See back from the river high hills in a leavel plain,
evidently the remains of mountains, what mud washed into the river
within those few days has made it verry mudy, passed two Small Creeks
on the L. S. & Camped below a 3rd on the L. S. rained all evening
[Clark, September 14, 1804]
14th Septr. Friday 1804. Set out early proceeded on passed Several Sand
bars the river wide and Shallow 3 beaver Caught last night, Drizeley
rain in the forepart of this day, cloudy and disagreeable, I walked on
Shore with a view to find an old Vulcanio, Said to be in this
neighbourhood by Mr. J. McKey of St. Charles. I walked on Shore the
whole day without Seeing any appearance of the Villcanoe, in my walk I
Killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the hight. of the Grown
Deer, its body Shorter, the Horns which is not very hard and forks 2/3
up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is imediately
above its Eyes the Colour is a light gray with black behind its ears
down its neck, and its Jaw white round its neck, its Sides and its rump
round its tail which is Short & white verry actively made, has only a
pair of hoofs to each foot. his brains on the back of his head, his
Norstral large, his eyes like a Sheep–he is more like the Antilope or
Gazella of Africa than any other Species of Goat. Shields Killed a Hare
like the mountain hare of Europe, waighing 61/4 pounds (altho pore) his
head narrow, its ears large i, e, 6 Inches long & 3 Inchs wide one half
of each white, the other & out part a lead grey from the toe of the
hind foot to toe of the for foot is 2 feet 11 Inches, the hith is 1
foot 1 Inche & 3/4, his tail long thick & white.

The rain Continued the Greater part of the day in My ramble I observed,
that all those parts of the hills which was Clear of Grass easily
disolved and washed into the river and bottoms, and those hils under
which the river run, Sliped into it and disolves and mixes with the
water of the river, the bottoms of the river was covered with the water
and mud frome the hills about three Inches deep–those bottoms under
the hils which is Covered with Grass also a great quantity of mud.

Passed 2 Small Creeks on the L. S and Camped below the third, (the
place that Shannon the man who went a head lived on grapes) Some heavy
Showers of rain all wet, had the Goat & rabit Stufed rained all night
[Lewis, September 14, 1804]
September 14th 1804 this day Capt. Clark killed a male wild goat so
called–it’s weight 65 lbs.

length from point of nose to point of tail 4 9
hight to the top of the wethers 3 –
do. behind 3 –
girth of the brest 3 1
girth of the neck close to the shoulders 2 2
do. near the head 1 7

Eye deep sea green, large percing and reather prominent, & at or near
the root of the horn within one 1/4 inches
[Lewis, September 14, 1804]
Sept. 14th 1804. Shields killed a hare of the prarie, weight six pounds
and 1/4

F. I.
Length from point of hind to extremity fore feet 2 11
hight when standing erect 1 1 3/4
length from nose to tale 2 1
girth of body 1 2 3/4
length of tale
length of the year — 5 1/2
width of do. do. — 3 1/8
from the extremity of the hip to the toe of the hind foot 1 3 1/2

the eye is large and prominent the sight is circular, deep sea green,
and occupyes one third of the width of the eye the remaining two thirds
is a ring of a bright yellowish silver colour. the years ar placed at
the upper part of the head and very near to each other, the years are
very flexable, the anamall moves them with great ease and quickness and
can contrat and foald them on his back or delate them at pleasure–the
front outer foald of the year is a redis brown, the inner foalds or
those which ly together when the years are thrown back and wich occupy
two thirds of the width of the year is of a clear white colour except
one inch at the tip of the year which is black, the hinder foald is of
a light grey–the head back sholders and outer part of the thighs are
of a ledcoloured grey the sides as they approache the belly grow
lighter becomeing gradually more white the belly and brest are white
with a shad of lead colour–the furr is long and fine–the tale is
white round and blounty pointed the furr on it is long and extreemly
fine and soft when it runs it carry’s it’s tale strait behind the
direction of the body–the body is much smaller and more length than
the rabbit in proportion to it’s height–the teeth are like those of
the hair or rabbit as is it’s upper lip split–it’s food is grass or
herbs–it resorts the open plains, is extreemly fleet and never burrows
or takes shelter in the ground when pursued, I measured the leaps of
one which I suprised in the plains on the 17th Inst. and found them 21
feet the ground was a little decending they apear to run with more ease
and to bound with greater agility than any anamall I ever saw. this
anamal is usually single seldom associating in any considerable numbers.
[Clark, September 15, 1804]
September the 15th Satturday 1804 Set out early passed the Mouth of a
creek on the L S. where Shannon lived on grapes waiting for Mr.
Clintens boat Supposeing we had went on, Capt Lewis and my Self halted
at the mouth of White River & wend up a Short Crossed &, this river is
about 400 yards, the water Confined within 150 yards, the Current
regularly Swift, much resembling the Missourie, Sand bars makeing out
from the points, Some Islands we Sent up two men to go up this river
one Day and Meet us to morrow we proceeded on passed a Small Island
Covered with Ceder timber, & great number of rabits, no game except
rabits, and Camped on the S. S. opposit a large Creek, on which there
is more wood than usial on Creeks in this quaterr this creek raised 14
feet last rain I Killed a Buck elk & a Deer.
[Clark, September 15, 1804]
15th September Satturday 1804
Set out early passed the mo of the Creek, and the mouth of White river;
(1) Capt Lewis and my Self went up this river a Short distance and
Crossed, found that this differed verry much from the Plat or que
Courre, threw out but little Sand, about 300 yard wide, the water
confind within 150 yards, the current regular & Swift much resemblig
the Missourie, with Sand bars from the points a Sand Island in the
mouth, in the point is a butifull Situation for a Town 3 Gradual
assents, and a much Greater quantity of timber about the mouth of this
river than usial, we concluded to Send Some distance up this river
detached Sjt. Gass & R. Fields. we proceeded on passed a Small (2)
Island Covered with Ceeder on I Saw great numbers of Rabits & Grapes,
this Island is Small & Seperated from a large Sand Isd. at its upper
point by a narrow Channel, & is Situated nearest the L. Side. Camped on
the S. S. opposit the mouth of a large Creek on which there is more
timber than is usial on Creeks of this Size, this Creek raised 14 feet
the last rains. I killed a Buck Elk & Deer, this evening is verry Cold,
Great many wolves of Different Sorts howling about us. the wind is hard
from the N W this evening
[Lewis, September 16, 1804]
Sunday September 16th 1804.
This morning set out at an early hour, and come too at 1/2 after 7 A.M.
on the Lard. Shore 11/4 miles above the mouth of a small creek which we
named Corvus, in consequence of having kiled a beatiful bird of that
genus near it we concluded to ly by at this place the ballance of this
day and the next, in order to dry our baggage which was wet by the
heavy showers of rain which had fallen within the last three days, and
also to lighten the boat by transfering a part of her lading to the red
perogue, which we now determined to take on with us to our winter
residence wherever that might be; while some of the men were imployed
in this necessary labour others were dressing of skins washing and
mending their cloaths &c. Capt. Clark and myself kiled each a buck
immediately on landing near our encampment; the deer were very gentle
and in great numbers on this bottom which had more timber on it than
any part of the river we had seen for many days past, consisting of
Cottonwood Elm, some indifferent ash and a considerable quanty of a
small species of white oak which is loaded with acorns of an excellent
flavor very little of the bitter roughness of the nuts of most species
of oak, the leaf of this oak is small pale green and deeply indented,
it seldom rises higher than thirty feet is much branched, the bark is
rough and thick and of a light colour; the cup which contains the acorn
is fringed on it’s edges and imbraces the nut about one half; the
acorns were now falling, and we concluded that the number of deer which
we saw here had been induced thither by the acorns of which they are
remarkably fond. almost every species of wild game is fond of the
acorn, the Buffaloe Elk, deer, bear, turkies, ducks, pigegians and even
the wolves feed on them; we sent three hunters out who soon added eight
deer and two Buffaloe to our strock of provisions; the Buffaloe were so
pour that we took only the tongues skins and marrow bones; the skins
were particularly acceptable as we were in want of a covering for the
large perogue to secure the baggage; the clouds during this day and
night prevented my making any observations. Sergt. Gass and Reubin
Fields whom we had sent out yesterday to explore the White river
returnd at four oclock this day and reported that they had foil
meanders of that stream about 12 miles r’s general course West, the
present or principal channel iro yards wide; the coulour of the water
and rapidity and manner of runing resembled the Missouri presisely; the
country broken on the border of the river about a mile, when the level
planes commence and extend as far as the eye can reach on either side;
as usual no timber appeared except such as from the steep declivities
of hills, or their moist situations, were sheltered from the effects of
the fire. these extensive planes had been lately birnt and the grass
had sprung up and was about three inches high. vast herds of Buffaloe
deer Elk and Antilopes were seen feeding in every direction as far as
the eye of the observer could reach.
[Clark, September 16, 1804]
September 16th Sunday, we proceeded on 11/4 Miles and Camped on the L.
Side in a butifull Plain Surounded with timber in which we Saw Severall
Der, we delayed here for the purpose of Drying the articles which were
wet & the cloathes to Load the Perogue which we had intended to send
back, finding the water too Shoal Deturmind to take on the Perogue also
to make Some observations for Longitude &c. the two men G. & R. F.
joined us and informed “that the river as far as they were up had much
the Appearance of the river about the mouth, but little timber and that
chiefly elm”, the up land between this river & the White river is fine,
Great numbers of Goat, Deer of three kinds, Buffalow, & wolves, &
Barking Squrels, The fallow Deer, Cloudy, all day Cleaning out the boat
examining & Drying the goods, & loading the Perogue, I killed 2 Deer
Capt Lewis one & a Buffalow, one Buffalow & five other Deer Killed. I
observed Pine Burs & Burch Sticks in the Drift wood up white river
which Coms in on the L. S. imedeately in the point is a butifull
Situation for a town 3 Gentle rises, & more timber about the mouth of
this river than usial
[Clark, September 16, 1804]
16th of September Sunday 1804
We Set out verry early & proceed’d on 11/4 miles between Sand bars and
Came too on the L. S. (1)–deturmined to dry our wet thig and liten the
boat which we found could not proceed with the present load for this
purpose we Concluded to detain the Perogue we had intended to Send back
& load her out of the boat & detain the Soldiers untill Spring & Send
them from our winter quarters. We put out those articles which was wet,
Clean’d the boat & perogus, examined all the Locker Bails &. &c. &.

This Camp is Situated in a butifull Plain Serounded with Timber to the
extent of 3/4 of a mile in which there is great quantities of fine
Plumbs The two men detachd up the White river joined us here & informed
that the river as far as they were up had much the appearance of the
Missourie Som Islands & Sands little Timber Elm, (much Signs of Beaver,
Great many buffalow) & Continud its width, they Saw & well as my Self
Pine burs & Sticks of Birch in the Drift wood up this river, They Saw
also Number of Goats Such as I Killed, also wolves near the Buffalow
falling Deer, & the Barking Squrels Villages Capt. Lewis went to hunt &
See the Countrey near the Kamp he killed a Buffalow & a Deer

Cloudy all day I partly load the empty Perogue out of the Boat. I
killed 2 Deer & the party 4 Deer & a Buffalow the we kill for the Skins
to Cover the Perogus, the meet too pore to eat. Capt Lewis went on an
Island above our Camp, this Island is abt. one mile long, with a Great
purpotion ceder timber near the middle of it

I gave out a flannel Shirt to each man, & powder to those who had
expended thers
[Lewis, September 17, 1804]
Monday September 17th 1804.
Having for many days past confined myself to the boat, I determined to
devote this day to amuse myself on shore with my gun and view the
interior of the country lying between the river and the Corvus Creek-
accordingly before sunrise I set out with six of my best hunters, two
of whom I dispatched to the lower side of Corvus creek, two with orders
to hunt the bottoms and woodland on the river, while I retained two
others to acompany me in the intermediate country. one quarter of a
mile in rear of our camp which was situated in a fine open grove of
cotton wood passed a grove of plumb trees loaded with fruit and now
ripe. observed but little difference between this fruit and that of a
similar kind common to the Atlantic States. the trees are smaller and
more thickly set. this forrest of plumb trees garnish a plain about 20
feet more lelivated than that on which we were encamped; this plain
extends back about a mile to the foot of the hills one mile distant and
to which it is gradually ascending this plane extends with the same
bredth from the creek below to the distance of near three miles above
parrallel with the river, and is intirely occupyed by the burrows of
the barking squril hertefore discribed; this anamal appears here in
infinite numbers, and the shortness and virdue of grass gave the plain
the appearance throughout it’s whole extent of beatifull bowlinggreen
in fine order. it’s aspect is S. E. a great number of wolves of the
small kind, balks and some pole-cats were to be seen. I presume that
those anamals feed on this squirril.–found the country in every
direction for about three miles intersected with deep reveries and
steep irregular hills of 100 to 200 feet high; at the tops of these
hills the country breakes of as usual into a fine leavel plain
extending as far as the eye can reach. from this plane I had an
extensive view of the river below, and the irregular hills which border
the opposite sides of the river and creek. the surrounding country had
been birnt about a month before and young grass had now sprung up to
hight of 4 Inches presenting the live green of the spring. to the West
a high range of hills, strech across the country from N. to S and
appeared distant about 20 miles; they are not very extensive as I could
plainly observe their rise and termination no rock appeared on them and
the sides were covered with virdue similar to that of the plains this
senery already rich pleasing and beatiful, was still farther hightened
by immence herds of Buffaloe deer Elk and Antelopes which we saw in
every direction feeding on the hills and plains. I do not think I
exagerate when I estimate the number of Buffaloe which could be
compreed at one view to amount to 3000. my object was if possible to
kill a female Antelope having already procured a male; I pursued my
rout on this plain to the west flanked by my two hunters untill eight
in the morning when I made the signal for them to come to me which they
did shortly after. we rested our selves about half an hour, and
regailed ourselves on half a bisquit each and some jirk of Elk which we
had taken the precaution to put in our pouches in the morning before we
set out, and drank of the water of a small pool which had collected on
this plain from the rains which had fallen some days before. We had now
after various windings in pursuit of several herds of antelopes which
we had seen on our way made the distance of about eight miles from our
camp. we found the Antelope extreemly shye and watchfull insomuch that
we had been unable to get a shot at them; when at rest they generally
seelect the most elivated point in the neighbourhood, and as they are
watchfull and extreemly quick of sight and their sense of smelling very
accute it is almost impossible to approach them within gunshot; in
short they will frequently discover and flee from you at the distance
of three miles. I had this day an opportunity of witnessing the agility
and superior fleetness of this anamal which was to me really
astonishing. I had pursued and twice surprised a small herd of seven,
in the first instance they did not discover me distinctly and therefore
did not run at full speed, tho they took care before they rested to
gain an elivated point where it was impossible to approach them under
cover except in one direction and that happened to be in the direction
from which the wind blew towards them; bad as the chance to approach
them was, I made the best of my way towards them, frequently peeping
over the ridge with which I took care to conceal myself from their view
the male, of which there was but one, frequently incircled the summit
of the hill on which the females stood in a group, as if to look out
for the approach of danger. I got within about 200 paces of them when
they smelt me and fled; I gained the top of the eminece on which they
stood, as soon as possible from whence I had an extensive view of the
country the antilopes which had disappeared in a steep revesne now
appeared at the distance of about three miles on the side of a ridge
which passed obliquely across me and extended about four miles. so soon
had these antelopes gained the distance at which they had again
appeared to my view I doubted at ferst that they were the same that I
had just surprised, but my doubts soon vanished when I beheld the
rapidity of their flight along the ridge before me it appeared reather
the rappid flight of birds than the motion of quadrupeds. I think I can
safely venture the asscertion that the speed of this anamal is equal if
not superior to that of the finest blooded courser.–this morning I saws
[Clark, September 17, 1804]
17th of Septr. Monday 1804 above White river Dried all those articles
which had got wet by the last rain, a fine day Capt Lewis went hunting
with a vew to seethe Countrey &its productions, he was out all Day
Killed a Buffalow & a remarkable bird of the Spicies of Corvus, long
tail of a Greenish Purple, Varigated a Beck like a Crow white round its
neck comeing to a point on its back, its belley white feet like a Hawk
abt. the size of a large Pigeon Capt Lewis returned at Dark. I took the
Meridian & equal altitudes to day made the Lattitude.

Colter Killed a Goat, & a Curious kind of Deer, a Darker grey than
Common the hair longer & finer, the ears verry large & long a Small
resepitical under its eye its tail round and white to near the end
which is black & like a Cow in every other respect like a Deer, except
it runs like a goat. large.

The hunters brought in 8 fallow Deer & 5 Common Deer to day, Great
numbers of Buffalow in the Praries, also a light Coloured woolf Covered
with hair & corse fur, also a Small wolf with a large bushey tail–Some
Goats of a Different Kind Seen to day,–Great many Plumbs, rabits,
Porcupines & barking Squrels, Capt Lewis Killed a rattle Snake in a
village of the Squirel’s and Saw a Hair to day. Wind from the S. W. we
finished Drying our Provisions Some of which was wet and Spoiled,
[Clark, September 17, 1804]
17th of September Monday 1804
Dried all our wet articles this fine Day, Capt Lewis went out with a
View to see the Countrey and its productions, he was out all day he
killed a Buffalow and a remarkable Bird of the Corvus Species long tail
the upper part of the feathers & also the wing is of a purplish
variated Green, the black, a part of the wing feather are white edjed
with black, white belley, white from the root of the wings to Center of
the back is white, the head nake breast & other parts are black the
Becke like a Crow. abt. the Size of a large Pigion. a butifull thing
(See Suplement in No. 3)

I took equal altitudes and a meridian altitude. Capt. Lewis returned at
Dark, Colter Killed a Goat like the one I killed and a curious kind of
deer of a Dark gray Colr. more so than common, hair long & fine, the
ears large & long, a Small reseptical under the eyes; like an Elk, the
Taile about the length of Common Deer, round (like a Cow) a tuft of
black hair about the end, this Speces of Deer jumps like a goat or Sheep

8 fallow Deer 5 Common & 3 buffalow killed to day, Capt. Lewis Saw a
hare & Killed a Rattle Snake in a village of B. squerels The wind from
S. W. Dryed our provisions, Some of which was much Damaged.
[Lewis, September 17, 1804]
Sept. 17th
one of the hunters killed a bird of the Corvus genus and order of the
pica & about the size of a jack-daw with a remarkable long tale.
beautifully variagated. it note is not disagreeable though loud it is
twait twait twait, twait; twait, twait twait, twait.

from tip to tip of wing 1 10
Do. beak to extremity of tale 1 8 1/2
of which the tale occupys 1 1
from extremity of middle toe to hip 5 1/2

it’s head, beak, and neck are large for a bird of it’s size; the beak
is black, and of a convex and cultrated figure, the chops nearly equal,
and it’s base large and beset with hairs–the eyes are black encircled
with a narrow ring of yellowish black it’s head, neck, brest & back
within one inch of the tale are of a fine glossey black, as are also
the short fathers of the under part of the wing, the thies and those
about the root of the tale. the belly is of a beatifull white which
passes above and arround the but of the wing, where the feathers being
long reach to a small white spot on the rump one inch in width–the
wings have nineteen feathers, of which the ten first have the longer
side of their plumage white in the midde of the feather and occupying
unequal lengths of the same from one to three inches, and forming when
the wing is spead a kind of triangle the upper and lower part of these
party coloured feathers on the under side of the wing being of dark
colour but not jut or shining black. the under side of the remaining
feathers of the wing are darker. the upper side of the wing, as well as
the short side of the plumage of the party coloured feathers is of a
dark blackis or bluish green sonetimes presenting as light orange
yellow or bluish tint as it happens to be presented to different
exposures of ligt–the plumage of the tale consits of 12 feathers of
equal lengths by pairs, those in the center are the longest, and the
others on each side deminishing about an inch each pair–the underside
of the feathers is a pale black, the upper side is a dark bluefish
green which like the outer part of the wings is changable as it
reflects different portions of light. towards the the extremely of
these feathers they become of an orrange green, then shaded pass to a
redish indigo blue, and again at the extremity assume the predominant
colour of changeable green–the tints of these feathers are very
similar and equally as beatiful and rich as the tints of blue and green
of the peacock–it is a most beatifull bird.–the legs and toes are
black and imbricated. it has four long toes, three in front and one in
rear, each terminated with a black sharp tallon from 3/8ths to 1/2 an
inch in length.–these birds are seldom found in parties of more than
three or four and most usually at this season single as the balks and
other birds of prey usually are–it’s usual food is flesh–this bird
dose not spread it’s tail when it flys and the motion of it’s wings
when flying is much like that of a Jay-bird-

The White turkey of the black hills from information of a french lad
who wintered with the Chien Indians About the size of the common wild
turkey the plumage perfectly white–this bird is booted as low as the
[Clark, September 18, 1804]
Septr. 18
I Killed a prarie wolf to day about the Sise of a Gray fox with a
bushey tail the head and ears like a Fox wolf, and barks like a Small
Dog–The annimale which we have taken for the Fox is this wolf, we have
seen no Foxes.

18 Septr. Tuesday Set out early wind from the N W. Modrt. our boat
being much litened goes much better than usial
[Clark, September 18, 1804]
September 18th Tuesday 1804
Wind from the N W. we Set out early the boat much lightened, the wind a
head proceed on verry Slowly (1) Passed an I a Island about the middle
of the river at 1 Mile this Island is about a mile long, and has a
great perpotion of red Cedir on it, a Small Creek comes in on the S. S.
opposit the head of the Island, proceeded on passed many Sand bars and
Camped on the L. S. before night the wind being verry hard & a head all
Day. the hunters Killed 10 Deer to day and a Prarie wolf, had it all
jurked & Skins Stretchd after Camping I walked on Shore Saw Goats, Elk,
Buffalow, Black tail Deer, & the Common Deer, I Killed a Prarie Wollf,
about the Size of a gray fox bushey tail head & ear like a wolf, Some
fur Burrows in the ground and barks like a Small Dog.

what has been taken heretofore for the Fox was those wolves, and no
Foxes has been Seen; The large wolves are verry numourous, they are of
a light Colr. large & has long hair with Corrs fur.

Some Goats of a Different Kind Wer Seen yesterday Great many Porcupin
rabits & Barking Squirils in this quarter. Plumbs & grapes.
[Lewis, September 18, 1804]
Sept. 18th this day saw the first brant on their return from the north-
[Clark, September 19, 1804]
(1) & (2) passed a large Island Situated nearest the S. S. 1/2 a mile
from the Lower pt. of this Island, the 1st of the 3 rivers mouths which
is about 35 yards wide, running from the N E. one mile above the 2nd
Comes in this is Small not more that 15 yards wide a Short Distance
above a 3d comes in scattering its waters thro a bottom. I walked on
Shore to See this great Pass of the Sioux and Calumet ground, found it
a handsom Situation, and Saw the remains of their Campt on the 2d
river, for many years passed–(3) passed a Creek on the L. S. 15 yds
wide we (4) passed a Creek 20 yds wide (5) passed a Creek 20 yd. wide
on the L. S. I call Night C. as I did not get to it untill late at
night, above the mouth of this Creek we camped, the wind being
favourable, for the boat I Killed a fat Buffalow Cow, and a fat Buck
elk, york my Servent Killed a Buck, the Huntes Killed 4 Deer, & the
boat Crew killed 2 Buffalow Swiming the river, handsom Countrey of
Plains, I saw many trovs of Buffalow & a Gangue of 30 or 40 Elk and
othr Scattering elk &c. a find evening I hurt my hands & feet last night
[Clark, September 19, 1804]
19th of September Wednesday 1804
Set out early, a Cool morning verry Clear the wind from the S. E a
Bluff on the L. S.–here Commences a Butifull Countrey on both Sides of
the Missourie, (2) passed a large Island Called Prospect Island op
posit this Isd. the 3 rivers Coms in, passing thro a butifull Plain,
here I walked on Shore & Killed a fat Cow & Sent her to the boat and
proceeded on to the first of the 3 rivers, this river is about 35 yards
wide Contains a good deel of water, I walked up this river 2 miles &
Cross, the bottom is high and rich Some timber, I crossed & returned to
the mouth, & proceeded up one mile to the 2d river which is Small 12
yards wide, and on it but little timber, on this Creek the Seaux has
frequently Camped, as appears by the Signs–the lands betwen those two
Creeks in a purpindicular bluff of about 80 feet with a butifull Plain
& gentle assent back–a Short distance above the 2nd a 3rd Creek Comes
into the river in 3 places Scattering its waters over the large
timbered bottom, this Creek is near the Size of the middle Creek
Containing a greater quantity of water, those rivers is the place that
all nations who meet are at peace with each other, Called the Seaux
pass of the 3 rivers.

The boat proceeded on passd. the Island (3) passed a Creek 15 yds wide
on the L. Side (4) passed a Creek on the L. S. 20 yards wide which I
Call Elm Creek passing thro a high Plain (5) passed a Creek on the L.
S. 18 yds. wide above which the boat Came too, I joined them late at
night, and Call this Creek Night Creek the winds favourable all Day, I
killed a fat buck Elk late and could only get his Skin and a Small part
of his flesh to Camp. My Servent Killed a Buck, the Crew in the boat
Killed 2 buffalow in the river–The Hunters on Shore Killed 4 Deer with
black tails one of which was a Buck with two men Prongs on each Side
forked equally, which I never before Seen. I saw Several large gangs of
Buffaloes 2 large Herds of Elk & goats &c. (6) pass a Small Island on
the S. S. opposit to this Island on the L. S. a Creek of about 10 yards
wide Coms in passing thro a plain in which great quantities of the
Prickley Pear grows. I call this Creek Prickley Pear Creek, This Isld.
is Called the lower Island it is Situated at the Commencement of what
is Called & Known by the Grand de Tortu or Big Bend of the Missourie.
[Clark, September 20, 1804]
September the 20th Thursday 1804 Detchd. 3 men across the Big bend
(Called the Grand deTour) with the horse, to stay and hunt & jurk
provisions untill we get around (1) passed a Island on the S. S. the
river Crouded with Sand bars,

20th of September 1804 Thursday (Continued)
(1) at the N W. extremity of this bend passed an Small Island on the L.
S. opposit the upper Point of this Solitary Island Came too to _____ at
the mouth of a Small run on the S. S. & Newmon & Tomson picked up Some
Salt mixed with the Sand in the run, Such as the ottoes Indians Collect
on the Sands of the Corn de Cerf R. & make use of, Camped on a Sand bar
on the S. S. above the Island–I went out to examine the portage which
I found quit Short 2000 yards only, the Prarie below & Sides of the
hills containing great quantites of the Prickly Piar which nearly ruind
my feet, I saw a hare, & I beleve he run into a hole, he run on a hill
& disapeared, I Saw on this hill several holes. I Saw Several Goats Elk
Ders &c. & Buffalow in every Detection feeding. R. Fields Killed a Deer
& 2 Goats one a female, which differs from the male as to Size being
Something Smaller, Small Straight horns without any black about the
neck Camped late
[Clark, September 20, 1804]
20th of September, Thursday 1804
a fair morning wind from the S E detached 2 men to the 1st. Creek abov
the big bend with the horse to hunt and wait our arrival proceeded on
passed the lower Island opposit which the Sand bars are verry thick &
the water Shoal. I walked on Shore with a view of examining this bend
Crossed at the narost part which is a high irregular hills of about 180
or 190 feet, this place the gorge of the Bend is 1 mile & a quarter
(from river to river or) across, from this high land which is only in
the Gouge, the bend is a Butifull Plain thro which I walked, Saw numbrs
of Buffalow & Goats, I saw a Hare & believe he run into a hole in the
Side of a hill, he run up this hill which is Small & has Several holes
on the Side & I could not See him after, I joined the boat in the
evening–passed a Small Island on the L. S. in the N. W. extremity of
the bind Called Solitary Island, and Camped late on a Sand bar near the
S. S.–R. Fields killed 1 Deer & 2 Goats one of them a feemale–She
Differs from the mail as to Size being Smaller, with Small Horns,
Stright with a Small prong without any black about the neck None of
those Goats has any Beard, they are all Keenly made, and is butifull
[Lewis, September 20, 1804]
Septr. 20th
on the lard. shore at the commencement of the big bend observed a clift
of black porus rock which resembled Lava tho on a closer examination I
believe it to be calcarious and an imperfect species of the French
burr–preserved a specemine, it is a brownish white, or black or
yellowish brown-
[Clark, September 21, 1804]
21st of September 1804 Friday 1804, last night or reather this morng at
a half past one oClock the Sand bar on which we Camped began to give
way, which allarmed the Serjt on guard & the noise waked me, I got up
and by the light of the moon observed that the Sand was giving away
both above & beloy and would Swallow our Perogues in a few minits,
ordered all hands on board and pushed off we had not got to the opposit
Shore before pt. of our Camp fel into the river. we proceeded on to the
Gorge of the bend & brackfast, the Distance of this bend around is 30
miles, and 11/4 miles thro, the high lands extinds to the gauge and is
about 200 feet the plain in the bend as also the two opposit Sides abov
and below is delightfull plains with graduel assents from the river in
which there is at this time Great number of Buffalow Elk & Goats feedg
The Course from the gauge on the L. S. is S. 70 W. 41/2 Miles to the
pt. of Ceder Timber on the L. S. pass Sands. worthy of remark the Cat
fish not So plenty abov white river & much Smaller than usial, Great
nunbers of Brant & plover, also goat and black tail Deer.
[Clark, September 21, 1804]
21st of September Friday 1804
at half past one oClock this morning the Sand bar on which we Camped
began to under mind and give way which allarmed the Sergeant on Guard,
the motion of the boat awakened me; I get up & by the light of the moon
observed that the land had given away both above and below our Camp &
was falling in fast. I ordered all hands on as quick as possible &
pushed off, we had pushed off but a few minets before the bank under
which the Boat & perogus lay give way, which would Certainly have Sunk
both Perogues, by the time we made the opsd. Shore our Camp fell in, we
made a 2d Camp for the remainder of the night & at Daylight proceeded
on to the Gouge of this Great bend and Brackfast, we Sent a man to
measure step off the Distance across the gouge, he made it 2000 yds.
The distance arround is 30 mes. The hills extend thro the gouge and is
about 200 foot above the water–in the bend as also the opposite Sides
both abov and below the bend is a butifull inclined Plain in which
there is great numbers of Buffalow, Elk & Goats in view feeding &
Scipping on those Plains Grouse, Larks & the Prarie bird is Common in
those Plains. we proceeded on passed a (1) willow Island below the
mouth of a Small river called Tylors R about 35 yds. wide which corns
in on the L. S. 6 miles above the Gorge of the bend, at the mouth of
this river the two hunters a head left a Deer & its Skin also the Skin
of a white wolfwe observe an emence number of Plover of Different kind
Collecting and takeing their flight Southerly, also Brants which appear
to move in the same Direction. The Cat fish is Small and not So plenty
as below (2) The Shore on each Side is lined with hard rough Gulley
Stones of different Sides, which has roled from the hills & out of
Small brooks, Ceder is comon here, This day is worm, the wind which is
not hard blows from the S. E, we Camped at the lower point of the Mock
Island on the S. S. this now Connected with the main land, it has the
appearance of once being an Island detached from the main land Covered
with tall Cotton wood–we Saw Some Camps and tracks of the Seaux which
appears to be old three or four weeks ago–one frenchman I fear has got
an abscess on his they, he complains verry much we are makeing every
exertion to releiv him The Praries in this quarter Contains Great qts.
of Prickley Pear.
[Clark, September 22, 1804]
22nd September Satturday 1804
a thick fog this morning untill 7 oClock which detained us, Saw Some
old tracks of the Indians on the S. S. proceeded on–one French man
with a abscess on his thigh which pains him verry much for 10 or 12
Days a butifull Plain on both Sides low high land under which there is
a number of lage Stone, we See great numbers of Buffalow feeding
[Clark, September 22, 1804]
A continuation of notes taken assending the Missourie in 1804-by W.
Satturday the 22nd of September 1804-
A Thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock, The plains on
both Sides of the River is butifull and assends gradually from the
river; noumerous herds of Buffalow to be Seen in every derections, (1)
Took the altitude of the Sun & found the Lattitude to be 44° 11′ 33″ N-
(2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. and one on the S. S. imediately
above, & about 3 m. long, on the L. S. opposit this Island a Creek of
about 15 yds wide mouthes, Called the Creek of the 3 Sisters (3) passed
Cedar Island 11/2 M. long & 1 M. wide Situated a little above the last
and nearest the S. S.near the upper part of this Island on its S. Side
a Tradeing fort is Situated built of Cedar-by a Mr. Louiselle of St
Louis, for the purpose of Tradeing with the Teton Bands of Soues (or
“Sieux”) about this Fort I saw numbers of Indians Temporary Lodges, &
horse Stables, all of them round and to a point at top, I observed also
numbers of Cotton Trees fallen for the purpose of feeding their horses
on the Bark of the limbs of those trees which is Said to be excellent
food for the horses–we came too on the S. S. below a Small Island
called Goat island, passed a no. of large round Stones, Som distance in
the river as also in the Sides of the hills,–I walked on the Shore
this evening and Killed a verry large Deer–our hunters Killed 2 Deer &
a Beaver, they Complain of the Mineral quallities of the high land
distroying their mockersons-.
[Clark, September 22, 1804]
22nd of September Satturday 1804
a thick fog this morning detained us untill 7 oClock passed a butifull
inclined Prarie on both Sides in which we See great numbers of Buffalow
feeding–(1) took the Meridean altitude of the Suns upper Leimb. 92° 50′
00″ the SexSecnt the Latd. produced from this Obsivation is 44° 11′ 33″
3/10 North (2) passed a Small Island on the L. S. imediately above
passed a Island Situated nearest the L. S. abt. 3 miles long, behind
this Isd. on the L. S. a Creek Comes in about 15 yards wide, this Creek
and Islands are Called the 3 Sisters a butifull Plain on both Sides of
the river (3) passed a Island Situated nearest the S. S. imedeately
above the last Called Ceder Island this Island is about 11/2 miles long
& nearly as wide Covered with Ceder, on the South Side of this Island
Mr. Louiselle a trader from St. Louis built a fort of Ceder & a good
house to trate with the Seaux & wintered last winter; about this fort I
observed a number of Indian Camps in a Conicel form,–they fed their
horses on Cotton limbs as appears. here our hunters joined us havening
killed 2 Deer & a Beaver, they Complain much of the Mineral Substances
in the barren hills over which they passed distroying their mockersons.

(4) we proceeded on and Camped late on the S. Side below a Small Island
in the bend S. S. Called Goat Island. The large Stones which lay on the
Sides of the banks in Several places lay Some distance in the river,
under the water and is dangerous &.

I walked out this evening and killed a fine Deer, the musquiters is
verry troublesom in the bottoms
[Clark, September 23, 1804]
23rd Septr. Sunday 1804 (days and nights equal) Set out early under a
gentle Breeze from the S E N. 46°W 33/4 Miles to the mo. of a Creek on
the S. S. passd. a pt. on the L. S. (1) a Small Island opsd. in the
bend to the S. S. This Island is Called goat Island, (1) this Creek is
10 yards wide. passed bad Sand bars–S. 46°W 23/4 mes. a wood at a Spring
in the bend to the L. S. Saw the Prarie a fire behind us near the head
of Ceder Island L. S. N. 80° W. 41/2 to the lower pt of Elk Island pass 2
Willow Islands & Sand I saw this morning 12 of those Black & white
birds of the corvus Species.

Capt Lewis went out to hund on the Island a great number of Buffalow in
Sight I must Seal up all those Scrips & draw from my Journal at Some
other time Win Clark Cpt.
[Clark, September 23, 1804]
Sunday the 23rd September 1804
Set out under a Gentle breeze from the S. E–(1) passed Goat Island
Situated in a bend to the S. S–above passed a Small Creek 12 yards
wide on the S. S.–we observed a great Smoke to the SW. which is an
Indian Signal of their haveing discovered us, I walked on Shore and
observed great numbers of Buffalows. (2) passed 2 Small Willow Islands
with large Sand bars makeing from their upper points (3) passed Elk
Island Situated near the L. S. about 21/2 mes. long & 3/4 wide, Covered
with Cotton wood, a red berry Called by the French “grise de buff,”
Grapes &c. the river is wide Streight & contains a great numr of Sand
bars, (4) passed a Small Creek on the S. S. 16 yds wide I call Reubens
Cr.–R. Fields was the first who found it–Came too & Camped on the S.
S. in a Wood. Soon after we landed three Soues boys Swam across to us,
those boys informed us that a Band of Sieux called the Tetons of 80
Lodges wer Camped near the mouth of the next River, and 60 Lodges more
a Short distance above them, they had that day Set the praries on fire
to let those Camps Know of our approach–we gave those boys two twists
of Tobacco to carry to their Chiefs & Warriors to Smoke, with
derections to tell them that we wished to Speak to them tomorrow, at
the mouth of the next river–Capt Lewis walked on Shore, R F. Killed a
She Goat or “Cabbra.”
[Clark, September 23, 1804]
23rd of September Sunday 1804
Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E, (1) passed a Small Island
Situated in a bend to the L. S. Called Goat Island, a Short distance
above the upper point a Creek of 12 yards wide corns in on the S. S. we
observed a great Smoke to the S W.–I walked on Shore & observed
Buffalow in great Herds at a Distance (2) passed two Small willow
Islands with large Sand bars makeing out from them, passed (3) Elk
Island about 21/2 miles long & 3/4 mile wide Situated near the L. S.
covered with Cotton wood the read Current Called by the French Gres de
Butiff & grapes &c. &c. the river is nearly Streight for a great
distance wide and Shoal. (4) passed a Creek on the S. S. 16 yards wide
we Call Reubens Creek, as R Fields found it Camped on the S. S. below
the mouth of a Creek on the L. S. three Souex boys Came to us Swam the
river and informd that the Band of Soauex called the Teton of 80 Lodges
were Camped at the next Creek above, & 60 Lodges more a Short distance
above, we gave those boys two Carrots of Tobacco to Carry to their
Chiefs, with derections to tell them that we would Speek to them
tomorrow Capt Lewis walked on Shore this evening, R. F Killed a Doe
[Clark, September 24, 1804]
Monday the 24th of September 1804
a fair morning Set out early, wind from the East, passed the mouth of a
Creek on the L. S. Called Creek in high water. passed a large (1)
Island on the L. S. about 21/2 Miles long on which Colter had Camped &
Killed 4 Elk. the wind from the S. E.–we prepared Some Clothes a few
medal for the Chiefs of the Teton band of Sioux we expected to meet at
the next River–much Stone on the S. S. of the River, we Saw one hare
to day–our Perogues Called at the Island for the Elk, Soon after we
passed the Island Colter ran up the bank & reported that the Sioux had
taken his horse, we Soon after Saw five indians on the bank; who
expressed a wish to come on board, we informed them we were friends,
and wished to Continue So, we were not abraid any Indians–Some of
their young Men had Stolen a horse Sent by their Great Father to their
great Chief, and we Should not Speak to them any more untill the horse
was returned to us again–passed a Island about 11/2 m. long on which
we Saw maney elk & Buffalow, we Came too off the Mouth of a Small
river, The Teton of the burnt woods is Camped 2 Miles up this river,
this river we Call Teton is 70 Yds wide and corns in on the S W Side-I
went on Shore and Smoked with a Chief, Called Buffalow Medison, who
Came to See us here. The Chief Said he Knew nothing of the horse &c &.
I informed them we would call the grand Chiefs in Council tomorrow, all
continued on board all night
[Clark, September 24, 1804]
24th September Monday 1804
Set out early a fair day the wind from the E, pass the mouth of Creek
on the L. S. called on high water; passed (i ) a large Island on the L.
S. about 2 miles & 1/2 long on which Colter had Camped & Killed 4 Elk,
the wind fair from the S. E. we prepared Some Clothes and a fiew
meadels for the Chiefs of the Teton’s hand of Seaux which we expect to
See to day at the next river, observe a Great Deel of Stone on the
Sides of the hills on the S. S. we Saw one Hare to day, prepared all
things for action in Case of necessity, our Perogus went to the Island
for the meet, Soon after the man on Shore run up the bank and reported
that the Indians had Stolen the horse we Soon after met 5 Inds. and
ankered out Some distance & Spoke to them informed them we were
friends, & wished to Continue So but were not afraid of any Indians,
Some of their young men had taken the horse Sent by their Great father
for ther Chief and we would not Speek to them untill the horse was
returned to us again.

passed (2) a Island on the S. S. on which we Saw Several Elk, about
11/2 miles long Called Good humered Islds. Came to about 11/2 miles
above off the mouth of a Small river about 70 yards wide Called by Mr.
Evins the Little Mississou River, The Tribes of the Scouix Called the
Teton, is Camped about 2 miles up on the N W Side and we Shall Call the
River after that nation, Teton This river is 70 yards wide at the mouth
of water, and has a considerable Current we anchored off the mouth the
french Perogue Come up early in the morning, the other did not get up
untill in the evening Soon after we had Came too. I went & Smoked with
the Chief who Came to See us here all well, we prepare to Speek with
the Indians tomorrow at which time we are informed the Indians will be
here, The French man who had for Some time been Sick, began to blead
which allarmed him–2/3 of our party Camped on board The remainder with
the Guard on Shore.
[Clark, September 25, 1804]
25th of September 1804 off Teton River
a fair Morning the wind from the S. E. raised a Flagg Staff and formed
an orning & Shade on a Sand bar in the Mouth of Teton R to Council
under, the greater portion of the party to Continue on boardabout 11
oClock the 1st & 2d Chief arrived, we gave them to eat; they gave us
Some meat, (we discover our interpeter do not Speak the language well)
at 12 oClock the Councill Commenced & after Smokeing agreeable to the
usial custom C. L. Delivered a written Speech to them, I Some
explinations &c. all party Paraded, gave a Medal to the grand Chief in
Indian Un-ton gar-Sar bar, or Black Buffalow–2d Torto-hongar, Partezon
(Bad fellow) the 3d Tar-ton-gar-wa-ker, Buffalow medison–we invited
those Chiefs & a Soldier on board our boat, and Showed them many
Curiossites, which they were much Surprised, we gave they 1/2 a wine
glass of whiskey which they appeared to be exceedingly fond of they
took up an empty bottle, Smelted it, and made maney Simple jestures and
Soon began to be troublesom the 2d Chief effecting Drunkness as a Cloak
for his vilenous intintious (as I found after wards,) realed or fell
about the boat, I went in a perogue with those Chief who left the boast
with great reluctians, my object was to reconsile them and leave them
on Shore, as Soon as I landed 3 of their young ment Seased the Cable of
the Perogue, one Soldiar Huged the mast and the 2d Chief was
exceedingly insolent both in words and justures to me declareing I
Should no go off, Saying he had not recived presents Suffient from us-
I attempted to passify but it had a contrary effect for his insults
became So personal and his intentions evident to do me injurey, I Drew
my Sword at this motion Capt Louis ordered all in the boat under arms,
the fiew men that was with me haveing previously taken up their guns
with a full deturmination to defend me if possible–The grand Chief
then took hold of the Cable & Sent all the young men off, the Soldier
got out of the perogue and the 2nd Chief walked off to the Party at
about 20 yards back, all of which had their bows Strung & guns Cocked-
I then Spoke in verry positive terms to them all, principaly addressing
myself to the 1st Chief, who let the roape go and walked to the Indian,
party about, 100 I again offered my hand to the 1st Chief who refused
it–(all this time the Indians were pointing their arrows blank-) I
proceeded to the perogue and pushed off and had not proceeded far
before the 1st & 3r Chief & 2 principal men walked into the water and
requested to go on board, I took them in and we proceeded on abot a
Mile, and anchored near a Small Island, I call this Island Bad humered
[Clark, September 25, 1804]
25th Septr
a fair morning the wind from the S. E. all well, raised a Flag Staff &
made a orning or Shade on a Sand bar in the mouth of Teton River for
the purpose of Speeking with the Indians under, the Boat Crew on board
at 70 yards Distance from the bar The 5 Indians which we met last night
Continued, about 11 oClock the 1 s & 2d Chief Came we gave them Some of
our Provsions to eat, they gave us great quantites of meet Some of
which was Spoiled we feel much at a loss for the want of an interpeter
the one we have can Speek but little.

Met in council at 12 oClock and after Smokeing, agreeable to the usial
Custom, Cap Lewis proceeded to Deliver a Speech which we oblige to
Curtail for want of a good interpeter all our Party paraded. gave a
medal to the Grand Chief Calld. in Indian Un ton gar Sar bar in French
Beefe nure Black Buffalow Said to be a good man, 2 Chief Torto hon gar-
or the Partisan-or Partizan-bad the 3rd is the Beffe De Medison his
name is Tar ton gar wa ker

1. Contesabe man War zing go

2. do Second Bear = Ma to co que pan

Envited those Cheifs on board to Show them our boat and Such
Curiossities as was Strange to them, we gave them 1/4 a glass of
whiskey which they appeared to be verry fond of, Sucked the bottle
after it was out & Soon began to be troublesom, one the 2d Cheif
assumeing Drunkness, as a Cloake for his rascally intentions I went
with those Cheifs (which left the boat with great reluctiance) to Shore
with a view of reconseleing those men to us, as Soon as I landed the
Perogue three of their young men Seased the Cable of the Perogue, the
Chiefs Soldr. Huged the mast, and the 2d Chief was verry insolent both
in words & justures declareing I Should not go on, Stateing he had not
recved presents Suffient from us, his justures were of Such a personal
nature I felt my Self Compeled to Draw my Sword, at this motion Capt.
Lewis ordered all under arms in the boat, those with me also Showed a
Disposition to Defend themselves and me, the grand Chief then took hold
of the roop & ordered the young warrers away, I felt my Self warm &
Spoke in verry positive terms Most of the warriers appeared to have
ther Bows Strung and took out their arrows from they quves. as I was
not permited to return, I Sent all the men except 2 Inpt. to the boat,
the perogu Soon returned with about 12 of our detumind men ready for
any event this movement caused a no. of the Indians to withdraw at a
distance,–Their treatment tome was verry rough & I think justified
rough ness on my part, they all left my Perogue and Councild. with
themselves the result I could not lern and nearly all went off after
remaining in this Situation Some time I offered my hand to the 1 & 2
Chief who refusd to recve it. I turned off & went with my men on board
the perogue, I had not progd. more the 10 paces before the 1st Cheif
3rd & 2 Brave men waded in after me. I took them in & went on board we
proceeded on about 1 mile & anchored out off a willow Island placed a
guard on Shore to protect the Cooks & a guard in the boat, fastened the
Perogues to the boat, I call this Island bad humered Island as we were
in a bad humer.
[Clark, September 26, 1804]
26th of Septr Set out early and proceeded on–the river lined with
indians, came too & anchored by the particular request of the Chiefs to
let their Womin & Boys See the Boat, and Suffer them to Show us some
friendship–great members of men womin & Children on the bank viewing
us–Those people are Spritely Small legs ille looking Set men
perticularly, they grease & Black themselves when they dress, make use
of Hawks feathers about thier heads, cover with a Roab each a polecat
Skin to hold their Smokeables, fond of Dress, Badly armed. ther women
appear verry well, fine Teeth, High Cheek Dress in Skin Peticoats, & a
Roabe with the flesh Side out and harey ends turned back over their
Sholdes, and look well–they doe all the Laborious work, and I may say
are perfect Slaves to thier husbands who frequently have Several wives-
Capt Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Chiefs, who appeared to wish
to become friendly they requested us to remain one night & see them
dance &c.–in the evening I walked on Shore, and Saw Several Mahar
Womin & Boys in a lodge & was told they were Prisones laterly taken in
a battle in which they killed a number & took 48 prisoners–I advised
the Chiefs to make peace with that nation and give up the Prisoners, if
they intended to follow the words of their great father they promised
that they would do So–I was in Several Lodges neetly formed, those
lodges are about 15 to 20 feet Diametr Stretched on Poles like a Sugar
Loaf, made of Buffalow Skins Dressed about 5 oClock I was approached by
10 well Dressed young men with a neet Buffalow Roab which they Set down
before me & requested me to get in they Carried me to ther Council
Tents forming 3/4 Circle & Set me down betwn 2 Chefs where about 70 men
were Seated in a circle, in front of the Chief 6 feet Square was
cleared & the pipe of peace raised on forks & Sticks, under which was
Swans down Scattered, the Flags of Spane & the one we gave them
yesterday was Displayed a large fire was made on which a Dog was
Cooked, & in the center about 400 wt of Buffalow meat which they gave
us,–Soon after, I took my Seat the young men went to the boat &
brought Capt Lewis in the Same way & placed him by me Soon after an old
man rose & Spoke approveing what we had done. requesting us to take
pitty on them &C. answered–They form their Camp in a circle

The great Chief then rose in great State and Spoke to the Same purpos
and with Solemnity took up the pipe of peace and pointed it to the
heavens, the 4 quartrs and the earth, he made Some divistation, &
presented the Sten to us to Smoke, after Smokeing & a Short Harrang to
his people we were requested to take the meat, and the Flesh of the Dog
gavin us to eat–We Smoked untill Dark, at which time all was cleared
away & a large fire made in the Center, Several men with Tamborens
highly Decorated with Der & Cabra Hoofs to make them rattle, assembled
and began to Sing & Beat–The women Came forward highly decerated with
the Scalps & Trofies of war of their fathes Husbands & relations, and
Danced the war Dance, which they done with great chearfulness untill 12
oClock, when we informed the Chief we intended return on bord, (they
offered us women, which we did not except) 4 Chiefs accompanied us to
the boat and Staid all night–Those people have a Description of Men
which they Call Soldiars, those men attend to the police of the Band,
Correct all vices &. I Saw one to day whip 2 Squars who appeared to
have fallen out, when the Soldier approached all appeared give way and
flee at night they Keep 4 or 5 men at different distances walking
around their Camp Singing the acursenes of the night all in Spirits
this evening wind hard from the S E

I saw 25 Squars & Boys taken 13 days ago in a battle with the Mahars,
in which they destroyed 40 Lodges, Killed 75 men & boys, & took 48
prisones which they promised us Should be delivered to Mr. Durion now
with the Yankton _____, we gave our Mahar interpeter a few alls & &. to
give those retched Prisonis, I saw Homney of ground Potatos a Spoon of
the Big Horn animals which will hold 2 quarts.
[Clark, September 26, 1804]
26th Septr. 1804 bad hd Isd.
26th of September Wednesday 1804
Set out early proceeded on and Came to by the wish of the Chiefs for to
let their Squars & boys See the Boat and Suffer them to treat us well
great number of men women & Children on the banks viewing us, these
people Shew great anxiety, they appear Spritely, generally ill looking
& not well made thier legs & arms Small Generally–they Grese & Black
themselves with coal when they dress, make use of a hawks feather about
their heads the men a robe & each a polecats Skins, for to hold ther
Bais roly for Smokeing fond of Dress & Show badly armed with fuseis &.
The Squaws are Chearfull fine lookg womin not handson, High Cheeks
Dressed in Skins a Peticoat and roab which foldes back over thir
Sholder, with long wool. doe all ther laborious work & I may Say
perfect Slaves to the men, as all Squars of nations much at war, or
where the womin are more noumerous than the men–after Comeing too
Capt. Lewis & 5 men went on Shore with the Chiefs, who appeared
desposed to make up & be friendly, after Captain Lewis had been on
Shore about 3 hours I became uneasy for fear of Some Deception & sent a
Serjeant to See him and know his treatment which he reported was
friendly, & thy were prepareing for a Dance this evening

The made frequent Selecitiation for us to remain one night only and let
them Show their good disposition towards us, we deturmined to remain,
after the return of Capt. Lewis, I went on Shore I saw Several Maha
Prisoners and Spoke to the Chiefs it was necessary to give those
prisoners up & become good friends with the Mahars if they wished to
follow the advice of their Great father I was in Several Lodges neetly
formed as before mentioned as to the Bauruly Tribe–I was met by about
10 well Dressd. yound men who took me up in a roabe Highly a decrated
and Set me Down by the Side of their Chief on a Dressed robe in a large
Council House this house formed a 3/4 Cercle of Skins well Dressed and
Sown together under this Shelter about 70 men Set forming a Circle in
front of the Chiefs a plac of 6 feet Diameter was Clear and the pipe of
peace raised on Sticks under which there was Swans down Scattered, on
each Side of the Circle two Pipes, The flags of Spain 2 & the Flag we
gave them in front of the Grand Chief a large fire was near in which
provisions were Cooking, in the Center about 400 wt. of excellent
Buffalo Beif as a present for us

Soon after they set me Down, the men went for Capt Lewis brough him in
the same way and placed him also by the Chief in a fiew minits an old
man rose & Spoke approveing what we had done & informing us of their
Situation requesting us to take pity on them &c which was answered The
Great Chief then rose with great State to the Same purpote as far as we
Could learn & then with Great Solemnity took up the pipe of peace whin
the principal Chiefs Spoke with the pipe of Peace he took in one hand
Some of the most Delicate parts of the Dog which was prepared for the
feist & made a Sacrifise to the flag–& after pointing it to the
heavins the 4 quarter of the Globe & the earth,, lit it and prosist
presented the Stem to us to Smoke, after a Smoke had taken place, & a
Short Harange to his people, we were requested to take the meal put
before us the dog which they had been cooking, & Pemitigon & ground
potatoe in Several platters. Pemn is buffo meat dried or baked pounded
& mixed with grease raw Dog Sioux think great dishused on festivals.
eat little of dog pemn & pote good we Smoked for an hour Dark & all was
Cleared away a large fire made in the Center, about 10 misitions
playing on tamberins. long sticks with Deer & Goats Hoofs tied So as to
make a gingling noise and many others of a Similer kind, those men
began to Sing, & Beet on the Tamboren, the women Came foward highly
Deckerated in theire way, with the Scalps and Trofies of war of ther
father Husbands Brothers or near Connection & proceeded to Dance the
war Dance which they done with Great Chearfullness untill 12 oClock
when we informed the Cheifs that they were fatigued &c. they then
retired & we Accompd. by 4 Chiefs returned to our boat, they Stayed
with us all night. Those people have Some brave men which they make use
of as Soldiers those men attend to the police of the Village Correct
all errors I saw one of them to day whip 2 Squars who appeared to have
fallen out, when he approachd all about appeared to flee with great
turrow at night thy keep two 3 4 or 5 men at deffinit Distances walking
around Camp Singing the accurrunces of the night all the men on board
100 paces from Shore wind from the S. E. moderate one man verry sick on
board with a Dangerass abscess on his Hip. all in Spirits this eveninge

In this Tribe I saw 25 Squars and boys taken 13 days ago in a battle
with the mahars in this battle they Destroyd 40 lodges, killed 75 men,
& Som boys & children, & took 48 Prisones Womin & boys which they
promis both Capt. Lewis and my Self Shall be Delivered up to Mr. Durion
at the Tribe, those are a retched and Dejected looking people the
Squars appear low & Corse but this is an unfavourabl time to judge of
them we gave our Mahar inteptr. Some fiew articles to give those Squats
in his name Such as alls needle &. &c.

I Saw & eat Pemitigon the Dog, Groud potatoe made into a Kind of
homney, which I thought but little inferior–I also Saw a Spoon made of
a horn of an animile of the Sheep kind the spoon will hold 2 quarts.
[Clark, September 27, 1804]
27th of Septr. 1804–The Bank as usial lined with Sioux, gave the 2
principal Chiefs a blanket & a peck of Corn each, Capt Lewis
accompanied the Chiefs to their Lodges, they informed us that a great
part of their nation had not arrived, & would arrive to night and
requested us to Delay one Day longer, that they might See us

I rote a letter to Mr. Durion, & prepared Some Commissions & a meadel &
Sent to Captain Lewis–at 2 oClock Capt Lewis retuned with 4 chiefs & a
Brave man named War-cha pa–after a delay of half an hour I went with
them on Shore, they left the boat with reluctiance (we Suspect they are
treacherous and are at all times guarded & on our guard) They again
offered me a young woman and wish me to take her & not Dispise them, I
wavered the Subject, at Dark the Dance began as usial and performed as
last night. womin with ther Husbands & relations cloths arms Scalps on
poles &c. &c. Capt Lewis joined me & we continued until about 11 oClock
and 2 Chief accompaned us to the boat I with 2 Cheifs was in a Perogue
going on board, by bad Stearing the parogu Struk the Cable with Such
force as to brake it near the anchor (Cap Lewis) and 3 or 4 men on
Shore, I had all hands up and was Compelled to Land–the Chief got
allarmed & allarmed the Indians the 1s Chief & about 200 men Came down
in great hast armd and for action, and found it was false, about 20 of
them Camped on Shore all night–this allarm Cap Lewis & well as my Self
viewed as the Signal of their intentions, one half on guard, our
misfortune of loseing our anchor obliged us to lay under a falling in
bank much exposed to the Accomplishment of the hostile intentions of
those Tetons (who we had every reason to believe from ther Conduct
intended to make an attempt to Stop our progress & if possible rob us-)
Peter Crusat who Spoke Mahar came in the night and informed me that the
mahar Prisoners told him that the Tetons intended to Stop us–We Shew’d
but little Sign of a knowledge of there intentions.
[Clark, September 27, 1804]
27th of Septr. Thursday 1804
I rose early aftr a bad nights Sleep found the Chief all up, and the
bank as usial lined with Spectators we gave the 2 great Cheifs a
Blanket a peace, or rethr they took off agreeable to their Custom the
one they lay on and each one Peck of Corn after Brackfast Capt. Lewis &
the Chiefs went on Shore, as a verry large part of their nation was
Comeing in, the Disposition of whome I did not know one of us being
Suffcent on Shore, I wrote a letter to Mr. P. Durion & prepared a
meadel & Some Comsns. & Sent to Cap Lewis at 2 oClock Capt. Lewis
returned with 4 Chiefs & a Brave man named War cha pa or on his Guard.
when the friends of those people die they run arrows through their
flesh above and below their elbous as a testimony of their Greaf after
Staying about half an hour, I went with them on Shore, Those men left
the boat with reluctience, I went first to the 2d Chiefs Lodge, where a
Croud Came around after Speeking on various Subjects I went to a
princpal mans lodge from there to the grand Chiefs lodge, after a fiew
minits he invited me to a Lodge within the Circle in which I Stayed
with all their principal men untill the Dance began, which was Similer
to the one of last night performed by their womn which poles on which
Scalps of their enemies were hung, Some with the Guns Spears & war
empliments their husbands in their hands

Capt. Lewis came on Shore and we Continued untill we were Sleepy &
returned to our boat, the 2nd Chief & one principal man accompanid us,
those two Indians accompanied me on board in the Small Perogue, Capt.
Lewis with a guard Still on Shore, the man who Steered not being much
acustomed to Steer, passed the bow of the boat & peroge Came broad Side
against the Cable & broke it which obliged me to order in a loud voice
all hands all hands up & at their ores, my preempty order to the men
and the bustle of their getting to their ores allarmd the Cheifs,
togethr with the appearance of the men on Shore, as the boat turnd. The
Cheif hollowered & allarmed the Camp or Town informing them that the
Mahars was about attacting us. in about 10 minits the bank was lined
with men armed the 1st Cheif at their head, about 200 men appeared and
after about 1/2 hour returned all but about 60 men who Continued on the
bank all night, the Cheifs Contd. all night with us–This allarm I as
well as Captn. Lewis Considered as the Signal of their intentions
(which was to Stop our proceeding on our journey and if Possible rob
us) we were on our Guard all night, the misfortune of the loss of our
Anchor obliged us to Lay under a falling bank much exposd. to the
accomplishment of their hostile intentions P. C–our Bowman who Cd.
Speek Mahar informed us in the night that the Maha Prisoners informed
him we were to be Stoped–we Shew as little Sighns of a Knowledge of
their intentions as possible all prepared on board for any thing which
might hapen, we kept a Strong guard all night in the boat no Sleep
[Clark, September 28, 1804]
28th of Septr 1804 Friday I made maney attempts in defferent ways to
find our anchor without Sukcess, the Sand had Covered her up, we
Deturmined to proceed on to Day–and after Brackfast we with great
Dificuelty got the Chiefs out of the boat, and when we were about
Setting out the Class Called the Soldiars took possession of the Cable-
the 1st Cheif was Still on board and intended to go a Short distance up
with us, was informed that the men Set on the Cable, he went out and
told Capt Lewis who was at the Bow, they wanted tobacco The 2d Chief
Demanded a flag & Tobacco which we refused to give, Stateing proper
reasons to them for it, after much rangleing, we gave a Carrot of
Tobacco to the 1st Cheif and he to the men &lurked the Cable from them
& proceeded on under a Breeze from the S E. we took in the 3rd Cheif
who was Sitting on a Sand bar 2 miles above–he told us the Rope was
held by order of the 2d Chief who was a Double Spoken man–Soon after
we Saw a man rideing full Speed up the bank, we brought him on board, &
he proved to be the Sun of the 3d Cheif, by him we Sent a talk to the
nation, explanitory of our hoisting the red flag under the white, if
they were for Peace Stay at home and doe as we had Derected them and if
they were for war or deturmined to attempt to Stop us, we were ready to
defend our Selves (as I had before Said)–we Substituted large Stones
in place of an Anchor, we came to at a Small Sand bar in the middle of
the river and Stayed all night-I am verry unwell I think for the want
of Sleep
[Clark, September 28, 1804]
28th of September 1804 Friday
Made many attemps in different ways to find our Anchor but could not,
the Sand had Covered it, from the misfortune of last night our boat was
laying at Shore in a verry unfavourable Situation, after finding that
the anchor Could not be found we deturmined to proceed on, with great
difficuelty got the Chiefs out of our boat, and when we was about
Setting out the Class Called the Soldiers took possession of the Cable
the 1 s Chief which was Still on board & intended to go a Short
distance up with us, I told him the men of his nation Set on the Cable,
he went out & told Capt Lewis who was at the bow the men who Set on the
Roap was Soldiers and wanted Tobacco Capt. L. Said would not agree to
be forced into any thing, the 2d Chief Demanded a flag & Tobacco which
we refusd. to Give Stateing proper reasons to them for it after much
difucelty-which had nearly reduced us to hostility I threw a Carot of
Tobacco to 1 s Chief Spoke So as to touch his pride took the port fire
from the gunner the Chief gives the Tobaco to his Soldiers & he jurked
the rope from them and handed it to the bows man we then Set out under
a Breeze from the S. E. about 2 miles up we observed the 3rd Chief on
Shore beckining to us we took him on board he informed us the roap was
held by the order of the 2d Chief who was a Double Spoken man, Soon
after we Saw a man Comeing full Speed, thro the plains left his horse &
proceeded across a Sand bar near the Shore we took him on board &
observed that he was the Son of the Chief we had on board we Sent by
him a talk to the nation Stateent the Cause of our hoisting the red
flag undr. the white, if they were for peace Stay at home & do as we
had Derected them, if the were for war ore were Deturmined to Stop us
we were ready to defend our Selves, we halted one houre & 1/2 on the S.
S. & made a Substitute of Stones for a ancher, refreshed our men and
proceeded on about 2 miles higher up & came too a verry Small Sand bar
in the middle of the river & Stayed all night, I am Verry unwelle for
want of Sleep Deturmined to Sleep to night if possible, the men Cooked
& we rested well.
[Clark, September 29, 1804]
Capt. W. Clarks Notes Continued as first taken-
29th of September Satturday 1804–Set out early Some bad Sand bars, at
9 oClock we observed the 2d Chief with 2 men and Squars on Shore, they
wished to go up with us as far as the other part of their band, which
would meet us on the river above not far Distant we refused to let one
more Come on board Stateing Suffient reasons, observd they would walk
on Shore to the place we intended to Camp, offered us women we objected
and told them we Should not Speake to another teton except the one on
board with us, who might go on Shore when ever he pleased, those
Indians proceeded on untill later in the evening when the Chief
requested that the Perogue might put him across the river which we
agreed to–Saw numbers of Elk on the Sand bars today, passed an old
Ricara Village at the mouth of a Creek without timber we Stayed all
night on the Side of a sand bar 1/2 a Mile from the Shore.
[Clark, September 29, 1804]
29th of Septr. Satturday 1804
Set out early Some bad Sand bars, proceeded on at 9 oClock we observed
the 2d Chief & 2 principal men one man & a Squar on Shore, they wished
to go up with us as far as the other part of their band, which they
Said was on the river a head not far Distant we refused Stateing verry
Sufhcint reasons and was plain with them on the Subject, they were not
pleased observed that they would walk on Shore to the place we intended
to Camp to night, we observed it was not our wish that they Should for
if they did we Could not take them or any other Tetons on board except
the one we had now with us who might go on Shore when ever he pleased-
they proceeded on, the Chief on board askd. for a twist of Tobacco for
those men we gave him 1/2 a twist, and Sent one by them for that part
of their band which we did not See, & Continued on Saw great numbers of
Elk at the mouth of a Small Creek Called No timber (-as no timber
appeared to be on it.) above the mouth of this Creek the Parties had a
Village 5 years ago,–The 2d Chief Came on the Sand bar & requested we
would put him across the river, I Sent a Perogue & Crossed him & one
man to the S. S. and proceeded on & Came too on a Sand bar on about 1/2
mile from the main Shore & put on it 2 Sentinals Continud all night at
anchor (we Substitute large Stones for anchors in place of the one we
lost) all in high Spirits &c
[Clark, September 30, 1804]
30th of September Sunday 1804 had not proceeded far before we
discovered an Indian running after us, he requstd to go with us to the
Ricaras, we refused to take him, I discovered at a great Distanc a
great number of men women & Children decending a hill towards the river
above which the Chief with us told us was the other Band, Some rain &
hard wind at about 10 oClock we anchored opposit the Camps of this band
and told them we took them by the hand, and Sent to each Chief a Carrot
of Tobacco & Some to the principal men and farther Said that after
Staying with the band below 2 days to See them we had been badly
treated and Should not land again, as we had not time to Delay–refured
then to Mr. Durion for a full account of us, and an explination of what
had been Said, they appeard ansioes for us to eat with them and
observed they were friendly we apoligised & proceeded on under a Double
reafed Sale–the Chief on board threw out to those that ran up Small
pieces of Tobacco & told them to go back and open thier ears, We Saw
great number of white guls–refresh the party with whiskey, in the
evening we Saw 2 Indians at a Distance, The boat turned by accident &
was nearly filling and rocked verry much, allarmed the Indian Chief on
board who ran and hid himself, we landed & the Indian express a wish to
return, we gave him a Blanket Knife & Some tobacco and advised him to
keep his men away, we camped on a Sand bar. verry Cold & windy-
[Clark, September 30, 1804]
30th of Septr. Sunday 1804.
Set out this morning early had not proceeded on far before we
discovered an Indn. running after us, he came up with us at 7 oClock &
requested to come on bord and go up to the recorees we refused to take
any of that band on board if he chose to proceed on Shore it was verry
well Soon after I discovered on the hills at a great distance great
numbers of Indians which appeared to be makeing to the river above us,
we proceeded on under a Double reafed Sail, & Some rain at 9 oClock
observed a large band of Indians the Same which I had before Seen on
the hills incamping on the bank the L. S. we Came too on a Sand bar
Brackfast & proceeded on & cast the ancher opposit their Lodgs. at
about 100 yards distand, and informed the Indians which we found to be
a part of the Band we had before Seen, that took them by the hand and
Sent to each Chief a Carrot of tobacco, as we had been treated badly by
Some of the band below, after Staying 2 days for them, we Could not
delay any time, & refured them to Mr. Duron for a full account of us
and to here our talk Sent by him to the Tetons, those were verry
Selecitious for us to land and eate with them, that they were friendly
&c. &. we appoligised & proceeded on, Sent the peroge to Shore above
with the Tobacco & Delivd. it to a Soldr. of the Chief with us Several
of them ran up the river, the Chf. on board threw then out a Small
twist of Tobacco & told them to go back & open ther ears. they recved
the Tobacco & returned to their lodges–we Saw great numbers of white
guls this day is cloudy & rainey–refresh the men with a glass of
whisky after Brackfast.

we Saw about 6 miles above 2 Indians who came to the bank and looked at
us a about 1/2 an hour & went over the hills to the S W. we proceeded
on under a verry Stiff Breeze from the S., the Stern of the boat got
fast on a log and the boat turned & was verry near filling before we
got her righted, the waves being verry high, The Chief on board was So
fritined at the motion of the boat which in its rocking caused Several
loose articles to fall on the Deck from the lockers, he ran off and hid
himself, we landed he got his gun and informed us he wished to return,
that all things were Cleare for us to go on we would not See any more
Tetons &c. we repeated to him what had been Said before and advised him
to keep his men away, gave him a blanket a Knife & Some Tobacco, Smokd
a pipe & he Set out. we also Set Sale and Came to at a Sand bar, &
Camped, a verrey Cold evening, all on our guard
[Clark, October 1, 1804]
1st of October Monday 1804 The wind blew hard from the S. E. all last
night, Set out early passed a large Island in the middle of the river
opposit this Island the Ricaras lived in 2 Villages on the S W. Side,
about 2 Miles above the upper point of the Island the Chyenne River
Coms in on the L. S. and is about 400 yards wide dischargeing but
little water for a R. of its Size, the Current jentle, and navagable,
to the Black mountains we haule the Boat over a Sand bar, River wide &
Shoal, pass’d a Creek at 5 mils we Call Sentinal Creek, a Small one
above, but little timber about this river, the hills not So high as
usial, the upper Creek I call lookout Creek, Camped on a Sand bar,
opposit a Tradeing house, where a Mr. Valles & 2 men had Some fiew
goods to trade with the Sioux, a boy came to us, This Mr. Vallie
informed us he wintered last winter 300 Legus up the Chyemne River
under the Black mountains, he Sais the River is rapid and bad to
navagate, it forks 100 Leagus up the N. fork enters the Black mountain
40 Leagues above the forks the Countrey like that on the Missouri less
timber more Cedar, the Coat Nur or Black m. is high and Some parts
retain Snow all Summer, Covered with timber principally pine, Great
number of goats and a kind of anamal with verry large horns about the
Size of a Small Elk, White Bear no bever on the chien great numbers in
the mountains, The Chyenne Nation has about 300 Lodges hunt the
Buffalow, Steel horses from the Spanish Settlements, which they doe in
1 month–the Chanal of this River is Corse gravel, Those mountains is
inhabited also by the white booted Turkeys worthy of remark that the
Grouse or Prarie hen is Booted, the Toes of their feet So constructed
as to walk on the Snow, and the Tail Short with 2 long Stiff feathers
in the middle.

Sand bars are So noumerous, that it is impossible to discribe them, &
think it unnecessary to mention them.
[Clark, October 1, 1804]
1st of October Monday 1804
The wind blew hard all last night from the S. E. verry Cold Set out
early the wind Still hard passed a large Island in the middle of the
river (1) opsd. the lower point of this Island the Ricrerees formerly
lived in a large Town on the L. S. above the head of the Island about 2
miles we passed the (2) River) L. S. this river Comes in from the S W.
and is about 400 yards wide, the Current appears gentle, throwing out
but little Sands, and appears to throw out but little water the heads
of this River is Indians live Some distance up this river, the presise
distance I cant learn, above the mouth of this river the Sand bars are
thick and the water Shoal the river Still verry wide and falling a
little we are obliged to haul the boat over a Sand bar, after makeing
Several attempts to pass. the wind So hard we Came too & Stayed 3 hours
after it Slackened a little we proceeded on round a bend, the wind in
the after part of the Day a head–(2) passed a Creek on the L. S. which
we Call the Sentinal, this part of the river has but little timber, the
hills not so high. the Sand bars now noumerous, & river more than one
mile wide including the Sand bars. (2) pass a Small Creek above the
latter which we Call lookout C-. Continued on with the wind imediately
a head, and Came too on a large Sand bar in the middle of the river, we
Saw a man opposit to our Camp on the L. S. which we discovd. to be a
Frenchman, a little of the willows we observed a house, we Call to them
to come over, a boy Came in a Canoo & informed that 2 french men were
at the house with good to trade with the Seauex which he expected down
from the rickerries everry day, Severl large parties of Seauex Set out
from the rics for this place to trade with those men–This Mr. Jon
Vallie informs us that he wintered last winter 300 Leagues up the Chien
River under the Black mountains, he informs that this river is verry
rapid and dificiult even for Canoos to assend and when riseing the
Swels is verry high, one hundred Leagues up it forks one fork Comes
from the S. the other at 40 Leagues above the forks enters the black
Mountain. The Countrey from the Missourie to the black mountain is much
like the Countrey on the Missourie, less timber & a greatr perpotion of
Ceder. The black Mountains he Says is verry high, and Some parts of it
has Snow on it in the Summer great quantities of Pine Grow on the
mountains, a great noise is heard frequently on those mountains-, on
the mountains great numbers of goat, and a kind of Anamale with large
Circuler horns, This animale is nearly the Size of an Argalia Small
Elk. White bear is also plenty–The Chien Inds. inhabit this river
principally, and Steel horses from the Spanish Settlements This
excurtion they make in one month the bottoms & Sides of R Chien is
Corse gravel. This frenchman gives an account of a white booted turkey
an inhabitant of the Cout Noie-

Always Learn from the past and present.

Happy Travels,