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The Overland Guide-book

The Overland Guide-book

The Overland Guide-book



Gloster—Knowest thou the way?

Edgar—Both stile and gate, horseway and footway.
Poor Tom shall lead thee.—Take my hand.”—Shakspere.





The purpose of this little volume, which I have now the honour to submit to the public, is to combine, in a compact and convenient form, all the information necessary to the prosecution of the journey Overland to India and vice versâ.

Scarcely a day passes that I am not asked, either personally or by letter, to guide some intending traveller in his arrangements for the trip, and even to advise him as to the preferable routes, the expense, the manner of the voyage, &c. Ignorance on all these points induces inapposite and irrelevant questions; and it is not unusual to find, at the end of correspondence or a prolonged interview, that the querist is as far from the possession of the knowledge he desired to acquire as he was when he first preferred his application. No clear and satisfactory information can possibly be obtained by a desultory conversation or fragmentary epistles; hence the value of a systematic and comprehensive arrangement of all the facts and suggestions pertaining to the subject.

There is another reason why I should put forth this Guide,—it completes, in a measure—as far, at least, as the great Overland scheme is in itself complete—my humble labours in the mighty cause of steam-communication between England and India. For the past fourteen years, I have earnestly and ardently advocated the accomplishment of this great object; and, though treated as a vain and visionary enthusiast, when I have presumed to predict the establishment of a semi-monthly intercourse (which I did in 1836!), my endeavours never relaxed, nor did my hope in the least degree abate. I may be pardoned, therefore, some measure of exultation and self-approval, when, looking back upon the state of the steam question some years ago, and tracing its rise and progress through a thousand difficulties and obstructions, I venture to associate my own zeal and exertions with the triumphant consummation apparent in the scheme now adopted and carried out by the “Peninsular and Oriental Company,” and the “East India Company,” not only with the Presidencies of India, but also with our Chinese possessions.

I laboured long and strenuously; for I could not persuade myself that British enterprise and public spirit would suffer so obvious a means of extending commerce and civilisation, and of the approximation of our vast Indian empire to the seat of its supreme rule, to be neglected. The great cause has triumphed,—some of my wildest dreams have become sober realities, and, while I feel grateful for the past, I am hopeful for the future.

Those who take a prominent and active part in promoting great schemes of public utility, where doubt and timidity, and envy and selfish interests are to be combated, must expect to meet with rebuffs and misrepresentations. Of these evils I have had my share, but I have also, from time to time, been unexpectedly cheered on the way by receiving voluntary and public testimonials of unspeakable value, graciously transmitted through various channels. I may be excused for publishing the following letter from the present excellent and much esteemed Bishop of Calcutta, for it displays a truly Christian spirit,—it grapples comprehensively with the question, and corroborates the view taken by the late Lord William Bentinck, who expressed his opinion “that steam-communication with India would be cheaply bought at any price.”

22nd of October, 1838.

Dear Sir,

“I should never forgive myself, if I conveyed to you the accompanying resolution without, at the same time, assuring you of the sincere gratitude I feel in the bottom of my heart to a gentleman who has laboured so assiduously, diligently and successfully in one of the greatest cause that ever interested humanity.

“I can truly say, that the consequences, immediate and remote, of steam-communication between India and Europe defy calculation. Such a wonderful adaptation of science is full of ‘the seed of things,’ as was said of Lord Bacon’s philosophical writings and principles two centuries since.

“The invention of printing, and the discovery of the mariners’ compass, did not more immediately bear upon the happiness of mankind. The human family is now indeed approximating, and, by inter-communication of knowledge, the times may be expected to draw on, when the illumination of the more prostrate nations will be borrowed from the most remote and exalted.

“Allow me, sir, to conclude with saying that, not only as a Chairman, but as a man and a Christian, I have sincere pleasure in transmitting to you the enclosed resolution, and am

“Your most obedient,

To Captain James Barber, “&c., &c., &c.”

The journey to and from India, by way of Egypt, is now one of comparative ease and pleasure; and, as it is my intention to publish periodically a revised edition of “The Overland Guide Book,” I shall feel grateful to those persons who, from time to time, will communicate with me on the subject, in order that the best and fullest information gained by experience may be made available to the traveller who prefers this route.





The communication with India by means of steam-vessels, viâ the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, can no longer be viewed as an experimental project; the great increase that has taken place in the number of travellers by this route in a few brief years has distanced all calculation, and we, therefore, place before the public such facts, details and suggestions, connected with what is popularly called “The Overland Route,” as shall facilitate the performance of the voyage, from the hour when the resolution to proceed to India or to Europe is taken, down to that which sees the traveller safely deposited at his destination.

The sea route round the Cape of Good Hope still has its partisans, in spite of the tedium, extra risk and absence of all objects of interest, which necessarily distinguish such a voyage. False notions of economy, groundless apprehensions, peculiar ideas of comfort and ancient prejudices, cannot be immediately dissipated, especially when so many encouragements to their continuance exist in the beautiful trading-vessels, which offer accommodation to the public, commanded by gentlemen, whose courtesy and sçavoir vivre are only equalled by their nautical experience.

Still in this—the comparative infancy of the steam route—nine-tenths of those whom fortune may carry to India will prefer the most expeditious manner of proceeding thither; and it, therefore, becomes in the highest degree important that they should be supplied with the fullest information, in furtherance of their purpose.

Under this impression, the following pages have been compiled; and, as we purpose to confine ourselves to useful and practical detail, the reader is left to seek, in the numberless volumes that have been published, a more elaborate account of those objects on his route which he may desire to mark with special attention.

The following division of our subject appears the most convenient for the object of this publication:—

Instructions and Hints to Passengers to Aden, Ceylon, Madras, Calcutta, the Straits and China.

To Bombay.

Routes through France and Trieste.

From India, viâ Syra, Malta, Marseilles, or direct to Southampton.



The “Peninsular and Oriental Company” having contracted with Her Majesty’s government to carry a mail monthly to the above places, also secure to passengers accommodation along the whole route, at a specific charge, and, by the same opportunity, drop at Malta or Alexandria those persons who do not contemplate proceeding any farther.

The steamers remain at Gibraltar six, and at Malta twelve, hours.

The charge for a passage varies according to the accommodation occupied and the distance to be travelled. On reference to Appendix A, the reader will find the fullest information, with a list of the Company’s ships and the lines on which they are at present stationed.

As berths in all these steamers vary in comfort as well as price, persons who have determined to proceed to India or the intermediate ports, at a particular date, cannot be too early in their application and choice. On these points every information is most readily and courteously given at the office of the “Peninsular and Oriental Company.” But if the party going be, from his absence from town or inexperience in business, under the necessity of employing an intermediate agent to secure a passage for him, he would do well to select one thoroughly acquainted not only with the vessels themselves, but with all that appertains to them.

As a general rule, we may remark that these steamers are liberally provided with all that passengers can possibly desire. A good table is kept, and the cabins are comfortably and conveniently fitted, and sheets, pillow-cases and towels are supplied. It may, however, be as well to give some precise information as to the possible requirements of a passenger; for a simple statement of what the steamers do provide scarcely involves a specification of the articles not to be found on board. Let it be stated, then, that there is no sort of occasion for bed or table-linen, a sofa, wash-hand-stand, looking-glass, boot-hooks, jugs, tumblers, blacking and brushes, or those “overland bedsteads” which we see continually advertised; but it will be prudent to be provided with a large rug, an air pillow, and a counterpane or resai (wadded coverlet); for it is very probable that, on getting into a warm latitude, the traveller will prefer sleeping on deck, and the steamer’s bedding is not allowed to be carried from its place for such purposes.

The steamers leave Southampton on the 20th of each month—provided the luggage be sent down in due time.[1]Passengers need not leave London till an early morning train on the day of embarkation. Those who intend sleeping at Southampton the previous night should bespeak beds. The vessels are moored alongside the quay in the docks, and the hire of a truck from the railway to the steamer is one shilling. Flies also are in constant attendance; in fine weather, however, the distance is an agreeable ten-minutes’ walk or less.

Railway trains from the Waterloo Bridge station to Southampton, in the morning, at 7·15 o’clock, 10·30 o’clock (mail); afternoon, 1, 3·45, 5 o’clock (express); evening, 30 minutes past 8 o’clock. Mail Sunday trains, morning, at 9 o’clock; afternoon, 5 o’clock; evening, 30 minutes past 8 o’clock. Mail passengers should be at the station at least a quarter of an hour before the trains start.

Passengers should embark at Southampton not later than 12·30 P.M.

The trunks in which clothes for the voyage may be packed, should be regulated by the calling or capacity of the traveller. If he be a military or medical man, and, therefore, liable to much marching about in India, bullock-trunks, specially made at the outfitters, are preferable, as they are permanently useful. Passengers are strongly recommended to adopt trunks or portmanteaus of the following dimensions, viz.:—length, 2 feet 3 inches, breadth, 1 foot 2 inches, depth, 1 foot 2 inches, and to have their names and the port of debarkation distinctly painted on each package. No package or baggage should exceed 80 lbs. in weight, otherwise it may be delayed in Egypt. The portmanteaus should be of leather, or material not liable to injury or breakage in handling.[2]

The following are the leading points of the “Peninsular and Oriental Company’s” regulations:—

Passengers not proceeding, after taking berths, will forfeit half the passage-money. In case, however, of a passenger being unavoidably prevented from availing himself of a passage at the period for which it is taken, a transfer of the passage can be effected to a subsequent steamer, on due notice being given, without forfeiture of any portion of the deposit paid, and accommodation will be allotted as similar as circumstances will permit.

On either side of the Isthmus, three cwt. of personal baggage is allowed to each first-class passenger; but 16s. per cwt. is charged by the “Egyptian Transit Company” for conveyance through Egypt on all baggage exceeding two cwt.

In the steamers, children, servants and second-class passengers are allowed one cwt. and a half each; 16s. per cwt. being charged by the “Egyptian Transit Company” on all beyond one cwt.

A passenger engaging a whole cabin for the entire voyage, is entitled to take in the steamer four and a half cwt. of luggage; but is subject to the charge in Egypt as above stated.

Excess of three cwt. of baggage in the steamer pays freight at the rate of £1 per cwt., in the Alexandria steamers, and £2 per cwt. in the India vessels.

Any luggage beyond that allowed free must be put on board and paid for three days previous to the vessel’s departure. Carpet-bags and hat-boxes only will be received on the day of sailing. The Company give notice that, all luggage (save as aforesaid) that shall be shipped on the day of departure will be considered as extra, and charged for accordingly.

Passengers taking articles of merchandise in their baggage will incur the risk of seizure by the customs’ authorities in Egypt.

The Company do not hold themselves responsible for detention, damage, or loss of baggage.

As the allowance of baggage is on a liberal scale, and the freight of parcels moderate, it is hoped that passengers will not convey parcels or packages belonging to other persons, to the prejudice of the Company’s interests. A contrary course will involve risk, delay and difficulty at the Egyptian custom-house.

Passengers will be expected to comply strictly with the regulations established on board the Company’s steamers for the general comfort.

In the first instance, a passenger booking from England to Alexandria only, but who afterwards proceeds from Suez to India in this Company’s steamers, will be required to pay such an additional amount only as will make up the sum, supposing he had taken his passage right through from his embarkation in England.

Lights to be put out at half-past ten o’clock, after which, no wines, spirits, &c., will be supplied, except in cases of illness, when application is to be made to the purser through the surgeon.

No wines, spirits, or beer, are to be supplied elsewhere than in the saloons, except in case of illness.

It is to be understood, that a passenger occupying a cabin of two or more berths, on the departure of the vessel, is not (unless he shall have paid an additional sum for its exclusive occupation) to object to the vacant berth being filled up at the intermediate ports, if required.

If there be any negligence, inattention, or impropriety, on the part of any of the servants, or any other ground for dissatisfaction, passengers are particularly requested to give notice immediately to the commander, who has full authority to act under such circumstances; and the Company would also wish to receive intimation of the same by letter, addressed to the secretary.

Although there is positively no restriction as to the quantity of a passenger’s luggage, the excess of that allowed being paid for, still it is obvious that when a hundred persons are travelling with the speed of a mail through Egypt, every extra-package becomes an incumbrance, if not a positive nuisance; for it renders the timely arrival of those absolutely required very doubtful. It is, therefore, advisable that passengers should confine themselves strictly to the quantity of luggage necessary for the trip, sending so much as they may wish to have in India by the long sea route a month or two previous to their departure. The adoption of this course will spare them much annoyance and expense on the journey.

As by the Company’s regulation no trunks, boxes or portmanteaus are allowed in the cabins of their steamers, passengers should provide themselves with a good-sized leather or carpet-bag, in which should be packed all the clothes, &c., required for immediate use; and this bag may be kept in the cabin and replenished from time to time from the trunks, to which the passengers have access every other day. This bag should be taken on board with the passenger; but the trunks and other baggage should be put on board two or three days before sailing.

We have now fairly started with our passengers from Southampton. The steamer boils and bubbles on her course, and in five days runs to Gibraltar, sighting the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. The passengers soon conquer the annoyance of sea-sickness; new acquaintanceships are rapidly formed; employments and pastimes arranged, and, by the time “the rock” is reached, the real pleasures of the trip begin to be fairly appreciated.

Gibraltar.—From the title so often given to this pleasant little port and garrison—”the Rock of Gibraltar,”—the traveller expects to find a barren, inoccupable mass, as inhospitable to its friendly visitors as it was unapproachable to our foes; instead of this, the eye, after entering the bay, is greeted with the sight of a luxuriant vegetation, distributed into gardens, groves and plantations. After the visit of the pratique officer, boats approach the newly-arrived vessel, to take on shore any passenger who may be disposed to land for a few hours. The club-house and Griffith’s Hotel offer temporary accommodations, and to one or the other the traveller may betake himself. He soon, however, is tempted, by the brilliancy of the sky and the warmth of the temperature, to wander abroad, and inspect the new scene that presents itself. The Commercial Square, formerly the Grand Parade, offers the first object of attraction. The sales by auction carried on here all day, draw together a motley population, whose costumes and physiognomy alone are a study for the stranger. Greeks, Turks, Jews, Arabs, &c., mingle together in picturesque confusion. The streets of Gibraltar are narrow, the houses low, irregular and ill-fashioned; yet are there a few public buildings worthy of a passing notice. The Exchange, erected during the government of Sir George Don, the Catholic church of St. Mary, the court-house, the Moorish castle, within which are some remarkable excavations, the residence of the governor (which was formerly a convent), the Protestant church, the garrison and library, are the principal edifices.



Gibraltar being but five miles long, the whole place may be seen, on horseback or in carriages, easily obtainable, in a very brief space. Proceeding southward, the visitor stops for a moment at South Port, where, over the gate, he sees the arms of the Emperor Charles V. richly embla zoned, supported by those of Philip II. Not far from this, are the Alameda, public walks and grounds tastefully laid out. In the centre of the gardens is a statue harpooning a fish, which was formerly the figure-head of a Spanish vessel taken at Trafalgar, and near this, a column bearing a bronze bust of the Duke of Wellington.



Leaving the walks, the next object of interest is San Michael’s Cave, a great natural curiosity. The whole rock (Calpe) is hollowed out and perforated by caves. The fantastic forms assumed by the stalactites give these recesses the appearance of work done by ingenious human hands. Martin’s Cave, not far from San Michael’s, corresponds in character with, but is smaller in dimensions than, the latter. The wild monkeys that inhabit the place afford much entertainment by their freaks. Extending the ride to Windmill Hill, we reach the Governor’s cottage, built by General Fox as a summer residence. It is pleasantly situated close to the sea. From this the ride may be extended to EuropaPoint, Rosia, in the vicinity of which is the Naval Hospital, capable of holding 400 patients. From Rosia along the whole range of the western side to Sand Port is a continuation of works, batteries and bastions.

As the period of the steamer’s detention (six hours) will scarcely enable the visitor to see more than the above, we do not think it necessary to extend our description. We will merely add, as a guide to those who are inclined to make purchases on shore, that accounts are kept in dollars, reals, &c., but English weights and measures are in use.

After quitting Gibraltar, steaming along the coast of Algiers, you soon reach the famed island of Malta, where the outward-bound coming free from the imputations of plague, which cover the homeward passenger, are at liberty at once to go on shore and see the “lions” of the place.

If the period chosen by the traveller for his voyage should admit of his reaching Malta between November and April, he will be enabled to regale on oranges, for which fruit the island is much celebrated. Other fruits, such as strawberries, figs, pomegranates, grapes, apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, melons and prickly pears, are likewise to be had then. The climate of Malta is agreeable enough to tempt the visitor to prolong his stay, and, indeed, in the instance of pulmonary and other complaints, the atmosphere has often been found most serviceable. Its salubrity may be judged of from the fact of the range of the thermometer being remarkably equable; seldom falling below 50° in the month of January, or rising above 88° during the summer months.



The most remarkable edifices in Malta are the churches and the Albergas; which latter are now converted into public offices or other establishments of a useful nature. Their exterior denotes the end of their construction and the various sections of Knights of St. John, under whose auspices and for whose purposes they were raised.

These Albergas are now appropriated to government offices; one is occupied by the Malta Union Club, two others as courts of law, a fourth as the Civil Arsenal and Government Printing Office. The Auberge (or Alberga) de Castile is occupied by the officers of the English garrison; the Commissary-General tenants the Auberge de France—and so on.

The church of St. John holds the first rank among the numerous churches and convents of Malta. The interior is of an oblong form; the uppermost part, which forms the choir, is ornamented with an admirable piece of sculpture in white marble, on a raised base, representing the baptism of Christ by St. John, in two figures as large as life. The semicircular roof which covers the nave is adorned with paintings illustrative of the life of the above-mentioned apostle. The pavement is composed of sepulchral slabs worked in mosaic with various-coloured marble; many of them contain jasper, agate, and other precious stones, the cost of which must have been very great. These cover chiefly the graves of the knights and other servants of the order. The grand altar, which stands at the uppermost part of the nave, is very sumptuous, and deserves notice, on account of the various-coloured marble and other valuable stones of which it is constructed. The chapels of the different languages of the order, which run parallel with the nave, form the two aisles, and are very splendidly decorated. The roofs are constructed in the shape of a dome in the interior, and are profusely carved with different ornaments in alto-relievo, as also are the walls. The whole was gilded during the reigns of Rafael and Nicolas Cotoner, as appears from an inscription over the entrance on the west side of the building. The arches of these chapels correspond on both sides, and leave their interior quite exposed to view, as you pass down the nave. The second arch covers the chapel of the Portuguese knights. Over the altar is a drawing of St. James; and on the side-walls are two other paintings, representing some traditionary scenes in the life of that apostle.

Besides the church already mentioned, there are three others in the city, which belong to the Government: viz., the Church of the Jesuits in Strada Mercanti, Di Liesse on the Marina, and St. Rocco in Strada St. Ursola. The church of Di Liesse belonged to the Knights of France. The walls of this building are adorned with gifts devoted to the Virgin; the fulfilment of vows made in time of affliction, in order to obtain her commiseration. The boatmen hold this church in peculiar veneration.

The two parish churches of the city are those of St. Domenico and St. Paolo; the former is connected with a monastery of Dominican friars; the latter is a collegiate church, situated in the street of the same name. The other monkish orders are those of the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and the Minori Osservanti, or Reformed Franciscans, all of which have churches connected with their respective convents. Besides these, there are two large nunneries, one of Ursoline and the other of Sta. Catarina nuns; but the rage for this species of seclusion has very much subsided in Valetta. The former establishment is nearly empty, and the latter is receiving but very few additions. Two other churches in the city, one dedicated to Sta. Lucia and the other called Delle Anime (of the Souls in Purgatory), belong to the public. The Greek Catholics have also a small chapel, dedicated to Sta. Maria, in Strada Vescovo. By far the finest specimen of modern architecture is the Protestant church, built at the charge of Queen Adelaide, who sojourned for a short time at Malta.

Next to the churches are the Military Hospital, the Monte di Pietá, the Government University, the public and garrison libraries (the building containing these being one of the finest specimens of architecture in the whole town), the Castellaria, the theatre and the Banco dei Guirati. There are several antiquities in the public library, together with periodicals and newspapers. The Indian files received at this library will enable the outward-bound passenger to obtain later information of the state of affairs abroad, than he might have had when leaving England.

The traveller who sojourns a few hours only in Malta, after walking in the streets of Valetta, or looking through the imposing defences which surround it on every side, over the apparently arid or sun-burnt undulations of the island, frequently abandons all further interest in the spot—singular by nature and art—and reposes quietly on the information of some writer possessing little more actual knowledge of the island, but who may have furnished his readers with some highly-coloured descriptions of its early history, or dilated on the chivalrous bearing of its late masters, the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. Without wading through these literary labours to discover “a grain of millet in a bushel of chaff,” we merely desire to introduce to the sojourner an agreeable mode of spending a few leisure hours in visiting other portions of the island. By reference to a map, he will find little difficulty in wending his way to any part of it; he may pass from one extremity to the other without a chance of molestation or interruption, other than the occasional application for alms; for Malta has professional and other beggars in abundance, the result of an overwhelming population in proportion to the size and resources of the island and the thoughtlessness of marriages, contracted frequently without a prospect of supporting a family.

Passing out at Porte Reale—the gateway at the top of the principal street of Valetta—and crossing the draw-bridge, the stupendous defences of the city become apparent—deep ditches—every approach enfiladed, or covered by bastions surmounted with bristling cannon. From this portion of the works the road opens on the front of the public garden;[3]a narrow promenade, of considerable extent, confined between stone walls, on the esplanade between Valetta and the extensive suburb of Floriana, around which are thrown the outer defences of the city, extended like the former, from the great harbour on the east to the quarantine harbour on the west. Holding on the main road, to the left of the garden gate, we pass through Floriana, the gate of St. Anna (the inner gate of this line of defence), and by Porte des Bombes, reach the glacis of the works, and here commences the country of the island of Malta.

Three main roads conduct to the different villages or casals, some twenty-three in number, besides the hamlets of Pietá, Sliema, San Guiliana and Casal Paola. The road to the right (leading to the western end of the island), keeping the foot of the glacis, opens on the Pietá, one of the most imposing spots in Malta, with a pretty extensive row of houses, generally good, extending for about a mile on the bank of the quarantine harbour. At about a mile farther on is the populous and large casal of Bircharcara, containing some five or six thousand inhabitants. From the immediate extremity of the Pietá (without proceeding on to Bircharcara), a road to the right, over a small stream, leads to Sliema and San Guiliana, the resort of those who pursue sea-bathing and seek a summer residence in the country, and containing many good houses. Passing through the last-mentioned hamlet, a road (inclining to the left) leads down to Casal Bircharcara, and a carriage may go over the whole ground safely. From the eastern or extreme end from the church of Bircharcara, there are two roads, that to the west, of some two miles extent, to Nasciar, and hence to the right to Casal Gargur, but a casal of no particular interest and road indifferent; after passing by the front of the church, or rather round the greater portion of it, a road to the left conducts to San Pauls Bay, where St. Paul is said to have been ship-wrecked. The view from the high ground, after passing Nasciar, and overlooking a line of defence against the approach of an enemy, on this otherwise apparently natural barrier, is, perhaps, one of the best and most striking in the island, embracing the western extremity even to the island of Gozo, with St. Paul’s Bay and its tower quietly reposing in the valley. The distance to St. Paul’s Bay from Valetta is about eight miles, and the road good even for carriages.[4]About four miles farther on from St. Paul’s Bay, and presenting more hill and dale than may be found in the general features of the island, you arrive at Melleha, where the devotees of both sexes resort. There is nothing particularly interesting in this spot, encircled by deep ravines and sterile rock; but, with some gardens in its vicinity, stands a small church (pretty liberally stored with votive offerings), with a court-yard, surrounded by small cells or chambers, to which the devout repair, and occupy, as choice, occasion or their vow may dictate. Beyond this point, some four miles leads to Mafra, the usual ferry to Gozo; but the only carriage that could undertake this portion of the road must be a calesse—deep sand from the Bay of Melleha and a road intersected by rock being the means of approach. Returning back to Nasciar, and coming in front of the church, a street leads on to the right to the casal of Musta, having nothing remarkable in it but a colossal church (encircling the old village church), which has been some years in the course of building, and, in respect to the progress had in its construction, may never be finished.[5]Passing through this casal (but avoiding the turning to the right over a well-constructed bridge, crossing one of the numerous ravines in the island, for that would only lead to an uninteresting part of the island, that in olden times was designated on the maps “desert,” and is now almost without population), along a narrow road or lane, of trifling extent, across a rivulet, and on a road leading directly to the western point of the Binzamma, the most elevated and conspicuous portion of the island, the road is again covered by a line of defence; beyond this, it winds round the Binzamma, and, taking the turn to the left, one of the natural curiosities of the island, as it is pointed out, will be found in a nest of caves called “Ancient Tombs,” now inhabited by some poor families employed in agriculture in the vicinity.[6]An indifferent road from this point leads to Citta Vecchia; but, as it possesses no interest, and can be traversed only by the equestrian, we turn back to Casal Musta; immediately, therefore, in front of the new church, is the street or road leading, on the left, to Casal Sia (San Antonio, with its gardens, of which we will speak hereafter), through this casal and Casal Bazan, between which the line of demarkation is scarcely apparent to the stranger, we come back to Bircharcara at the point where the road turned off to Nasciar, and, either by ascending to the main road, between Valetta and Citta Vecchia, diverging to the right, or passing through Bircharcara and the Pietá, we return to Valetta. On the other hand, leaving Musta, as before directed, and inclining to the right, a road leads to Citta Vecchia, the great point of attraction to the generality of travellers who visit Malta. But of that hereafter.

The centre and principal road in Malta, proceeding as before from Porte des Bombes, between Valetta and Citta Vecchia, is a spacious and well-kept road (like all others in the island), without turnpike trusts or imposts on the traveller. To the archway of the aqueduct, a distance of two miles, it may be considered the great suburb of a rich city. Here are various houses of noble aspect on the road, near the archway of the aqueduct-one called “the Lions”—from two effigies in stone of that sovereign of the forest, placed over the entrance; this the late governor, Sir F. Bouverie, selected as his country-house, in preference to the more imposing and regal residence of St. Antonio.

From the archway of the aqueduct (under which passes the main road to Citta Vecchia) the view now on either side, excepting only some casals in the distance, presents barren and uninteresting fields, so surrounded and intersected by stone walls, that it appears difficult to determine to what end these enclosures were erected, except before the opening of spring, when the lucerne with its dark green leaves and beautiful red flower over-topping the walls, convinces the passenger of the fertility of the soil. At about the fourth or fifth mile from Valetta, a road to the right leads to Santa Louisa and the gardens, unlike any other place in Malta. In the style and taste of the day, in which it was formed by the Grand Master, here are well-paved walks, terraces and flights of steps, with ponds or reservoirs, and water-works, on a small scale—art subduing nature, but apparently appropriately designed for its position. This has ever been accessible to strangers, either by a ticket of admission from the military secretary or aide-de-camp; and, under some governorships, even without that precaution. Leaving San Antonia and regaining the main road, you pass through Casal Attard,—a small casal with some good houses in it, but of gloomy appearance as compared with other casals.

From hence all is barren to the eye, until in the immediate neighbourhood of Citta Vecchia, where the fields appear more natural and to greater advantage. As you ascend the hill, you will find more guides from the idlers of the place, probably, than guests, who insist on giving their assistance where it is little required. Within the citadel is the cathedral, a very handsome church; without, is the suburb, properly Rabbato; you are shown the cave where St. Paul is said to have resided, a poor compliment to the hospitality of the inhabitants, for a more wretched place can scarcely be conceived. The church over this cave is like most of the churches of the island. Here also you are shown the catacombs, as these caverns are called; you descend by a flight of rude steps, but, were they well explored, an outlet on the level would, doubtless, be found, to determine their origin, like others of a similar character. Tradition offers many tales concerning them; but it may be left to conjecture, whether they were the habitation of saints, or the retreat of the peaceful inhabitants of the island, from the predatory visits of their Arab neighbours.

To the right of Citta Vecchia, an indifferent road of three or four miles leads to some gardens. Imtaklip is of no other particular interest than an occasional resort of parties from Valetta for a pic-nic. To the left, however, a good road, after passing a large convent, and still inclining to the left, is the Castle or Palace Verdali, of imposing appearance, but tenantless, and going to decay; below, in the valley, is the Boschetta, covered with pretty extensive groves of orange trees, the only truly agreeable retreat in the island, and almost daily resorted to by pleasure parties. There is a very small but uninteresting casal to the right of the road to the Boschetta.

The return to Valetta, in the most direct way, may be made by the same road; otherwise, after ascending the hill from the Boschetta, as far on the road as the Palace Verdali, a road branches off to the right, leading through the Casal Seggui; hence to Zettug, one of the largest and most populous in the island; and, descending the hill by a good road on the way to Casal Curmi, you have an extensive view of the surrounding country, embracing Valetta, the harbour, &c., in the distance. Casal Curmi, a large casal situated in the valley, has nothing particular to recommend it to the notice of the traveller; passing to the left through it, you ascend the hill to the arch of the aqueduct, and by the main road enter Valetta.

Starting as before from Porte des Bombes, at a short distance on the main road, a road branches off to the left, and winds round the head of the great harbour; hold the road to the right; after passing the fishermen’s huts, the road leads through the Marsa—a tract, to the superficial observer, the most cultivated in Malta; ascend the hill and Casal Luca, and about a mile after passing through the casal, at a small chapel, two roads branch off, the one to the right to Casal Michabiba; hence to Casal Creude, in the immediate neighbourhood of which is to be seen Macluba, the landslip, or, in whatever other way it may be designated; and, ascending the hill from the chapel close by, and bearing away to the right, you arrive at some mile and a half distance, at the rude remains of a Phœnician temple, recently explored. Returning back to Crendi, and at about the middle of the casal, a road to the right leads to Casal Zurrico, standing out rather conspicuously, from its site and size (the road to the left from the small chapel, on the road from Casal Luca, mentioned before, is the direct road from Valetta to Casal Chercof, a small village, and Casal Zurrico); passing out of Casal Zurrico, close by the eastern side of the church (the road to the left, in front of the church, leads to Casal Luca, mentioned before), you arrive at Casal Gudia; at the end nearest Valetta is a substantial mansion, with well-walled grounds, a fanciful tower, &c. During the blockade, when the French were in possession of Valetta, this was the head-quarters of General Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedock, commanding the British Forces. A windmill at the corner of the mansion marks two roads; that to the right leading through Casal Ascheach to Casal Zeitun: the latter one of the best casals in the island. The procession of St. Gregorico, on Easter Wednesday, at which the greater portion of the population of the island attends, terminates at this casal: one other casal in this direction, Casal Zalbar, a short distance from the Cottonnera lines, which encircle or cover the three cities, is somewhat out of the line of march, and had better be visited in connection with the Government works on the opposite side of the great harbour, including the three cities, and the Cottonnera lines, from which this casal is a trifling distance. We, therefore, turn down the street immediately facing the grand entrance to the Church of Zeitun, containing numerous excellent houses, and, following a good road of brief extent, arrive at Casal Tarscien, from thence onwards to the hamlet of Casal Bala, denominated by the English the “Deserted Village;” turning to the left, at the end nearest Valetta, and passing by the front of the new prison, a good road leads down and communicates with the road first taken, on the way to Casal Luca; here the traveller may either enter Valetta by Porte des Bombes, or, holding on the great harbour, pass along the Marina, and so enter Valetta by the ordinary road on landing at Malta.



The traveller may refer to the Guide Book at Malta for other places considered of importance; but as they are remote, like the Cave of Ben Isan, &c., their route is omitted here. There has been no attempt to describe places, or, indeed, distances, accurately; but, with the exception of the first route to Matra, the most remote casals are not more than six or seven miles at the utmost from Valetta, and a reference to the map at Malta will show the position and bearing of others less remote.

As a hint to travellers, especially those on horseback, who may consider this brief sketch a sufficient guide for an excursion, we may mention that they will find in every casal some idlers, who will insist on knowing where they are going better than themselves, and will mislead accordingly, by directing strangers to the only two points within the sphere of their knowledge or comprehension—Valetta or Citta Vecchia.

Between Malta and Alexandria there is no point of interest worthy of any notice; in fact, land is seldom sighted during the four days’ trip.

Alexandria.—We now arrive at this port.



For the guidance of the traveller in Egypt, we cannot give better directions than are supplied in the annexed letter from Mr. Davidson, the representative of the “Peninsular and Oriental Company,” a gentleman, whose courtesy, kindness and attention to all travellers passing through that country are universally admitted. Mr. Davidson repairs on board immediately the vessel arrives at Alexandria, and superintends all the arrangements for the whole journey thence to Suez. He writes thus:—

“The carpet-bag, containing the traveller’s necessaries for three days in Egypt, he should keep charge of, and take to the hotel on arrival in the omnibus, or, if he ride, make the donkey-boy carry it with him, and the same on leaving the hotel for the boat. The other luggage he must leave, after seeing it on the steamer’s deck, to be landed and transported in the luggage-lighter alongside, in charge of the transit-clerk, to whom he should hand a list of the same. These he will, perhaps, hear or see nothing of until he reaches Cairo, where they are exposed, before dispatched to Suez, for recognition, in the British Hotel yard. It is understood that the passenger sees to his carpet-bag, on changing boats at Atfeh and on arrival at Cairo, where it is given up and sent on camels, with the other luggage, after he has taken out the necessary articles[7]for use in crossing the desert, which are expected not to exceed five pounds’ weight to each passenger in the carriage.

“Landing at Alexandria, the passenger will find three good hotels, situated in the grand square, about two miles from Mahoram Bey’s, that part of the Mahmoudie canal where the passengers embark on board commodious boats, to be towed up to Atfeh (a distance of forty-eight miles) by powerful steam-tugs. The names of the hotels are “Hotel de l’Europe,” “d’Orient” and “de Suisse.” The rates of charges at all are piastres forty, or 8s. per diem, for board and lodging, exclusive of wines, beer and spirits. Those who prefer living à la Francaise, will give a preference to the Hotel d’Orient. At the other hotels the style of entertainment is more English.

“The extra charge, at 16s. the 112 lbs., for over-weight luggage (two cwt. being allowed to first and one cwt. to second-class passengers) is collected at the transit-office at Cairo, on exchanging tickets, and takes place there, in order to check the passengers proceeding beyond or remaining at this station.

“At Suez the luggage is embarked in the boat which takes the passenger off; and here he should see it again.”

As the transition from heat to cold in crossing the desert is great, the range of the temperature varying from 94° in the shade at noonday to 72° at night, in the summer months, it is indispensable that travellers should be provided with warm clothing; and too great precaution cannot be taken to avoid exposure to the night air.

Taking this matter into consideration, we subjoin a thermometrical register recently kept in Egypt, which may be of service alike to the passing traveller and those who purpose sojourning for awhile in that country.

As the passage through Egypt en route to India differs but little, whether the traveller be hound to Calcutta or Bombay, we add to this division of our subject a short account of the only portion of the journey which can truly be called “Overland.”

Stay at Alexandria.—A delay of about three to four hours occurs at Alexandria, in examining the luggage at the custom-house and loading the boats with it. During this time the traveller may, if so disposed, pay a visit to Cleopatra’s Needle, Pompey’s Pillar, and the Pacha’s palace and arsenal; all of which may easily be reached on donkeys or in carriages in less than two hours, and at a very trifling cost.

The boats being ready, the whole party again assemble, and, embarking at the Mahmoudie canal, reach Atfeh in about ten hours, where the passengers are trans-shipped to the Nile steamers, and perform the trip to Cairo, 120 miles, in 16 or 20 hours, according to the depth of water in the Nile. The boat stops at Boulac, two miles distant from Cairo, to which place some walk, whilst others ride; carriages, horses and donkeys being prepared, and in
waiting. There are several hotels in Cairo, the “British,” “Oriental,” and “English,” the character and accommodation of each of which will be most accurately learned on reference to Mr. Davidson, to whom we have previously alluded.



Abstract of a Thermometrical Register, kept at Alexandria, in N. lat. 31° 13′, outdoor temperature, in the shade, for one whole year.

Months Means Extremes
at 8 A.M.
at noon.
Difference of
mean temperature
of each successive
January 59.5 8.0 63.5 55.5 57.6 61.0 3.0 8 13 66 53
February 59.5 6.0 62.5 56.5 57.4 60.6 0.0 9 10 66 56
March 64.7 10.5 70.0 59.5 61.1 63.6 5.2 5 13 72 59
April 69.0 12.0 75.0 63.0 66.4 69.2 4.3 12 15 77 62
May 74.7 16.5 83.0 66.5 71.7 74.6 5.7 13 22 88 66
June 77.0 9.0 81.5 72.5 74.6 77.3 2.3 5 14 85 71
July 82.5 4.5 82.5 78.0 78.5 80.7 5.5 5 8 85 77
August 81.2 7.5 85.0 77.5 79.5 80.6 1.3 6 10 87 77
September 79.6 6.5 83.0 76.5 78.4 80.1 1.5 8 9 84 75
October 76.7 7.5 80.5 73.0 76.1 77.8 3.0 8 9 81 72
November 68.7 12.5 75.0 62.5 66.3 71.6 8.0 12 18 76 58
December 60.7 17.5 69.5 52.0 58.5 64.3 8.0 20 25 71 46
Annual Means
and Extremes
71.1 9.8 75.9 66.0 68.8 71.7 3.9 20 25 88 46

The seasons of the year to which the foregoing Table refers, it may be well to explain, were peculiarly moderate, the Thermometrical range varying less than in ordinary seasons.

The average heat at Cairo will exceed that at Alexandria by about 10 degrees all the year round. This is accounted for by the prevailing sea-breeze at Alexandria. The atmosphere at the latter is peculiarly humid; at the former peculiarly dry and elastic. Rains prevail in December and January; they are very rare at Cairo.

The luggage is conveyed to Suez on dromedaries, and, as these animals travel slowly, those who do not desire to proceed to Suez by the first division of carriages across the desert, will have sufficient time to visit the lions of Cairo, which consist of the citadel, the palace, the mint, the petrified forest, the Rhoda garden (chiefly botanical), the Pyramids of Gizeh, and the Pacha’s palace and gardens at Shubra; or they may indulge in a bath, a luxury thus described in an article in the Asiatic Journal, by Mr. Stocqueler:—

“A bath at Cairo, after a voyage, is an agrémen which few will deny themselves. It is neither as elaborate nor as effective an affair as a Persian bath, but, like Mercutio’s wound, ‘it will do.’ The soft coir, or fibrous matter, which is used instead of flannel or the hair-glove, is not by any means as efficacious as the latter in removing the sodden matter, or papier maché, which covers the human cuticle. Then there is neither shampooing, nor joint-cracking, nor mustachio-dyeing; nevertheless, it is pleasant to get into hot water after a month’s exclusion from the indulgence, even though some of the accessories to the hummaum be wanting.”

Of the manner in which the ascent of the Pyramids is made, the following sketch furnishes an accurate description:—



A recent writer, describing this laborious operation, speaks of it thus:—”It is advisable, if bent on mounting to the summit, to disencumber yourself of all but your shirt and a pair of loose trousers; for the journey upwards must be taken rapidly, and cannot easily be accomplished with warm and tight clothing. A couple of Arabs leap on to the stones immediately above you, and offer you each a hand, while a third follows, to give you an impetus from behind, and catch you, in case of a slip. Up you go, panting and toiling, step after step (each three feet in height) and stopping occasionally to take breath, and receive the cheering congratulations of your rude guide—good, good, Inglese, berry good! and then, with an impatient grin and extended hand, ‘Baksheesh!‘”

We now come to the Overland part of the journey; viz., from


The distance (ordinarily accomplished in about twenty hours, including stoppages) from Cairo to Suez is eighty four miles, and along the route through the desert there are seven station-houses. These station-houses are numbered from 1 to 7, and contain the following accommodation:—

No. 1. Nine miles from Cairo, stabling and a resting-room.

No. 2. Twenty miles from Cairo, contains two public rooms (one for ladies, and the other for gentlemen), two private rooms, and a servants’ room.

No. 3. Thirty miles from Cairo, stabling for relays of horses, with one resting-room.

No. 4. Forty-one miles from Cairo, the centre station, contains a large saloon, a ladies’ room, servants’ room, kitchen, a number of commodious bed-chambers, large water-tank, stabling, &c. Here, also, will be found, liberally provided, those “creature comforts,” which so essentially cheer and sustain the traveller on his way. Ladies, however, would do well to take in their basket, on leaving the steamer, a bottle of good water.

No. 5. Thirty miles from Suez, stabling and a resting room.

No. 6. Twenty miles from Suez, two public rooms, private rooms, and servants’ rooms. The same as No. 2.

No. 7. Nine miles from Suez, stabling and resting-room.



The whole distance is traversed without inconvenience, in carriages, on horseback, on chairs, or on donkeys; the latter a very superior animal to those in this country. The Egyptian ass is easy in his pace, capable of great fatigue, and, it is said, will perform the whole distance with but little provender.

Travellers now embark on board the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s steamer, and, as soon as the luggage has been shipped, and every other arrangement made, the anchor is weighed, and the steamer starts for Aden. Beyond certain historical associations, the Red Sea presents little that can interest the traveller in his brief and expeditious trip. The shores are dreary and barren, and are only agreeable to the eye of the landsman, because they present a somewhat less monotonous scene than the expanse of “blue above and blue below,” which distinguishes the ocean in parts remote from land.



Aden, which was formerly called “Portus Romanicus,” is a town of the Yemen, which, from its position, and now, on account of its recent occupation by the English, promises to become a commercial and military station of great importance. The town is built on the crater of an exhausted volcano, and is situate at the extremity of a small peninsula, formed of volcanic matter, and attached to the continent solely by a low neck of land from 500 to 600 yards wide, and which might be easily isolated by a canal. The harbour is a magnificent basin, capable of containing an immense fleet; and is entered by a narrow passage between two other craters. It would be easy to establish defensive works on the rocks, which would place the fort in safety against any attack. One redoubt has been already raised, as a security against the Arabs, ever ready to attack the English. From this point to the gate of the town has been traced a road of about a league in length, by which the defile is reached that forms the entrance to Aden. This defile is being fortified with a gate, evidently constructed to resist other attacks than those of the Arabs, and is about 100 yards long, and four or five wide; it is cut out of a rock which stands 150 yards above the level of the sea. A formidable battery, commanding the entrance, is in process of being erected above the rock on the left of the defile. A covered way, with an arch thrown from one rock to another, unites the system of defence which the batteries on the summit of the rocks on the left will complete.

In despite of sickness and desolation, the population of Aden has greatly augmented in a short space of time. When first occupied, the population did not exceed 4,000; it is now upwards of 30,000; and every morning at daybreak 50 to 200 camels may be seen coming into the town, laden with the produce of the interior, provisions, vegetables, &c., to console and comfort the otherwise benighted occupants of this extinguished crater. The fact is, the security to property afforded by a residence within the limits of British possession and influence, has contributed, in no inconsiderable degree, to this outward sign of prosperity.

An hotel on the sea-shore, kept by some enterprising Parsees from Bombay, and a great number of donkeys, attended by their drivers or proprietors (little woollyheaded urchins), offer to the passenger who may go ashore, the contrast of a dinner of fish and a ride to the town and cantonment of Aden. Beyond these, the attractions of the place may be represented by a cipher.

At Aden the steamer takes in a supply of coal, and then starts for Ceylon; which island she reaches in ten days, and where she remains but for a few hours. Here will be found a branch steamer ready to start for China; and, to the traveller thenceward, we can promise that this portion of the journey, touching at Penang and Singapore, en route, will surpass in picturesque and romantic scenery all that his eye has hitherto beheld—we do not mean to say that, in many parts of Europe or America, there are not isolated spots equally beautiful and sublime; but, whether, for a continuous sea-journey of so many miles, for the most part, in water as smooth as a “milk pan,” it can be equalled? certainly, it cannot be surpassed. The voyage from Ceylon to Penang is commonly made in six days,—the steamer stopping there six hours; that to Singapore in three days, with a stay of twenty-four hours; and, finally, to Hong Kong, in another six days. Four days under steam from Ceylon carry us to Madras, where, after another supply of fuel, we proceed to Calcutta, occupying four days in the trip; and there terminates our interesting journey. We have given a brief description of the three last-named places in the section appropriated to the details of the homeward trip, and therefore consider it unnecessary to offer any remarks here.


The responsibility of this journey is divided, being firstly in the hands of the Peninsular and Oriental Company; secondly, of the Egyptian Oriental Transit Company; and, lastly, of the East India Company. Forethought and precaution are therefore recommended in making the arrangements necessary to secure the passage to Bombay throughout, with as little inconvenience and as much comfort as can be experienced under the circumstances above stated.

The Peninsular and Oriental Company allow a limited number of passengers to book for Aden, on the 20th of each month, and, when this can be effected, it is decidedly the most comfortable and least expensive mode of reaching Bombay. The East India Company’s frigates, that convey the mid-monthly mail from Aden to Bombay, afford good accommodation for a few persons; and the run is only one of ten days’ endurance.

The Peninsular and Oriental Company, under no circumstances, book the whole way to Bombay. Passengers wishing to adopt that course, and having fixed the date of their departure, should make immediate application to James Barberand Co., whose circular will be found at the end of this book, and whose advice and assistance will always be found useful to the Overland traveller.

Passengers who cannot adopt the first part of this route, so far as Aden, in the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s steamers, will find the following directions serve them in the time of need.

The Company’s steamers for Malta and Constantinople start from Southampton on the 29th of every month, at 1·30 P.M. (when the 29th falls on a Sunday, the steamer leaves at nine o’clock on the morning of the 30th), arriving at Malta about the 10th of the month.

Passengers for Alexandria and Bombay are conveyed from Malta to Alexandria by one of Her Majesty’s steamers, leaving Malta, on the arrival there, from Marseilles, of the London mail of the 7th of the month.

On their arrival at Alexandria, the same means of travelling are provided for passengers, as described in a previous part of this work; but the passenger, in this case, having only hitherto paid for his sea-journey to Malta £27 10s.—a further sum of £12 10s. has to be paid for passage from Malta to Alexandria, and then he has to make his arrangement with the Egyptian Transit Company, in order that he may reach Suez in time to embark in the East India Company’s steamer at that port, which conveys the mail to Bombay.

The Transit Company have established the following rates:—

From Alexandria to Suez,
and vice versâ.
A lady In vans
A gentleman 12
A child above ten years 12
A child of five years and under ten 8
A child of two years and under five 6
A child of under two years free
A European female servant 10
A European man-servant or mechanic 8
A native female servant 8

Two cwt. of baggage is allowed at the £12 rate, and one cwt. for all below it, and 16s. per cwt. is charged for any excess on that weight.

Provisions are liberally supplied on the journey; but hotel expenses at Alexandria, Cairo and Suez, as well as wines, beer and spirits, are not included in the sum charged by the Transit Company. The following may be considered a fair estimate of the cost of the trip:—

£ s.
Transit 12 0
One cwt. of extra luggage 0 16
One day’s board at Alexandria 0 8
Wine and beer 0 7
Ditto on journey to Cairo 0 7
One day at Cairo 0 8
Wine and beer 0 7
Ditto in the Desert 0 7
Half a day at Suez 0 5
One bottle of beer 0 2
Boat-hire on landing, and,
probably, donkey-hire for sight-seeing
0 10
£15 17

This amount will vary, of course, according to the mode of living and views of the passenger, but 15s. per day may be taken as a fair average for living, and 5s. additional, well managed, will pay the expense of seeing the sights of interest in or about Cairo, if a prolonged stay be contemplated or practicable.

Arrived at Suez, the passenger will have to secure his accommodation to Bombay, according to the regulations in the following pages.

East India Company’s rules for the engagement of passages and accommodation of passengers in the Government steam-packets between Bombay and Suez.

Application for passage is to be made at the office of the master-attendant in Bombay, and at other ports to the commander.

Passengers are to be divided into two classes, viz.:—

First class, who sit at the commander’s table and are entitled to all the privileges of the quarter-deck.

Second-class, who are not entitled to walk aft of the paddle-boxes, who berth forward, and either arrange for their own provision, or mess with the warrant-officers or engineers.

Every passenger of the first class shall pay the following sum, as table-money, for the voyage from Bombay to Suez, or from Suez to Bombay, viz.:—

A lady or gentleman Rs. 200
A child ten years of age, and above five years 100
A child five years and above one 80
A child one year and under Free
A child under one year and with the mother 50

It is to be understood that, for the above sums, the passengers are to be provided with a plain, substantial table; but no person is entitled to more than one pint of wine and one bottle of beer per diem. Cabin passengers have the first choice of seats at the table, and, after them, the saloon passengers, in preference to those on the deck, whose priority will be arranged according to their standing on the passage-list. The seats will be arranged by the commander, and, once taken, they cannot be changed without his permission during the voyage.

In addition to the table-money, the following sums will be charged for the accommodation engaged by first-class passengers, viz.:—

A treble cabin Rs. 1000
A double cabin 800
A single cabin 500
A saloon berth 350
A deck passage 350

Every second class passenger shall pay Rs. 150.

For each European servant 50 Rs. must be paid as subsistence-money, and 50 Rs. as passage-money; for native servants the charge will be one-half the rate for a European; but none are to be considered and taken as servants unless they actually accompany their masters or mistresses.

A passenger who has engaged a cabin may make what arrangement he likes for its occupation; he may either keep it entirely to himself, or admit to share it with any one that he pleases, provided only that the name of the person so admitted (if an adult) have been previously on one of the lists, and subject to the following restrictions, viz.:—

A treble cabin cannot be appropriated to the accommodation of more than—

Four ladies.
Three gentlemen.
Six children.
One lady and four children.
Two ladies and three children.
Three ladies and two children.
One gentlemen and three children.
Two gentlemen and two children.
A lady and her husband, with two children.

A double cabin cannot be appropriated to more than—

Three ladies.
Two gentlemen.
Four children.
A lady and three children.
Two ladies and two children.
A gentleman with two children.
A lady and her husband, with one child.

A single cabin cannot be appropriated to more than—

Two ladies.
One gentleman.
Three children.
One lady and two children.

Passengers in a steamer that may from accident or other cause be obliged to return to port, will be entitled to the refund of the amount that has been paid, deducting therefrom a sum for the table allowance of the commander, according to the number of days that the vessel may have been at sea, calculating the average time occupied in a voyage to or from Suez to be eighteen days, and Aden ten days.

For the convenience of passengers from the Red Sea to India, the commanders of the Honourable Company’s packets are authorised to receive payment of passage-money at Suez, or any port between Suez and Bombay, in sovereigns, Spanish dollars or German crowns, at the following rates of exchange, viz.:—

Sovereigns at Rs. 11 each.
Spanish dollars at 2 and 3 annas each.
German crowns at 2 and 3 annas each.

Each cabin-passenger may, if he pleases, put all his baggage into his cabin. The saloon and deck-passengers will be allowed to keep one box or bag above. The rest of the baggage is to be in the baggage-room, and passengers will be allowed access to it twice a week, on a day and hour fixed by the commander, who will appoint a person to have charge of the baggage.

Any applicant may be refused a passage without any cause being assigned, either by the authorities at Bombay or by the commander of the vessel when away from Bombay; but a report of the rejection is to be communicated to Government.

All persons who take passage, either themselves or through their agents, will be considered as thereby binding themselves to comply with these rules, which will be shown by the master-attendant or by the commander of the vessel to parties who engage a passage.


An impression is abroad that parties leaving England for India may travel through France, Germany or Italy, embarking for Alexandria at either Marseilles, Trieste, or Naples, at as reasonable a cost, and with as little trouble as if they had taken their passage in the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s steamers from Southampton.[9]That such routes have their advantages, in the information and experience which travelling on the continent imparts to the intelligent, no one can deny; but that they are, in other respects, less troublesome or more economical than the sea-trip cannot by experience be maintained. In truth, no person can even compute with accuracy the actual expense of a land-journey; for, though the charges for posting by diligence, eil-wagon, vetturino, or rail, may be easily ascertained, it is impossible to estimate probable hotel charges, the extortions of gendarmerie, custom-house officers, passport employés, &c., or to foretell what detentions may take place en route; detentions which, if for only one hour beyond the time for the departure of the steamer, involve a prolonged stay of another month. We, therefore, feel justified in discarding all minute particulars respecting the routes we have indicated, simply mentioning that parties who do not seek the accommodation of the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s boats until they reach Malta or Alexandria, will have to pay (rateably) a higher sum for their passage to Ceylon, Madras or Calcutta, than would be charged them, were they to embark, in the first instance, at Southampton. We may add, however, that should any parties, in the face of the difficulties and objections, still prefer proceeding by the continental route, they will do well to limit their luggage to the least possible supply, and always refer, before deciding on the trip, to parties in London, who can give them the latest and fullest information on the subject.


To the “homeward bound” who engages his passage in the Peninsular Company’s steamer right through to England, we may address the following information:—

We will suppose him to be at Calcutta, or the provinces under the Bengal Presidency. Having made up his mind to proceed to England, and settled the period of his departure, he addresses the Agent of the Company in Calcutta, requesting him to secure a passage in the steamer appointed to proceed to Suez in the month he may have selected. The advertisements published in the Calcutta papers will indicate the arrangements made for the departure of the steamers, and the plans which the Company’s agents can supply will assist the intending passenger to select a cabin. The prices of accommodation which we have given in pounds sterling do not vary in India. The conversion of pounds sterling into rupees at the current exchange of the day will at once give the amount.

If the party be bent upon making a prolonged stay in Egypt, it will only be necessary to engage a passage to Suez, taking a certificate from the captain that the voyage has been made in one of the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s vessels, in order to ensure a passage from Alexandria to Southampton, at some future period, in one of the vessels of the same establishment, by paying the amount (exclusive of desert transit) that would have been exacted in Calcutta for the entire passage. If, however, the traveller, after remaining in Egypt, purpose visiting the Continent of Europe prior to his return to England, he need not trouble himself about the certificate.

Having engaged his passage, the homeward-bound will next think of his equipment for the trip. What we have said on this subject, in the instructions to outward-bound passengers, will equally apply to him. No cabin furniture whatever is required, nor will anything be needed in addition to the ample wardrobe which a resident in India generally possesses, beyond a couple of blouses, or light jean shooting-coats, and a sola hat.

Should the traveller be resident at Madras, or under the Fort St. George government, he should address his application to the Oriental Company’s agent at the Presidency, who will give him all necessary information as to the time when the steamer may be expected at Madras. He will be required to be perfectly ready to start, as the stay of the vessel in the Madras roads seldom exceeds the few hours requisite in coaling.

Officers on the Bombay establishment will, it is presumed, for the most part, leave their own Presidency in the East-India Company’s steamers, the regulations regarding which will be found in a preceding page.

The accommodation of the government boats terminating at Suez, the Bombay officer will be thrown upon his own resources for the remainder of his trip. He will accordingly do wisely, if he wish to get rapidly to England, to address himself a month before-hand to the agent of the Peninsular and Oriental Company in Egypt, to book him a passage thence to Southampton, and to arrange for his transit across the desert.[10]

Officers on sick-leave or furlough very frequently arrive without certain necessary documents, and are consequently subject to great inconvenience and expense. They should be provided with—

Certificate of length of service.
Certificate of being allowed a furlough.
Certificate of date to which pay has been issued.

If from Bengal, a certificate from the pilot in duplicate of the date of the ships leaving the Sandheads; and, if it be intended to claim income-allowance from the military fund, a certificate from the secretary to the fund of being entitled to such an allowance.

i b 045


The voyage from India to Suez, as far as the attractions of the intermediate ports are concerned, presents very few charms for the traveller; and, even if they were numerous, the stay at each place is so brief, that there is scarcely any opportunity of enjoying them; but every change is acceptable to the landsman confined for several days on shipboard, more particularly if the scenes he beholds have a dash of novelty in them. Arrived at Madras, therefore (we speak now to the Bengal officer), he will pull ashore in one of the Mussoolah boats, whose peculiar construction and safe navi gation through the surf that perpetually rolls upon the shore at that port has always been a subject of surprise to the novice. If he have a friend at the Presidency, he will probably get the use of a carriage for the day, if not, he will be able to hire a “shigram” (palanquin carriage), or a “a bandy” (gig), and drive to all the most striking parts in the town. The Mount-road, with its numerous European shops, and monument to Sir Thomas Munro, the fort and the arsenal, the college, the public stables, the government house, the Athenæum library, the Black town, &c., will furnish subjects of inspection enough to occupy a few hours very pleasantly.

Ceylon.—The next point on the route has its attractions for the Madras, as well as the Bengal, officer. An idea of these may be gathered from the following lively and intelligent description of a visit to Point de Galle, the coaling port, derived from “The Monthly Times,” and written by a gentleman who had touched there in the “Hindostan,” on his way to England:—

“On the seventh day, including our twenty-four hours’ detention at Madras, after leaving the Sandheads, we found ourselves, in the morning, approaching the beautiful Island of Ceylon, and anchored about noon in Point de Galle harbour. The entrance to the harbour was pretty enough—low rocks, over which the waves were beating and bounding, extended to the left, and a point of land seemed to jut out prominently to them, on which is built the Dutch fort of olden days, and which still retains its characteristic look of Dutch solidity and unavailing massiveness. There is no appearance of town from the ship; and very few habitations visible, or indications of much cultivation. The old Dutch church forms the principal object in the fort. You know I had letters from a family long resident at Galle. I proposed to see them on the following morning, but they would not hear of my remaining on board; so I landed in the afternoon, and soon found all was kindness and hospitality on the part of my new Cingalese acquaintances. The residence was formerly the old Government House, in the days of the Dutch. It was a large, roomy, substantial building; the doors were lofty, and the walls panelled in stucco, and painted with white and ochre; the fittings-up and furniture were plain, but substantially made, of carved ebony and satin-wood.

“On the following day, after a most gloriously comfortable night’s rest in a very clean bed and cool, capacious room, we started, after breakfast, in a small palkee-garree and pony, always easily obtainable on hire, to visit a country-house on a hill about three miles from the fort. The drive was through a beautiful and open, well-shaded road, with frequent interspersings of small cleared patches of rice and other cultivation. The road itself was narrow, with ditches on either side, but well metalled with broken granite. The comfortable houses of the burghers rose occasionally by the road side, on little shady eminences, here and there, and seemed neat and peculiarly cozy. They were chiefly oblong, tiled buildings, with a verandah to the front. These burghers are descendants either from the former Dutch or Portuguese possessors of this coast; and many that I saw were not a little darkened in their descent. On reaching the hill, which we had to walk up, I found the sun sadly oppressive; but we were amply repaid for the ascent, for the view from it was superb. The sea was visible, and almost everywhere open to us along the horizon, through the different hills; and every here and there, in our vicinity and below us, were beautiful valleys and richly cleared spots, with well-defined roads running through them, and occasionally cottages and huts dotted in every direction; the grand distant mountains forming afar a tall and varied background.

“I returned to the ship, after dinner, in the evening, much gratified with my visit. The mode of living at Ceylon is more English, in all respects, than at Calcutta; the table more simple—the servants fewer—and the whole character of domestic economy less Oriental than we are accustomed to on the Indian Continent; but the scenery of the island itself is far from partaking of this un-Oriental appearance; it realises, in everything, all we fancy and read of in descriptions of tropical islands. The closeness and abundance of the vegetation, the variety of Eastern jungle trees, the palm-like characteristic towering of the cocoa and beetle-nut tree, everywhere prominent in the luxuriant woods around you, all tend to give to Ceylon a picturesque and Eastern style of beauty, very different from the low plains and unvaried flatness of the country in Bengal.

“The dresses of the natives are different from Bengal; men wear combs like the women of other countries, and have a loose cloth round their legs, vastly resembling a petticoat. Their language is the Cingalese; an open and gentle sort of well-vowelled dialect, which sounds prettily and euphoniously enough, like the Malayan language.

“Trade altogether is not very extensive in Ceylon. At Galle there are but three or four merchants, forming the entire mercantile community of the place. At Columbo there are, perhaps, twenty merchants and agents, and there is a Ceylon bank. The local trade is confined to three articles, viz., coffee, cocoa-nut oil, and cinnamon, though a few folks are beginning to turn their attention to sugar. Coffee is reared in plantations on the higher lands, and in chosen spots in the interior. Some of the plantations have done well, and, after the third year, are described as having paid more with the one season’s produce than all the preceding and preliminary outlay and price of block put together. Several concerns, however, are losing, the soil being unsuitable; the present low prices for Ceylon coffee, in England, must utterly ruin them. It has been proved, that the only chance of success is with clearances on the forest and large tree lands: the plant thrives in these, though it takes three years to bear, and attains maturity only after the fifth year; it is expected to last ten years. Like all other concerns, those under proprietors themselves fare the best, and are easily distinguishable from those superintended by agents; but all managers live very uncomfortably. The superintendents get about 150 rupees per month, which is little enough, for supplies of the commonest necessity reach only from Kandy, or from a distance, and they are frequently without supplies at all, subsisting then on rice and the poorest produce of the villages around them. The Ceylon coffee itself ranks next to Mocha in the English markets; but recent prices must be insufficient to meet the charges of production. It is planted much in the same manner as with tea in Assam. After clearance, they set the plants at certain distances, when they grow to about the same height as the tea-tree. After blossoming and ripening, and before falling, the fruit is gathered; when there is a simple process, by some wheels and cheap machinery, to clear the berry from the pulp and skin.

“There are cinnamon gardens, near Galle, but they are not pleasing to look at, and assuredly there is no spicy and aromatic odour on the breeze, as the poets would fain establish in reference to this island, the famed Taprobane of old! When you bruise a twig or shoot of the cinnamon-tree and break off a small bit of the bark, the scent of the cinnamon is powerful and pleasant. The cocoa-nut oil is expressed much in the same manner as in Bengal, but it surprised me that, for domestic use at Galle, it was so expensive; they asked sixpence for two quart bottles of it, or, at this rate, about five rupees and more per maund. I should have expected it to be cheaper in Ceylon.

“The Rifle corps seemed to be a fine, well-disciplined body of men, chiefly Malays or their descendants. The regiment is officered like the line, and the dress, appointments, setting up and look of the soldiers were excellent.

“The salaries and receipts of the public functionaries and others in Ceylon are not quite so good as under the Company, but the habits of living, as I have before remarked, are more economical, and, I dare say, there is more money comparatively saved in Ceylon, than in the Company’s wider and more imperial territories.”

The new arrival at Ceylon is sorely beset by pedlars, who tempt him to invest a small portion of his capital in ivory snuff-boxes and knife-handles, tortoise-shell combs, card-racks, &c. A very few of these articles, purchased at a third of the price asked for them, may prove acceptable to friends in England, but we would recommend the Ceylon visitor to abstain from too large an indulgence in his generous inclinations, for ivory pays a heavy duty in England, and, after all, the articles brought home may be procured in England at as cheap a rate.

After leaving Ceylon and passing through the Maldive islands, which, though very low and level, are green and picturesque, no object of interest presents itself until the port of Aden is reached.

Quitting Aden, the shores of the Red Sea are frequently seen, but rarely approached during the upward voyage. In six days Suez is reached, and, as soon as boats can come off to the steamer, the passengers are landed and almost immediately conveyed by van (see previous details on this head) across the desert.

The town of Suez offers no kind of inducement to prolong one’s stay. Small, dirty and destitute of any architectural beauties or antique remains, it exhibits the worst specimen of a Mahomedan city in the whole Ottoman empire.

Arrived at Suez, it will be for the passenger who has not contracted for the entire trip home, to select his own method of getting to Cairo. The vans of the Transit Company offer unquestionably the most convenient and expeditious mode of carrying the traveller across the desert; but there are not wanting persons who prefer the romance and independence of a tedious trip on the back of a horse, donkey or camel. If there were any objects of interest worthy of an occasional halt in the desert, the inconvenience of this slow progress would have its counterpoise; but when we assure the traveller that there is not one single fragment of antique remains, one solitary picturesque spot, nay, nothing, beyond one tree, seven station-houses, and a multitude of rat-holes and camel-skeletons, to diversify the broad, glaring, sandy waste, he will not hesitate about the prudence of paying his £12—the whole cost of transit to Alexandria—or £9 to Cairo only, and joining the bulk of his fellow-travellers in the omnibuses.

From Cairo a freer choice is left to the traveller. If he prefer lingering in Egypt, he will find in a visit to the cataracts, the temples of Luxor, Carnac, &c., enough to engage his attention for an indefinite number of weeks. On these points, however, we have supplied information among the “Miscellaneous” matter at the close of this volume.

The route from Cairo to Alexandria, merely reversing the order of the trip, is described in a foregoing part of this volume. Arrived at Alexandria—provided the passenger has not booked himself in India for the entire transit to Southampton—it often becomes a question which route shall be taken to accomplish the remainder of the journey. The taste, inclinations or curiosity of some will lead them to Constantinople, to Syria, the Holy Land, the Grecian Archipelago; others may feel disposed to embark for Trieste, in order to visit Venice, northern Italy and Germany. Many chalk out for themselves a trip to Naples, Rome, Florence, Switzerland, &c., previously purifying themselves of the bugbear plague at Malta; and some few embark in the French steamer and make their way to Marseilles, there to serve quarantine, preparatory to a tour through France.

If it were as much our province to advise as it is our purpose to inform, we would suggest, as the result of the information imparted to us by many travellers, that it is, on many accounts, most desirable that persons from India should come straight to England, in the first instance, thence betaking themselves to the continent of Europe, if so inclined. The chief reasons for this proceeding are—the entire avoidance of the quarantines, which are often irksome and always expensive; the gratification of the natural affections by the earliest possible meeting with relatives and friends; the facility of obtaining information respecting the most attractive routes, and introductions to families on the Continent; the opportunity of selecting a companion from old fellow-soldiers, fellow-officials or Indian friends similarly bent upon a pleasurable excursion.

But these arguments may weigh as a feather against the determination to visit the interesting portions of Europe and Asia we have indicated, preparatory to placing foot in England. It is difficult to eradicate from any Anglo-Indians the notion that it is better to arrive cleansed of Indian rust and polished by a tour through civilised lands, or more prudent “to see the world” while you are in it, than to trust to the chance of quitting England when you have just tasted its infinite pleasures.

For the consideration of such reasoners, therefore, we submit some information respecting quarantines, the rules of which, however, are very changeable.

A passage to Malta from Alexandria may be procured in the “Peninsular and Oriental Company’s” boats for £12 10s. The French steamers charge £10, but this does not include the table, wines, &c., which are paid for separately to therestaurateur on board. The trip in the English steamer occupies four days. The French vessel goes first to Syra, to meet the Constantinople boat, and this occupies seven days. Arrived at Malta, intimation is given by the captain of the number of persons who meditate remaining there, and accommodation is accordingly provided for them in the lazaretto. Their stay will depend upon the nature of the bill of health carried by the vessel; it is not, however, at any time, less than twelve days, and may extend to twenty.

The regulations to be observed in the lazaretto are given on the following page.


To be observed by all Persons performing Quarantine in the Lazaretto of Malta.


All passengers, on landing, are to give their names to the captain of the lazaretto, which are to be entered in the registry of the office.


The captain of the lazaretto will assign apartments for passengers, and each passenger will be provided with two chairs, a table, and a wooden bedstead, for which no charges are made; but any damage done by the passengers to the apartments or furniture is to be made good by them before pratique.


Passengers are not to be permitted to enter other apartments; nor can they be allowed to receive visitors, except at the parlatorio of the lazaretto, and that only during office-hours; nor are they to trespass the limits assigned to them by the captain of the lazaretto.


Passengers must pay a strict attention to all the instructions they may receive from the captain of the lazaretto and from the health guardians, and particularly in every point that regards their baggage, clothes, &c., being properly aired and handled during the period of their quarantine; and their quarantine will only commence to reckon from the day on which all their baggage, clothes, &c., have been duly opened and handled.


All letters and parcels, or other effects brought by passengers, must be given up, in order that they may be fumigated or depurated separately from them, as the occasion may require.


All cases of sickness must be reported immediately to the cap tain of the lazaretto, and all persons sick are to be visited immediately by the physician to the lazaretto, after which official visit, passengers are at liberty to avail themselves of any medical attendance they think proper.


Passengers are to pay the Government fee for the guardians employed to attend them, for the number of days of their quarantine, at the following rates, viz.:—at 1s. 3d. per day for the guardian who attends one passenger, and at 2s. 6d. per day for each guardian who attends more than one passenger. They are to victual the guardian or guardians during their quarantine, or to pay to each guardian an allowance of 7d. per day in lieu thereof. It is to be clearly understood that the guardians are employed solely for quarantine purposes, and they are strictly prohibited to interfere in any other service whilst they attend passengers.


The office hours at the lazaretto are from 8 A.M. to 12, and from 2 P.M. to 5 daily; and all letters sent to the fumigating-room before 9 A.M. daily, will be delivered in Valetta at 10, and those sent before 3 will be delivered in Valetta at 4P.M. by the letter messenger, who is entitled to receive from the passengers a penny for each note, parcel, or letter, as a remuneration for his trouble and boat-hire.


A daily report of all circumstances is to be made by the captain of the lazaretto to the superintendent of quarantine and marine police.

N.B. A trattoria has been established at the lazaretto for the convenience of passengers who wish to avail themselves of it, from whence they can be supplied with dinners, wines, &c., &c., in their own apartments.

Beds complete and other articles of furniture, if required, can also be hired from a person appointed to provide them.

A note of charges for the trattoria, and for the hire of furniture, will be furnished to the passengers, on their applying for it.

Of the manner in which the time may be passed in a lazaretto, the following graphic sketch by Mr. Stocqueler, which appeared some time since in the “Asiatic Journal,” will convey no imperfect idea:—

“Upwards of 140 passengers left Alexandria in the Oriental, at the end of May, for some fifty had joined it from Bombay; amongst the latter were several heroes of Meanee and Hyderabad—fine young soldiers, who were covered with honourable scars received in the desperate engagements between Sir C. Napier and the Belochees. Never, perhaps, was a vessel freighted with so many who had distinguished themselves in conflict with the enemies of their country. Not less than twenty-six officers, who had seen service in Afghanistan, China and Scinde, paced the deck every day, and described the scenes which their own prowess and that of their comrades had, for the previous three or four years, rendered memorable in the history of British India. But of this large number of homeward-bound passengers, only three (one having two ladies in his family), quitted the Oriental at Malta. Those who wished to prosecute the rest of their journey by land had either failed to make the necessary provision,[11]or shuddered at the prospect of twenty days’ imprisonment in the lazaretto. Moreover, they flattered themselves with the belief, that they would be enabled to make the tour of the Continent when they had exhausted the various pleasures of glorious England. And so they steamed away to Southampton, leaving the few above alluded to—the writer of this among them—in the lazaretto, under suspicion of the crime of being afflicted with the plague.

“Meanwhile, let me assure the traveller from India, that even a three weeks’ incarceration in the Malta lazaretto is not intolerable, if, which is generally the case with the imprisoned, he is lucky enough to have one or two pleasant and intelligent companions. I have before me, at this moment, a memorandum, written after twelve days’ of captivity, and, as it may serve to re-assure future prisoners, by conveying some idea of the scenes, impressions, and occupations which diversify existence in the durance they are compelled to support, I here transcribe it:—

“‘Let me survey my prison, and its agrémens. I am lodged in two commodious apartments, overlooking the quarantine bay. I look out of the southern window of my verandah, and have the waters of the Mediterranean forty feet only below me. Opposite, at the distance of about 300 yards, and divided from me by these waters and the quarantine harbour, are the ramparts of the fortifications, surmounted by windmills, flag-staves, and a small Roman Catholic chapel. To the right is the termination of the bay, where a dozen of Greek, Austrian, and English brigs and barques lie in quarantine, sufficiently near to allow me to observe the operations on board. Behind all these, a little more to the south-eastward, is part of the suburbs of La Valetta, the evening promenade, gardens, hills, &c. To my left, is the entrance to the bay, overlooked on one side by part of the city of La Valetta, and on the other side by Fort Manvel, now used as a part of the lazaretto. This view greets me whenever I stand in the verandah, a recreation to which one is often tempted by the clearness, coolness, and crispness of the air, the beauty of the sky, and the rich blue of the water. Well, this of itself is something. Then, for moving sights, we have occasionally the arrival or departure of a steamer from Alexandria, or Greece, or the coast of Spain; of vessels from Tripoli, and Smyrna, and Syra; of speronaros from Sicily or the Italian coast; or we see a vessel released from quarantine, working her way out of the harbour. Early in the morning, four times in the week, the bell of the little chapel, on the summit of a rock opposite the lazaretto, tolls to prayers. The chapel is not more than twenty feet in breadth, and the same in depth. The altar occupies the back or southern side, and exactly faces us. The bell ceases, the priest dons his canonicals, and the matin mass commences, the responses being audibly chanted or muttered by the crews of Maltese and Italian vessels, who are either quartered in apartments beneath us, or employed on board the vessels. The door of the chapel closes, and the work or pastime of the day commences.

“‘Ha! there’s a splash!—a sailor in quarantine has stripped himself, and plunged into the water beneath his prison-door. Another and another follow him! How admirably they swim! the ease of the water-fowl, and the rapidity of the fish. See! one of them dives! How long he remains under water! Will he drown?—will he not be suffocated? not a bit of it; he rises to the surface, bearing in his hands some of the black, starry, thorny members of the crustaceous tribe. He has a knife in his right hand, which I did not observe before, and which he evidently took with him to dislodge the fish from their location in the rocky depths. Splash! and the strong swimmer is again twenty feet below the surface. Again, he rises—and again descends—and behold! he has accumulated a perfect breakfast of shell-fish! Meanwhile, the others breast the waves, diving, floating, playing, and rejoicing in all the muscular strength which the noble, healthful, and refreshing science calls into action. Well, a walk will do no harm—the verandah is sixty paces long, and forty or fifty turns will give one an appetite for breakfast. A. and B. have abun dance of conversation for the promenade, and when we have exhausted the pleasures of memory, we can turn to the pleasures of hope, and debate the possibility of an abatement of the quarantine or, at any rate, discuss the respective advantages and pleasures of going to Syra, to Naples, or Marseilles. We are tired now, and it is time to dress. Breakfast is ready—can anything be more satisfactory, or anything more tempting and wholesome? There are coffee and tea, and three times as many rolls as we can eat! The eggs are as large as the finest production of the English barn-door hen, and boiled to the exact point—half a minute less, and the albumen would not have coagulated; half a minute more, and they would have been as hard as a stone. And there’s a delicious dish of strawberries, brought only yesterday from the coast of Sicily, and plucked but an hour before their embarkation! And flowers too:—

‘The captive soothers of a captive’s hours.

“‘Carlo, best of servitors, knows my penchant, and decks the table with the rose, the pink, the carnation, and the fragrant thyme.

“‘Breakfast over, Mr. Cassolani is announced. He is the captain of the lazaretto; a courteous, intelligent old gentleman, of very correct notions and kind disposition. He is come to give us a list of the passengers who have just arrived at Marseilles, and to ask us to subscribe a trifle for a poor widow, whose husband, a guardiano of the lazaretto, died of apoplexy the day of our arrival. We have dropped our mites for the widow’s benefit, and Cassolani condescends to pick them up, though he will not receive them from our hands. This painfully reminds us that we are prisoners on the suspicion of the crime of plague—gens suspects. People ‘in pratique,’ as freedom from the lazaretto is called, will ‘walk with us, talk with us, buy with us, sell with us—but they will not eat with us, drink with us,’ nor pollute themselves by touching our persons or our clothes. Cassolani carries a stick, to keep us at a respectful distance, and there is a soldier of the 42nd Highlanders on the opposite ramparts, prepared to send a bullet through us, if we attempt to go abroad until we are fairly cleansed of the foul imputation.

“‘Cassolani departs, and S. and I go to chess. From chess we fly to books. It is three o’clock, and dinner is announced. For economy and society’s sake, we have made a table d’hôte, and the whole party dine together. It is true that B. looks suspiciously at one dish, and C. distrusts another; but, nevertheless, the whole style of the thing is good and clean, comprising the English and French modes de cuisine as well as could be desired. There is, for example, soup à la Julienne, and a dish of mackerel; roast beef à l’Anglais (the beef comes to Malta from Tunis, and, after serving quarantine, is fattened for the table); a fricandeau of sweetbread in a well-flavoured sauce; a stewed breast of mutton, mashed potatoes, a maccaroni, peas or French beans, or artichokes, an apricot tart, cheese, and a salad. Oranges, cherries, and strawberries compose our dessert, and we drink a pint of Marsala. What more would a man have?

“‘The sun declines, and the Maltese world emerges from its confinement. The telescopes now come into play, and we direct our views to the part of the town where the sempstresses congregate, and gaze out of the balcony windows, to catch the evening breeze, or anything else that may be passing. The fall of night brings with it tea and candles, and then books, draughts, chess, and—to bed!’

“Of the other agrémens of the lazaretto there remains nothing to notice, if I except the numerous boats which are continually coming and going across the harbour, often laden with females, who, in their black mantillas, with sparkling black eyes, and hair à la Madonna, resemble Spanish women.

“The expense of living in the Malta lazaretto is about eleven shillings per diem, as thus:—

s. d.
Breakfast 1 8
Dinner 3 0
A bottle of Marsala 1 3
Hire of Furniture 0 8
Servants’ Wages (including diet) 2 3
The Guardian (ditto) 1 10
10 8

“This can be increased, if necessary, by a more abundant dinner, tea, or coffee in the evening, spirituous liquors, and a greater quantity of furniture; but it cannot be diminished. Washing costs about one shilling per dozen pieces, and sevenpence per diem for the diet of the blanchisseuse, who must come into the lazaretto to perform her functions. A capital circulating library keeps the incarcerated well supplied with books (at one penny per volume per day), andGalignani’s Messenger, and the Maltese papers can also be had on application to Mr. Mure’s establishment.”

Emerging from the lazaretto, the traveller is recommended to pass a few days in inspecting the town and the surrounding country (vide page 11), and then to repack his luggage, dispatching such as he may not require on his homeward trip direct from Malta, consigned to the care of his agent in London, with instructions as to the disposal of the same.

Those travellers who prefer visiting France viâ Marseilles, will find the lazaretto there, comparatively speaking, a sort of purgatory. We subjoin the regulations as published by the French authorities:—


Art. 1. French Post-office Packets.—19 days after debarking effects and passengers.

Passengers by these boats and their baggage.—17 days after landing at the lazaret; 14 days only when the baggage shall have been plombé at the consulate of France at the port of embarking, and that this operation be legally certified.

Art. 2. French or foreign men-of-war.—17 days after the landing of passengers and their baggage.

Passengers on board these vessels.—17 days without spoglio, 14 days with spoglio.

Art. 3. Vessels with pilgrims.—25 days.

Pilgrims.—25 days after landing.

Art. 4. Every other description of sailing-vessel or steam-boat.—21 days after landing suspected articles.

Passengers by these vessels.—17 days without spoglio, 14 days with spoglio. Merchandise.—21 days after landing at the lazaret.


Art. 1. French post-office packets.—15 days after debarking effects and passengers.

Passengers by these boats and their baggage.—14 days after landing; 12 days only when the baggage shall have been plombé at the consulate of France at the point of embarking, and that this operation be legally certified.

Art. 2.—French or foreign men-of-war.—14 days after the landing of passengers and their baggage. Without passengers, 12 days.

Passengers on board these vessels.—14 days after landing without spoglio, and 12 days with spoglio.

Art. 3. Vessels with pilgrims.—20 days.

Pilgrims.—20 days after landing at the lazaret.

Art. 4. Every other description of sailing vessel or steam-boat.—15 days after landing suspected articles.

Passengers by these vessels.—14 days without spoglio, after landing at the lazaret; 12 days with spoglio.

Suspected goods.—15 days after landing at the lazaret.


Art. 1. French post-office packets.—12 days after debarking effects at the lazaret.

Passengers by these boats and their baggage.—9 days after landing, and their baggage exposed to the air.

Art. 2. French or foreign men-of-war.—9 days, with or without passengers.

Passengers on board these vessels.—9 days after landing, and their baggage exposed to the air.

Art. 3. Every other description of vessel or steam-boat.—12 days after landing suspected goods.

Passengers by these vessels.—9 days.

Suspected merchandise.—12 days after landing at the lazaret.

Of the Syra (Athens) quarantine, it is enough to say that it is more commodious and agreeable than the same establishment at Marseilles, and not so convenient as the one at Malta.

The Syra lazaretto is, according to the report of the latest visitors, exceedingly commodious and clean, and facing, as it does, the sea, where there are continual breezes, it is infinitely cooler than the city of Athens. The charges of the Trattoria are not greater than those at Malta (about eleven shillings per diem), and the detention in quarantine never exceeds seventeen days, and when a clean bill of health is brought by the French steamer from Alexandria, the duration of the imprisonment is very much less.


Quarantine, on arrival in England, being done away with (unless some special cause arise on the voyage home to render precaution necessary), the direct route is greatly to be preferred; and the ease and comfort which it offers as contrasted with the annoyances of continental travelling needs no comment.

On reaching Southampton, the steamer goes into dock; the whole of the luggage is forthwith conveyed to the dock warehouse, and the examination commences with that of the first person on the list.

Passengers are not required to attend in person when their luggage is examined. Those who desire to leave Southampton by train immediately upon arrival, or who do not wish to subject themselves to the annoyance of being kept in the docks waiting their turn, are recommended to deposit their keys (including name and address) with Mr. Hill’s clerk,[12]giving him, at the same time, a list of the packages, distinguishing such as contain articles subject to duty. For want of proper arrangement on the part of the passenger, we have known three hours pass in the examination of one gentleman’s baggage, with upwards of eighty of his fellow-travellers anxiously waiting for their turn. This arises, in the first place, from the large quantity of luggage which many bring; and, in the second, from the want of system in packing, distinguishing that which is immediately requisite from that which is unnecessary.

As passengers will be required to keep pace with the mails in either route, unless they arrange for a fortnight’s stay in Egypt, the system of having a larger quantity of luggage than is actually necessary cannot be too much deprecated.

The traveller is also apt to mix “duty goods” with personal luggage, in anticipation of their escaping notice. This is a “forlorn hope,” and leads invariably to the most rigid scrutiny of every package, thereby causing great delay. If the goods be such as trinkets, Bombay work-boxes, Dacca or Cuttack silver, China or India filligree packed in cotton, a still greater commotion arises at the custom-house, and we are not quite sure whether the circumstance does not render the articles liable to seizure and confiscation, under the quarantine laws.

The better plan by far, whether the traveller attend the examination of his luggage or not, is to separate all goods liable to duty, and put them in a case or trunk, with an inventory of its contents, and the value of each article separately stated,[13]and then leave them in charge of Mr. Hill, with instructions to forward them without delay. They can, of course, be examined at once; but we think it unfair to subject others to the inconvenience and loss of time that must consequently ensue. If the plan here recommended be followed, we venture to submit that it would be satisfactory to all parties.

A general tariff of East India fabrics will be found in the Appendix; but it is not generally known that all British manufactures that have been exported, and purchased out of Great Britain, are subject to a duty if re-imported. Being private property, however, they are generally released on petition to the Board of Customs, the petition being accompanied by a solemn declaration made by the owner before a magistrate, that the claim set forth in the petition is true. The reason assigned for this law is, that it protects and promotes English manufacture, by preventing a return of goods to the country that have once been exported for sale.

Parties who, from necessity or choice, bring servants from India, have too frequently so indefinite an agreement, that disputes and unpleasantnesses in settling with them frequently arise. We, therefore, earnestly recommend passengers to endeavour to do without personal servants, if possible; but if it be impracticable to dispense with them, we would suggest that the engagement should specify whether services cease on arrival,—if the servants are to be returned to India at the expense of the employer and—whether it shall be viâ the Cape or Overland. The agreement should likewise state the allowance that will be made for board-wages. Sixteen shillings per week is the sum charged at the lodging-houses for this class.

Persons arriving from India, particularly families, incur great expense by proceeding, on their arrival, direct to hotels or to furnished lodgings. In most cases they would do better by resorting to a boarding-house. There are many suitable establishments of this nature throughout England, where comfortable accommodation is afforded at a moderate charge. A letter of inquiry, written on the passage from Alexandria to Malta, and dispatched viâ Marseilles, would be answered, and wait the writer’s arrival at Southampton.


We must not omit to advert to the total expense of an Overland journey, for it is an important question to all who must go to India. We think it will be found, on a fair calculation, that this is, by no means, so much in excess of the cost round the Cape of Good Hope as people are led to imagine.

Independently of the cost, there are other important points worthy of consideration, which are frequently forgotten by those who suffer themselves to be engrossed by the mere pecuniary view of the question. For example, there is an amazing difference in the time consumed in the two routes. Proceeding Overland, there will be two months gained which may be either passed at home, or, if the attractions of England have ceased, can be employed in anticipating the stipulated period of a return to, or arrival in India. In the latter case—for we presume the traveller to be in the East India Company’s service—the Indian pay will be received two months sooner, and what is of greater moment, by far, two months’ time is gained in “actual service,” a consideration which, at some future day, may be of the last importance to the civil or military officer.

If to these advantages we add the difference in the cost of the equipment for a six weeks’ and a four months’ trip; the knowledge acquired by witnessing variety of scenery and diversity of manners; the effect on the health and spirits of perpetual change; the slight risk of delays from accidental want of water and provisions, damage in gales of wind, and other casualties which often drive sailing vessels into intermediate ports and prolong their voyage, there can, we should think, be no difference of opinion as to the superior claims of the Overland Route.

As the nature of the currency with which the traveller should supply himself is a question of great importance, we consider it within our province to remark, that sovereigns are, by far, the best coin that can be carried, for purposes of general supply. Letters of credit may be obtained, however, to be used in the event of accident rendering additional funds necessary; but it is prudent to endeavour to avoid a resort to them, for the exchange and commission on advances made upon such letters of credit, subject the drawer to considerable loss, an observation that applies particularly to Egypt. At Ceylon the sovereign is at a premium, frequently fetching twenty-one shillings.


For the information of such travellers as purpose varying their journey, by visiting the various places which occur en route, we subjoin the following particulars:—

England to Gibraltar, by the Peninsular Steamers, calling at Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon and Cadiz.—These steamers start from Southampton on the 7th, 17th, and 27th of every month, at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. They proceed, in the first instance, to Vigo, to land the mails for that part of Spain, affording to the traveller a view of the magnificent scenery of Vigo Bay and the Bayona Islands. Thence the steamer proceeds close along the coast, which presents a splendid panoramic view of “mount and dale,” with numerous towns and villages interspersed, until she arrives off Oporto, where she stops to land mails and passengers, but does not enter the port. The passengers, however, will have a good view of the Fortress of San Joa da Foz, the Convent of the Sierra at Villa Nova, &c., so celebrated in the war between Don Pedro and Don Miguel; also the city of Oporto, which looks very picturesque from the sea. Leaving Oporto, she holds her course on for Lisbon, and, passing the Burlings Rocks, and Rock of Lisbon, will enter the Tagus generally on the fourth day from leaving Southampton.

Lisbon, &c.—The view of Lisbon, on entering the Tagus, is beautiful beyond description. The steamer usually remains here a day, before starting again on her passage southward for Cadiz and Gibraltar, and this will enable travellers to take a cursory view of the Lusitanian capital; but it is recommended that they should, if time permits, stop ten days here, proceeding to Cadiz or Gibraltar by the following steamer.

There are very good hotels now at Lisbon, and the town is greatly improved in cleanliness, no longer deserving the character for filth, &c., bestowed upon it by Lord Byron and others. Among the various interesting excursions which may be made in the neighbourhood of Lisbon, of course the spot where

“Cintra’s glorious Eden intervenes,
In variegated maze of mount and glen,”

will not be forgotten, and will amply repay the trouble of a visit.

From Lisbon to Cadiz the passage is made, in ordinary circumstances, in about twenty-six to thirty hours, and from Cadiz to Gibraltar in about eight hours.

Cadiz, Seville, &c.—The steamer remains at Cadiz only from three to four hours; but even this will enable the passenger to see the principal part of the town, which is exceedingly clean and handsome; and its appearance in approaching the bay of Cadiz singularly beautiful and striking. If the traveller can afford to stop for the next steamer, he may make an excursion to Seville, between which and Cadiz steamers run almost daily. Xerez de la Frontera, and Puerto de Santa Maria, with the extensive Bodejas of the wine merchants, are also well worthy of a visit.

At Gibraltar, the steamer on the Indian line will receive the traveller and convey him to Malta. In forming a calculation, it will be prudent to reckon on having not less than seven or more than nine days’ stay at each place, provided it be intended to go forward by the next steamer. Again, should a party desire to remain a fortnight in Egypt, previous to joining the steamer at Suez, he can be accommodated by the Peninsular and Oriental Company, who will convey him to Alexandria, and cause him to be taken up by the vessel on the Indian side at any later period.

The additional cost of a stoppage at any of the intermediate places would depend upon the tastes, habits and means of the traveller; it need not be much, and, to a party of friends proceeding thus, the journey, at the proper season, would be instructive and delightful.

From Malta the traveller can diverge to Constantinople; or a few hours will take him to any of the chief points of interest, either in Italy or Greece. It would far exceed our limits to give details of all the various trips that might be made from so central a point as Malta; luckily, however, there is no want of guide-books to classic ground—indeed, from the nature of the subject, any such guide, to be really useful, must in itself be much larger than the present volume.

Correct information as to the means of locomotion will be furnished by Mr. Holton, the Peninsular Company’s Agent at Malta, who can advise the traveller how to save much valuable time, and also how to avoid trouble and expense.


In a previous page we have pointed out the principal objects of interest in the vicinity of Cairo and Alexandria, which are accessible in the ordinary transit through Egypt. In the event, however, of a prolonged residence in that country, either from necessity or choice, the list of videnda may manifestly be much extended.

Supposing the traveller, then, to start from Cairo, after inspecting the pyramids and other sights near that city, he can, by application to an agent on the spot, procure a boat, well supplied with provisions, &c., and proceed a considerable distance up the Nile. We have stated elsewhere that there is little besides the Pacha’s palace, Pompey’s pillar, and Cleopatra’s needle, to be seen at and in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, and therefore call the attention of the sojourner in Egypt to the interesting antiquities he will have an opportunity of examining on the borders of the Nile. Should he purpose limiting his trip to a fortnight, in order to be in time for the packet from Suez or Alexandria, it must be borne in mind that he can only visit a few of the places mentioned below, and must make arrangements accordingly; but, in case he should desire to extend his travels, we subjoin some notes from the best authorities, of the manifold wonders to be seen on the banks of the mighty Nile, and, if the reader require even further information, we commend to his perusal the admirable work on Egypt by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson.



The great pyramid of Sacarah contains a small chamber with a few hieroglyphics, differing in this respect from all others. The arched tombs (now nearly destroyed) proving the pre-Augustan existence of the masonic arch, is of the time of Psammeticus II., about B.C. 604.

Mit Raheny, a large colossus of Rameses II., the supposed Sesostris. Mounds and indistinct remains of Memphis. On the right bank are the quarries from which a portion of the stones for the pyramids were drawn. In one part, oxen are represented drawing a block placed on a sledge. A little to the south of the modern village is an inclined plane, leading from the quarries to the river.

Thirty miles farther to the south, at Atfeh, mounds of Aphroditopolis, but without ruins.

Left bank, false pyramid (Meidoum), difficult of access, on account of the canal.

Three miles beyond Feohm, and on the opposite side (right bank), remains of crude brick walls, with hieroglyphics on the bricks.

Right bank, eight miles N. of Meneijeh, is Fehnah, the ancient Acoris. Greek Ptolemaic inscription. Tombs cut in the rock with inscriptions. Roman figures in high relief. Quarries on top of mountain, with a tank for water.

Right bank, seven miles beyond Meneijeh, is Rohn Ahman, some grottoes and ruins of an old town.

Nine miles farther (right bank) Beni Hassan; remarkably interesting grottoes of the time of Osortixen (about B.C. 1740), in whose reign it is calculated that Joseph arrived in Egypt. The plans, explanatory of the trades, amusements, domestic arrangements, &c., of the ancient Egyptians, merit particular attention. In the columns of the best grotto we recognise the Doric Order. In the entablature over the doorway, observe that the ends of rafters are sculptured, instead of mutules and tryglyphs.

About a mile and a half S. is another grotto, a temple of Pasht, Bubastis, or Diana, the Speos Artemidos (date Thotmeh III., 15th century B.C.) The Speos is known by he name of Stable Antar. Near it are deposited cat mummies.

Right bank, at Shekh Abadeh, are a few remains of Antinöe, built by Adrian. The principal streets may be traced, as well as the hippodrome, towards the east, out of the walls. Grottoes in rock, &c.

This whole district has been famous for thieves, from the time of Bruce to the present day.

Right bank. El Rasheth, grotto in the mountain, with a statue represented on a sledge.

The ruins of Hermopolis, at Ashmonnoyn, have been destroyed.

The Pacha’s sugar-factory at E’Roamoon merits a visit.

Left bank. Ibayda, at the corner of the mountain, crude brick walls, and some grottoes not very remarkable.

After Shekh Said, the mountains go off to the E., leaving the river. A little beyond is Til el Amama, to the S. of which are the ruins of an ancient town, of which only the brick houses remain.

To the S. are grottoes in the mountain, with curious sculpture, and upon the mountain is an alabaster quarry. The sculptures represent a king and queen offering and praying to the sun, which shoots forth rays terminating in human hands, one of which gives the emblem of life to the king.

Six miles before Maufalouat, at El Hareib, are ruins of an old town in a ravine, in which are dog and cat mummies.

Near Maabdeh, opposite Maufalouat, are crocodile mummy-pits, difficult of access and dangerous.

E’Siout, the capital of the Said, and standing on the site of Lycopolis, merits a visit. The gardens are celebrated. Visit the grottoes in the mountain, if it be only to enjoy the beautiful view, which is, perhaps, unequalled in Egypt. The mummies of the wolf are occasionally found.

The remains of the splendid temple of Antaopolis have been sapped and carried away by the stream. A few stones only serve to point out its site at Gau (right bank).

Right bank. Shekh Eredi, where a Moslem saint, transformed into the form of a serpent, still performs very wonderful cures upon those who can pay. Some small grottoes on the left bank. To the west, Loohag, near the corner of the mountain, are remains of Athribi. Inscription in stone, in a ruined temple. Grottoes in the mountain.

To the west of this is the white monastery, Deira-bow Sehwoodee. It has very much the appearance of an Egyptian temple, having a cornice and tomb, and is supposed to have been founded by the Empress Helena. Like the other Deirs, it is inhabited by Christian peasants.

Right bank. At Ekhmin, nearly opposite Loohag, are remains of Panopolis. A large mass of stone contains a Greek inscription of the temple of Pan.

Left bank. Menshie, eight miles beyond Ekhmin, remains of a stone quarry. Ptolemais Hermii.

Left bank. Abydus, three hours’ ride from Girgeh, and two hours from Bellianeh. Take donkeys at Girgeh and send the boat on to Bellianeh. When last at Abydus, I was entertained for the night at the “Deir,” to the north or north-west of the village. The most remarkable monument is what Strabo has described as a “Memnonium,” a very singular building, consisting of several parallel arches or arcades, leading, he says, to a tank, now concealed. The arches are notmasonic, but cut out of large masses of stone and it is this circumstance which has, in a great measure, given rise to the error, as to the arch not having existed previous to the Augustan era. The building was begun by Osirien, the father of Sesostris, and finished by his son.

To the north of the Memnonium, is the small temple of Osiris, built, or at least finished, by Ramses II., and remarkable for having a sanctuary made of alabaster, for the reception of the famous tablet of the kings, which, next to the Rosetta stone, has been of the greatest assistance to the students of hieroglyphics. The Necropolis has been robbed to form the collections of Salt, Drouetti, and others.

Right bank. How (Diospolis parva)—few remains—vestiges of a temple of late date, and about a mile and a half to the S., of other mounds.

Left bank. Dendera (Tentyris) opposite Genneh. The principal temple was consecrated to Hathor, the Egyptian Venus, and not to Isis. The most interesting, as well as most ancient sculptures, are outside, at the western extremity, where we see Cleopatra and her son Casasion. The sculptures above are of the time of Augustus, as are those of the lateral walls of the Naos. The pronaos presents the portraits and names of Caius, Claudius, and Nero, as well as Tiberius, by whom it was constructed. The pylon, leading to the temple, is of the time of Domitian and Trajan. The Peripteral temple to the right, is the Typhonium, and immediately behind the great temple is a small one consecrated to Isis. The pylon towards the south is connected with the latter, and was raised in the reign of Augustus. The walls of the town, and a second wall for the sacred edifices, may be traced, and there are, I believe, some tombs in the mountain behind the town, that have not been properly explored.

Right bank. Quoph, the ancient Coptas—ruins of town and temple—small Roman-Egyptian temple, in the village of El Qalah, towards the N., forming once a part of Coptas, (Qoos, Apollinopolis parva). No more remains left, but a monolith converted into a tank, and to the north of the town is a well.

Thebes (Diospolis magna), on the eastern side, consisting of Karnak and Luxor: the Lybian Suburb on the west bank, consisting of Gormah, Medinet Haboo, the tombs of the kings, queens, &c.

Karnak.—At least fifteen centuries combined to raise the great temple, the different ages of the various portions of the edifice being distinctly traceable, from the time of Osortiren I. (B. C. 1740) to the Ptolemies. On approaching the great western propylon, observe the holes (almost like windows, and by some described as such) for fixing the flag-masts, as well as the recesses below, in which they were planted. After looking at the great hall of columns, and the obelisks, &c., notice particularly the granite sanctuary, which is a restoration of one destroyed by the Persians. It was raised by Alexander, in compliance with a vow of Philip. On the sandstone wall that encloses and protects this sanctuary, observe (north wall) a very curious and rich offering, in which a Pharaoh presents to the temple, obelisks, flag-masts, gold, silver, &c. The sculptures deserve particular attention. Those on the outside of the southern wall relate to the conquests of Shishah, who plundered the temple of Jerusalem. The name of the place (Joudamallah) is legible on a cartouche,—one of thirty led captives before the god of Thebes.

The whole north wall is covered with historical sculptures, all of which were originally painted, representing the conquests of Osirien, the father of Sesostris. Some little attention is required to see them well. One group is more curious than the rest: the king has caught his adversary with the bow-string, and is decapitating him. Notice the triumphal return to Thebes, and remark the Nile (distinguished by crocodiles) with a bridge thrown across it.

To the south of the great temple is a tank, then come several immense propyla, part of an avenue of sphinxes, and lastly some remains of a considerable temple which was surrounded by a lake.

To the north are other remains, with a handsome propylon of Ptolemaic date, and an avenue of sphinxes.

The temple, second in importance at Karnak, is of the Pharaonic period, but approached by a pylon of Ptolemaic date, at the extremity of the great avenue of sphinxes leading to Luxor. On the right of the first or hypœtheral court, notice a sculpture illustrating the manner in which the flag masts were raised before the temples. Adjoining this temple, and on its west side, is a small temple of Oph, in which travellers sometimes lodge.

From Karnak to Luxor, it is easy to trace the line of sphinxes, which connected the palace of the latter with the temples of the former.

Luxor, with the exception of the sanctuary, is entirely Pharaonic, having been founded by Amanoph III., and finished by Rameses II., in the 15th century B.C. The granite sanctuary, like that of Karnak, is a restoration, and of the same age. In one of the halls, approachable from the river side, observe a curious set of sculptures, relative to the birth of the founder of the palace. His mother, the queen, is seated on the stool of accouchement, surrounded by midwives and genii. The latter present him the emblem of life. A little farther on, the infant is presented to and caressed by Amunre; and Thoth, the god of letters, is choosing for him his prenomen, “Sun, Lord of Justice and of Truth.”

To see the interesting sculptures on the great propylon, it is necessary to visit the palace at an early hour. They relate to the conquests of Rameses II., but much attention is required to make out their details. In the midst of the fortified camp is a lion, the companion of Sesostris in war.

Lybian Suburb.—To see the tomb of the kings, one night should be passed in the valley of Biban el Melook; but the entrance of one of the excavations affords sufficient accommodation. That of Belzoni is usually preferred.

Belzoni’s tomb (that of Osirien, whose conquests are de picted on the north side of the great temple of Karnak) is the most magnificent; next to that, the tomb of Rameses III. is the most interesting. It is near an angle of the rock, and will be readily distinguished by the recesses on either side of the principal shaft. These little cabinets contain some exceedingly curious sculptures or paintings, and it is from one of them that Bruce drew his harp scene.

The tombs of the queens are in a separate valley, to the west of Mehdenet Habor.

At Goorneh (old Goorneh) is the palace of Osirien. In the Aposiet are some remains of a very ancient temple, of which a portion is cut in the rock,—an arch (not masonic) very similar to those of Abydus. Between the Aposiet and the Memnonium are many tombs deserving attention.

The Memnonium (now perhaps more properly called the Rameseion, i.e., “Rameseseion,” the “house of Rameses”) is the most uniform and elegant of Egyptian structures. Pay particular attention to all the battle scenes, to the immense statue of Rameses II., supposed to have weighed nearly a thousand tons, to the circumstance of the bases of the columns of the hepastyle being made seats—to a very remarkable sculpture at the western extremity of the hall—to the private apartments which follow—the Pharaoh seated in the sacred Persia—the next apartment, supposed to be the library—traces of gilding on the doorways, &c.

The Colossi in the Plain.—Of these the northern one is the vocal statue of the ancients. It is of Amunoph III., the founder of Luxor, who reigned in the 15th century, B.C. Wilkinson discovered the means of deception; a stone, which, when struck, produces a sound similar to that described by Strabo or Pausanias, is still to be found in the lap. The other statue bears the same cartouches, and both are supposed by Wilkinson to have stood at the commencement of a dromio or avenue of the sphinxes running nearly twelve hundred feet towards an indistinct mass of buildings now called Kom el Hattan. Champollion and some architects suppose that they stood before a propylon.

Mehdenet Habor.—A temple-palace, a private palace or harem, and a temple. The harem is very interesting, but partly destroyed. It consists principally of a pavilion in advance of the palace, and in it are some curious sculptures, among which the king is represented playing chess with his ladies. A ladder is necessary.

The great temple-palace is remarkable not only for its architecture, but for the sculptures representing the conquests of Rameses III. (about the 13th century, B.C.) These are particularly remarkable in the hypœtheral court, where there is exhibited, in the northern side, a magnificent pageant, the coronation of the Pharaoh. The whole exterior of the northern side of the building is covered with battle scenes. Among the heaps of hands poured out before the conqueror arelions’ paws. There are also heaps of phalia.

The great lake, for the ceremonies of the dead (the hippodrome of the French savans), will be best distinguished from the top of the pavilion. There are several other remains, and tombs without number.

There is no trace, whatever, of a wall of circumvallation, though the crude brick enclosures of the temples still remain.

We add to the foregoing, the observations of other writers upon the subject of some of the most interesting of these wondrous antiquities.

Luxor.—In approaching this temple from the north, the first object is a magnificent propylon, or gateway, which is two hundred feet in length, and the top of it fifty-seven feet above the present level of the soil. In front of the entrance are the two most perfect obelisks in the world, each of a single block of red granite, from the quarries of Elephantine; they are between seven and eight feet square at the base, and above eighty feet high; many of the hieroglyphical figures with which they are covered are an inch and three quarters deep, cut with the greatest precision. Between these obelisks and the propylon are two colossal statues, also of red granite; though buried in the ground to the chest, they still measure twenty-one and twenty-two feet from thence to the top of their mitres. The attention of the traveller is soon diverted from these masses to the sculptures which cover the eastern wing of the north front of the propylon, on which is a very animated description of a remarkable event in the campaigns of Osymandrias or Sesostris. The ruined portico, which is entered from the gateway, is of very large dimensions; from this a double row of seven columns, with lotus capitals, two-and-thirty feet in circumference, conducts you into a court, one hundred and sixty feet long, and one hundred and forty wide, terminating at each side by a row of columns, beyond which is another portico of thirty-two columns, and the adytum, or interior apartments of the building.

The temple of Luxor was probably built on the banks of the Nile, for the convenience of sailors and wayfaring men; where, without much loss of time, they might stop, say their prayers, present their offerings, &c. Great and magnificent as it is, it only serves to show us the way to a much greater, to which it is hardly more in comparison than a kind of porter’s lodge; I mean the splendid ruin of the temple at Karnak. The distance from Luxor to Karnak is about a mile and a half, or two miles. The whole road was formerly lined with a row of sphinxes on each side. At present these are entirely covered up for about two-thirds of the way, on the end nearest to Luxor. On the latter part of the road, near Karnak, a row of criosphinxes (that is, with a ram’s head and a lion’s body), still exist on each side of the way.

Karnak.—The name of Diospolis is sufficient to entitle us to call the grand temple at Karnak the temple of Jupiter. This temple has twelve principal entrances, each of which is composed of several propyla and colossal gateways, ormoles, besides other buildings attached to them, in themselves larger than most other temples. One of the propyla is entirely of granite, adorned with the most finished hieroglyphics. On each side of many of them have been colossal statues of basalt, breccia and granite; some sitting, some erect, from twenty to thirty feet in height.

The body of the temple, which is preceded by a large court, at the sides of which are colonnades of thirty columns in length, and through the middle of which are two rows of columns fifty feet high, consisting, first of a prodigious hall, or portico, the roof of which is sustained by one hundred and thirty-four columns, some of which are twenty-six feet in circumference, and others thirty-four; there are four beautiful obelisks marking the entrance by the adytum, near which the monarch is represented as embraced by the arms of Isis.

The adytum itself consists of three apartments, entirely of granite. The principal room, which is in the centre, is twenty feet long, sixteen wide, and thirteen feet high. Three blocks of granite form the roof, which is painted with clusters of gilt stars on a blue ground. Beyond are other porticoes and galleries, which have been continued to another propylon, at the distance of two thousand feet from that at the western extremity of the temple.

It may not be uninteresting to add a few particulars relative to this temple, the largest, perhaps, and certainly one of the most ancient, in the world.

Two of the porticoes within it appear to have consisted of pillars in the form of human figures, in the character of Hermes, that is, the lower part of the body hidden, and unshapen, with his arms folded, and in his hand the insignia of divinity; perhaps the real origin of the Grecian Caryatides.

Exclusive of these columnar statues, which have been thirty-eight in number, and the least of them thirty feet high, there are fragments, more or less mutilated, of twenty-three other statues, in granite, breccia and basalt; seventeen of which are colossal, and have been placed in front of the several entrances. They are in general from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, and executed in the best Egyptian style.

Biban-ool-Moolk, or, the Tombs of the Kings, is a most dismal-looking spot, a valley of rubbish, without a drop of water or blade of grass. The entrance to the tombs looks out from the rock like the entrance to so many mines; and, were it not for the recollections with which it is peopled, and the beautiful remains of ancient art which lie hid in the bosom of the mountain, would hardly ever be visited by man or beast. The heat is excessive, from the confined dimensions of the valley and the reflection of the sun from the rock and sand. The whole valley is filled with rubbish that has been washed down from the rock or carried out in the making of the tombs, with merely a narrow road up the centre.

Diodorus Siculus states, on the authority of the Egyptian priests, that forty-seven of these tombs were entered in their sacred registers, only seventeen of which remained in the time of Ptolemy Lagus. And in the 180th Olympiad, about 60 years B.C., when Diodorus Siculus was in Egypt, many of these were greatly defaced. Before Mr. Belzoni began his operations in Thebes, only eleven of these tombs were known to the public. From the great success that crowned his exertions, the number of them is nearly double. The general appearance of these tombs is that of a continued shaft, or corridor, cut in the rock, in some places spreading out into large chambers; in other places, small chambers pass off by a door from the shafts, &c. In some places, where the rock is low and disintegrated, a broad excavation is formed on the surface, till it reaches a sufficient depth of solid stones, when it narrows, and enters by a door of about six or eight feet wide, and about ten feet high.

The passage then proceeds with a gradual descent for about a hundred feet, widening or narrowing, according to the plan or object of the architect, sometimes with side chambers, but more frequently not. The beautiful ornament of the globe, with the serpent in its wings, is sculptured over the entrance. The ceiling is black, with silver stars, and the vulture, with outspread wings, holding a ring and a broad-feathered sceptre by each of his feet, is frequently repeated on it, with numerous hieroglyphics, which are white or variously-coloured. The walls on each side are covered with hieroglyphics, and large sculptured figures of the deities of Egypt, and of the hero for whom the tomb was excavated. Sometimes both the hieroglyphics and the figures are wrought in intaglio; at other times they are in relief; but throughout the same tomb they are generally all of one kind. The colours are green, blue, red, black and yellow, and, in many instances, are as fresh and vivid as if they had not been laid on a month. Intermixed with the figures, we frequently meet with curious devices, representing tribunals where people are upon their trials, sometimes undergoing punishment; the preparation of mummies, and people bearing them in procession on their shoulders; animals tied for sacrifice, and partly cut up; and occasionally the more agreeable pictures of entertainments, with music and dancing, and well-dressed people listening to the sound of the harp played by a priest, with his head shaved, and dressed in a loose, flowing white robe, shot with red stripes.

Two other colossal statues, called also by some the statues of Memnon, are in the plain, about half-way between the desert and the river. They are about fifty feet high, and seated each on a pedestal six feet in height, eighteen long, and fourteen broad. The stone of which they are formed is of a reddish grey.

These two statues are by the Arabs familiarly called Shamy and Damy.

Medinet Haboo.—One outward inclosure, or brick wall, seems to have contained three distinct, though connected, buildings, to which we may arbitrarily assign the names of the chapel, the palace and the temple. The principal entrance to the palace from the plain being blocked up, it is only to be approached now by a side doorway from the pronaos of the chapel. Of this building, which may once have been the residence of the sovereigns of Egypt, one tower only is remaining. This was divided into three stories, in each of which are two apartments. The stone pavement of the lower rooms is still perfect, but the upper floors and the wooden beams which supported them have entirely disappeared. The interior walls have not such a profusion of sculptures as those without. At each side of one of the windows is an Isis, with the hawk’s wing, kneeling, and wearing the lunar crescent on her head. At another window are four projecting sphinxes; and in a corner of one of the rooms are two females, with baskets of lotuses on their heads, carrying a plate of cakes to the king, who is sitting; before him stands another female, with the same head-dress, stretching out her arm, while he puts some of the delicacies into his mouth.

Ebek, the most northern of all the Theban monuments, is only remarkable because the plan on which it is constructed is very different from that of all other temples in Egypt. It has a single row of columns in front, and the rest of the building is distributed into a variety of comparatively small apartments.

Memnonium.—The term Memnonium is used by Strabo to designate that part of ancient Thebes which lies on the western side of the river. The French savans, however, without sufficient reason, have restricted it to the magnificent ruin which we are going to describe. This beautiful relic of antiquity looks to the east, and is fronted by a stupendous propylon, of which two hundred and thirty-four feet in length are still remaining. The propylon stands on the edge of the soil; but the area cultivable, or space for the dromos behind it, is floored by the solid rock, on which the rest of the temple is erected. The eastern wall is much fallen down, and both ends are greatly dilapidated. Every stone in the propylon appears to have been shaken and loosened in its place, as if from the concussion of an earthquake, for no human violence seems adequate to produce such an effect in such an immense mass of building as that under consideration. A stair enters from each end, by which to ascend to the top of the propylon, from which passages go off in a number of chambers, as in the temples of Phylæ Edifore, &c.

This colossus measures six feet ten inches over the foot, and sixty-two or sixty-three feet round the shoulders. It has been broken off at the waist, and the upper part is laid prostrate on the back; the face is entirely obliterated, and, next to the wonder excited at the boldness of the sculptor who made it, and the extraordinary powers of those who erected it, the labour and exertions that must have been used for its destruction, are most astonishing. It could only have been brought about with the help of military engines, and must then have been the work of time. Its fall has carried along with it the whole of the wall of the temple which stood within its reach. It was not without great difficulty and danger that we could climb on its shoulder and neck, and in going from thence upon its chest, assisted by Arab servants.

Dendera.—The centuries that this great temple of Venus has seen have scarcely affected it in any important part; and have given it no greater appearance of age and ruin than what serves to render it more venerable and imposing. After seeing innumerable monuments of the same kind throughout the Thebaid, it seemed as if we were now arrived at the highest pitch of architectural excellence that was ever attained on the borders of the Nile. Here we found concentrated the united labour of ages, and the last effort of human art and industry in that regular uniform line of construction, which had been adopted in the earliest times. After admiring the general effect of the whole mass, its elegance, solidity, correct proportions and graceful outlines, it was difficult to decide what particular objects were to be first examined. Whether its sculptures or paintings, typical and ornamental, the distribution of the interior apartments, the details of the capitals and columns, the mystical meaning of particular representations here seen for the first time; the zodiacs,[14]or the other celestial phenomena, sculptured on the ceilings, all seemed objects of high interest and importance, all invited a nearer and closer inspection. The portico consists of twenty-four columns in three rows, each above twenty-two feet in circumference, thirty-two high, and covered with hieroglyphics. The peculiar form of the square capital, with a front face of the goddess on each side, particularly attracted our attention. We were at first struck by the singularity of an idea so foreign to the common notions of Greek architecture; but the eye is soon reconciled to it; and the solemn and mild monotony of these faces impresses the spectator with a silent, reverential awe, a willing conviction of the immediate presence of the deity of the place in her most gracious character; and, indeed, the Greeks, in their Caryatides, seem in some degree to have added their sanction to the principle.

The sekos, or the interior of the temple, consists of several apartments, all the walls and ceilings of which are in the same way covered with religious and astronomical representations. The roofs are, like the rest in Egypt, flat; the oblong masses of stone resting on the side walls; and, when the distance of these is too great, one or two rows of the columns are carried down the middle of the apartment, by which the roof is supported. The capitals of these columns are very richly ornamented with the budding lotus, the stalks of which being carried down some way below the capital, give the shaft the appearance of being fluted, or rather scolloped.

The following, gleaned from other sources, will, perhaps, be also acceptable as a guide to the sight-seer.

No person ought to leave Egypt without visiting Assowan and Philœ, particularly if he go up as high as Thebes; for he can form no correct judgment of Egypt and her wonderful and gigantic works, unless he sees the temples and shrubberies at Esireh Fdjou, Koon, Ombes, Assowan, and Philœ, as well as those in the Thebaid and at Tentyra. By traversing Egypt from Alexandria to Assowan, you can with ease inspect all those wonderful remains of labour and art, unequalled in the world for extent or size as architectural works, and which, to the mind of the observer, place beyond doubt the wealth, the power, the science, and great population of ancient Egypt. To attempt to convey to a person who has not seen structures of the kind, any idea of what these ruins are, is out of the question. In the granite quarries at Assowan, from whence these immense monuments were taken, are two unfinished sarcophagi and an obelisk cut and formed, but still attached to the native rock. The obelisk is shaped out and cut round on all sides except its under one, a bed which still attaches it to the rock. It measures 76 feet in length, and 12 feet broad, and in depth to the drift-sand in which it has imbedded itself 6 feet thick. The marks of the workman’s chisel and wedge, with which instruments, it appears, these immense masses have been disjoined from the native rock, are as fresh as if they had been applied but yesterday. It is inconceivable how such entire masses could have been taken from their bed to the Nile, a distance of at least a mile and a half, and from thence transported to where we see them still standing, seventy, eighty, and ninety feet in height, and eight, ten and twelve feet square at the base, as at Luxor, Karnak, Helipolis, Frorun, and at Alexandria, covered with deeply engraved figures and hieroglyphics, in some places still bearing a glossy and fresh polish. In the island of Philœ there are some beautiful and extensive remains of Egyptian, as also one of Grecian, architecture. Leaving Luxor in the night of the third of May, we arrived at Khenneh the following day, and, after visiting the temple of Hentyra or of Isis, on the opposite bank of the Nile, and remaining an hour or two at Khenneh, we left that place for Cairo, where we arrived on the sixteenth of the same month.

Passing through the palm-tree grove which covers the high ridge, or mound, formed by the ruins of the ancient Memphis, the traveller approaches a small open circular plain, which is supposed to have been the Archerusian Lake of the city; on the south side of this, the large colossal statue of Sesostris is to be seen. It was discovered and laid open by Mr. Sloane and M. Coriglier, and is the most perfect statue in Egypt, and the most beautifully formed. It lies with its face downwards. It is broken off below the ankle, and the entire length of the block now remaining is thirty-six feet six inches. The ruins of the edifice before which it had stood are apparent under the rubbish which surrounds the place. The ancient Necropolis of Paccachia, or, as some writers suppose, of the city of Memphis, extends for miles round the pyramids. Indeed, from the pyramids of Dashores to those of Cheops and Copprieves, is one continued burying-ground. The pyramids of Dashores, as well as those of Saccachara, and the excavations and tombs in the rocks, may be inspected in one day. We landed at Goza, and took donkeys, and passed the day in visiting the large pyramids. The following morning we passed the island of Rhode, visited the Nilometer, and, after sailing down about half a mile, and passing the aqueducts of Lubuddia, about one-hundred yards, landed again on the island, and entered the gardens of Ibrahim Pacha.

Another writer gives the following outline of the interesting sights to be seen on the Nile.

On the eastern bank, eight miles to the south of Cairo, quarries of Maasara, from which the stone used for part of the casing of the pyramids was taken. Some hieroglyphic tablets, in one of which oxen are represented drawing a stone placed on a sledge. A little beyond the modern village is an inclined road, which leads from the quarries to the river. Thirty miles further to the south, on the same bank, is Atfëeh, mounds of Aphroditopolis, no ruins. False pyramid on opposite bank, three miles beyond El Feshu, and on eastern bank, remains of crude brick, the walls of an ancient village, called El Héebee and some hieroglyphics.

From Beuisooef is the road to the Fyoom, which, when the Nile is low, may be visited conveniently. A brick pyramid at Illahoon, another at El Howâra, and vestiges of the labyrinth, obelisk at Biggig, ruins on and near the lake Mœris, and at Qasr Kharoon. From Aboogirgeh is the shortest road to Bahnasa (Oxyriuchus) mounds, no ruins, Gebel é Tayr, north-end, grotto or rock temple, called Babyn, convent further to the south; eight miles below Minyeh is Tehneh (Acoris) on eastern bank, a Greek Ptolemaic inscription on the face of the cliff, tombs hewn in the rock, with small inscriptions at the doors, Roman figures in high relief, on the upper part of the rock, some hieroglyphic tablets, quarries on the top of the mountain, a tank, &c.

Same (eastern bank) seven miles above Minyeh, Komahmar, some grottoes, and ruins of an old town; nine miles farther (eastern hank), Beni Hassan, very fine grottoes, with curious paintings; and about a mile and a half farther, a grotto, or rock temple, of Pasht (Bubastis, or Diana), the Speos Artemidos, cat mummies in the ravine.

Antinöe, now Shekh Abadeh, few remains of the town, a theatre, the principal streets, baths, &c., outside the town, on the east, is the hippodrome. The grottoes in the mountain are unsculptured, and have some Christian inscriptions. A little to the north of Antinöe are the remains, apparently, of Besa, scarcely worthy of a visit.

At El Bersheh, a grotto on the mountain, in which a colossus is represented on a sledge. At Oshmoonayn (western bank) no remains of Hermopolis Magna. At Gebel Toona, a mountain, skirting the desert to the west are mummy-pits, a tablet of hieroglyphics, and statues in high relief. At Mellawee, and at Tamoof Tanis, superior mounds, but no ruins. At Shayda, at corner of mountains, on eastern bank, crude brick walls, and some grottoes.

At Shekh Said, the mountains recede to the eastward, leaving the river, and a little beyond is the village of Tel el Armarnar, to the north of which are the remains of a small town, and to the south the ruins of a city, which I suppose to be Alabastron: all the stone buildings have been quite destroyed, but some of the brick houses remain; near the crude brick towers of the temple are the largest houses. To the east are several fine grottoes in the face of the mountain, with curious sculptures, and on the summit of it is an ancient alabaster quarry. Six miles below Maufaloot, at El Haryib, ruins of an old town, in a ravine of the Gebel Aboolfaydee; numerous dog and cat mummies, near El Maabdeh, opposite Maufaloot; crocodile mummies in chambers of great extent in the mountain.

At E’Sioot (Lycopolis), the capital of Upper Egypt, grottoes, wolf mummies; the modern cemetery is prettily laid out. Gow (Antœpolis) a few stones of the temple, close to the river; some grottoes at the corner of the mountain, to the north, below Gow, but not containing good sculptures. Shekh Hereedee, small grottoes; Roman statue at the base of the mountain, cut out of a piece of a rock. The snake of Shekh Hereedee is still supposed to perform cures.

To the west of Soohag, near the corner of mountains, old town of Athribes, a Greek inscription in the ruined temple, grottoes in the mountain; and to the north is the white monastery, or Dayr Amba Shuoodee, nearly opposite Soohag is E’Khmim (Panopolis) Greek inscription of the temple of Pan, and some remains of other stone buildings.

Mensheeh (Ptolemais Hermii), western bank, eight miles above E’Khmim, remains of a stone quay. From Girgh go to Abydos, three hours ride, and send on the boat to Bellianeh, returning to it in the evening, two hours ride; or, coming down the river, stop at Bellianeh, and send on the boat to Girgeh. At Abydos two temples and many tombs.

How (Diospolis parva) has very few remains of Ptolemaic or Roman time. In mounds at the ridge of the desert, a mile and a half south of How, some tombs; one of Dionysius, son of Ptolemy, has some sculpture.

Qasr e Syad (Chenoboscion), remains of a quay; about one mile beyond the eastern mouth of the canal of this village, are some very ancient grottoes, with kings’ names. Dendera (Teutyris) opposite Qeneh, two temples, inscriptions, zodiac, &c. Qeneh is famous for its manufacture of porous jars; from it, roads lead to Kossayr on the Red Sea.

Qoft (Coptos), ruins of the old town, and of a temple, a Christian church, canals, &c.; at the village of El Qala, to the north, is a small Roman Egyptian temple.

Qoos (Apollinopolis parva), no more ruins left; at a well on the north of the town is a Ptolemaic monolith, with hieroglyphics, converted into a tank, and a few stone remains of early time in the plain to the west, near a Shekh’s tomb. Thebes (Diospolis magna), on the eastern bank, Karnac and Lugsor; on the west, the tombs of the kings, private tombs, several temples, colossi of the plain, &c.

Erment (Hermonthis), west bank, temple and early Christian church. Tuot, or E`Selemeëh (Tuphium) on eastern bank, Ptolemy temple, much ruined, and concealed by the hovels of the peasant. Gebelaun, i.e. , “the two hills,” a small ancient town in ruins, and grottoes, not worthy of a visit. At Tofnees and Assfoon, mounds of ancient towns, no ruins.

Esneh (Latopolis), fine portico, zodiac and quay. At Edayr, three miles to the north of Esneh, remains of a small temple of the Ptolemies and Cæsars, lately destroyed. Thirteen miles from Esneh, near El Qenan, ruins of a quay; on west bank and three miles farther, a small stone pyramid, opposite the quay, is the junction of the limestone and sandstone. Four miles beyond, on eastern bank, is El Kab (Eilethyas), ruins of a very ancient town, the temples lately destroyed, curious grottoes in the mountain, and a short distance up the valley are three small temples. In the bed of the ravine are ponds encrusted with natron.

Edfoo (Apollinopolis magna) two temples. Eleven miles above Edfoo, and on the eastern bank, remains of an old town, on face of hill, fortified with towers of Arab construction. Silsilis (now Hagar Silsili), quarries of sandstone, used for building the temples of Upper Egypt, tables and grottoes. Komombo (Ombos), two temples; ancient stone gateway, in a crude brickwall on the eastern side of the enclosure of the temples; houses burnt.

At E’Sooan (Syene), ruins of a small temple of Roman date, some columns, Saracen wall, and Cufic tombstones; granite quarries, in one of which is a broken obelisk; Latin inscription of Caracalla near another quarry; road to Philæ, and wall; numerous hieroglyphic tables on the rocks. Island of Elephantine; opposite the projecting rocks of E’Sooan is the Nilometer, which is a staircase, with Greek inscriptions relating to the rise of the Nile. Granite gateway, bearing the name of Alexander, the son of Alexander the Great.

At the northern end of the cataract, in the island of Sehàyl, few vestiges of a temple; hieroglyphic tablets on the rocks. Go from E’Sooan to Sehàyl in a boat, and ride to Philæ. At Philæ, temples and ruins. Islands of Biggeh, opposite Philæ, to the west, ruined temple, tablets, &c., &c.


Dabode (Parembole), temple, west bank. Kerdassy, ruins and quarries. Tafa (Taphis), two small ruins, and stone enclosures. Kalabshee (Talmis), large temple, quarries, and, on hill behind it, to the northward, a small, but interesting temple, called Bayt el Wellee, cut in the rock. Dandoor, temple. Gerf Hossayn (Tutzis), temple, cut in the rock, of the time of Rameses II.

Dakkeh (Pselcis), temple of Ptolemaic and Roman date; It has also the names of two Ethiopian princes, Ergamun, or Ergamenes (mentioned by Diodorus, iii. 6, as a contemporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus), and Ataramun; many Greek inscriptions. Opposite Dakkeh, ruins of Contra Pselcis, or of Metacompso.

Corte (Corti), few remains. Maharraka, or Oofideena, ruins of Hierasycamenon, style bad, and all of late date. Isis is represented under the fig-tree. Taboaa, temple of the time of Rameses II., with avenue of sphinxes; the adytum is cut in the rock, the rest built. Hassain, or Amada, a temple of Thothmes, ancient, nearly opposite to it in Dayr or Derr, on east bank, the capital of Nubia, which has a temple cut in the rock, of the time of Rameses II.

Ibreem (Primis parva), part of the ancient wall on south side of town; remains of a stone building amidst the houses; some small grottoes below the town near the river. Aboosimbel, two temples cut in the rock, the finest Egyptian monuments out of Thebes; they are of the time of Rameses II.

At Ferayg, nearly opposite, on east bank, a small temple in the rock. Farras, on west bank, few remains; grottoes with Coptic inscriptions, some distance from the river. Wadee Alfeh, remains of three buildings on west bank; fine view of the second cataract from a rock on the same bank, a short walk to the south of Wadee Halfeh.

A day and a half beyond Wadee Halfeh are the two small temples of Samneh and the third cataract.

The distances from the Mediterranean to the second cataract are as follow:—

From Rosetta to Cairo about 110 miles.
Cairo Benisoef 83
Benisoef Minyeh 85
Minyeh E’Sivot 106
E’Sivot Girgeh 97
Girgeh Qeneh 97
Qeneh Thebes 79
Thebes Esneh 38
Esneh Esooan 100
Esooan Wadee Halfeh 219
Total from Rosetta to Wadee Halfeh 960 miles.

It may be interesting to the sportsman to know that, in the course of his river trip, he will occasionally find “food for powder.” Game is by no means abundant, but here and there a random shot may be had at a gazelle; coveys of partridgeshave been seen; rock-pigeons are numerous; and the rifle may afford some sport in the land of crocodiles.

The gazelle, ibex, kebsh (or wild sheep), hare, fox, jackal, wolf, and hyæna, are still found in the valley of the Nile, or in the desert.

The “kebsh” frequents the eastern desert, principally in the ranges of primitive mountains, which, commencing about latitude 28° 40′ at the back of the limestone hills of the valley of the Nile, extend thence into Ethiopia and Abyssinia.

The Egyptian hare is a native of the valley of the Nile, as well as the two deserts. It is remarkable for the length of its ears, which the Egyptians have not failed to indicate in their sculptures; but it is much smaller than those of Europe.

The intelligent Denon has made a just remark on the comparative size of animals common to Egypt and Europe, that the former are always smaller than our own species, and this is exemplified by none more strongly than the hare and wolf.

In enumerating the wild beasts of the desert, it may not be irrelevant to observe, that the hyæna and wolf are seldom met with in unfrequented districts, or any great distance from the Nile, where they would suffer from want of food, and are therefore principally confined to the mountains lying a few miles from the edge of the culti vated land. The wolf is very rarely seen on the coast of the Red Sea, and few even of the watering-places of the interior of the desert are infested by it, or the hyæna.

The hippopotamus was always rare in Lower Egypt, but in Upper Ethiopia this amphibious animal is common in the Nile.

The crocodile, formerly an inhabitant of Lower Egypt and the Delta, now limits the extent of its visits northward to the districts about Inanfaloot.


As a guide to the cost of a berth, or cabin, it is only necessary to mention the rates at which passengers can be accommodated, according to the berth or cabin they occupy.

From England to … Aden. Ceylon. Madras. Calcutta. Penang. Singapore. Hong Kong.
£ £ £ £ £ £ £
For a Gentleman, occupying
a berth in one of the
general gentlemen’s cabins
77 113 118 127 134 142 165
For a Lady, occupying a
a berth in one of the
general ladies’ cabins
82 122 127 134 142 152 175
For a Gentleman and his
A whole cabin
214 290 299 317 332 350 396
Occupying one of
the best reserved
cabins throughout.
259 335 344 362 377 395 441
For a Child with the Parent,
5 years and under 10
50 65 70 80 70 75 85
Not exceeding 2 years Free Free Free Free Free Free Free
For Servants–European–
37 46 52 62 52 57 67
Male 35 44 50 60 50 55 65
Native–Female 30 32 38 44 39 44 49
Male 26 28 34 40 35 40 45

The above charges include every expense, except hotel expenses in Egypt, and wines, beer, and spirits, while passing between Alexandria and Suez. (See p. 38.)

For an estimate of the expense of proceeding from Suez to Bombay, the reader is referred to the East India Company’s Regulations, p. 39; see also James Barber and Co.’s Circular.




Notwithstanding the advice already given in this little volume, we repeat that passengers would always save themselves much trouble, and, by facilitating the examination of luggage, their fellow-travellers great delay, if they would take the precaution to pack goods liable to duty in a separate case, marked “duty goods,” and leave it in charge of Mr. Hill, the “Peninsular and Oriental Company’s” custom-house agent at Southampton, who always goes on board the steamer on its arrival, and who will punctually forward it as directed. They should, at the same time, deliver to Mr. Hill a list of the contents and the value of each article, bearing in mind that duty is chargeable on the value of the article in England, without reference to its cost price, and that, provided the revenue officer does not approve of the declared value made by the owner of the goods, he can seize the same, in which case, the declared value, with an additional ten per cent., is paid to the owner.

As a general guide, it is recommended that the cost price be given to Mr. Hill, and that he be left to estimate the duty, his great experience qualifying him to do so.

Cotton must not be used for packing goods of any description by the Overland Route; it occasions great difficulty, and subjects them to seizure, under the quarantine laws.

Ad valorem duty.
£ s. d.
Muslins, embroidered per cent. 15 0 0
Bombay Manufacture, cases or boxes, of
similar description
per cent. 10 0 0
Brocade, of gold and silver per cent. 10 0 0
Articles of Wool manufactured, made up per cent. 10 0 0
Woollen Manufactures, broad stuffs Free
Ivory Manufactures, or tortoise-shell
and furniture
per cent. 10 0 0
Condiments, Curry, &c. per cent. 10 0 0
Grass-Cloth per cent. 10 0 0
Manufactured Skins £10 and B. P. 5 0 0
Unmanufactured Skins Free
Shawls, Cachmere £10 and B. P. 5 0 0
Muslin, plain Free
Skins, tiger, dressed Free
Feathers, ostrich, dressed, per lb. £1 10s. and £5 per cent.
Feathers, undressed Free
Paddy-Bird 1s. and £5 per cent.
If several are put together,
and can be called
manufactured, on value
per cent. 10 0 0
Cigars per lb. 9s. and £5 per cent.
Snuff per lb. 6s. and £5 per cent.
Silver 1s. 6d. per oz.,
and on value £10 per cent.
0 10 0
Sweetmeats B. P. 1d. per lb., 0 0 6
Pickles, in vinegar per gall. 0 0 4
Pickles, or vegetables, in salt and water £5 per cent. 0 0 4
Agates or Cornelians, not set Free
Agates or Cornelians, set or cut 10 0 0
Books, of editions printed prior to 1801, the cwt. £1 and £5 per cent.
Books, of editions printed in or since 1801, in
foreign living languages
£2 and 10s. 10 0 0
Books, in the dead languages, or in the English
language, printed out of England in or since 1801
(N.B. Pirated editions of English works,
of which the copyright exists in England,
are totally prohibited.
£5 and 10 0 0
Books, English, printed in England
(unless declared that no excise
drawback was received on exportation)
£5 and 5 per cent.
Cameos per cent. 5 0 0
China or Porcelain, plain or white 10 0 0
China or Porcelain, painted or gilt 10 0 0
Cigars (under 3 lb. only allowed in a passenger’s
baggage) from the Continent
Under 7 lb. allowed from East Indies.
the lb. 0 9 0
(N.B. If a greater quantity, a declaration
required that they are for private use,
and a petition to Customs for permission to import.
Clocks (must have maker’s name on face and on works) per cent. 10 0 0
Watches, (must have maker’s name on face and on works) £10 and £5 per cent. 10 0 0
Cordials and Liqueurs (for the bottles, see Wine) per gal. 1 10 4
Cotton, articles made up of per cent. £10 and B. P. 5 0 0
Eau de Cologne, in flasks the flask 0 1 0
(N.B. If in other than ordinary flasks,
30s. 4d. the gal. and the bottle-duty.
Embroidery and Needlework per cent. 15 0 0
Flower Roots Free
Flowers, Artificial 25 0 0
Furniture 10 0 0
Frames, for pictures, &c. £10 and £5 per cent.
Furs and Skins dressed, made up £10 and P. B. 5 0 0
Furs and Skins dressed, in pieces, not made up Free
Glass, flint or cut 2d. per lb.
Jewellery flint or cut per cent. 10 0 0
Japanned or Lacquered Ware 10 0 0
Maps or Charts, plain or coloured,
each map or part thereof
Magna Græcia Ware, or ancient earthen vases Free
Medals, silver, or any sort
Models, of cork or wood
Minerals and Fossils, or specimens of
Musical Instruments or specimens of 10 0 0
Mock Pearls 10 0 0
Marble, manufactured the cwt. 3s. and 5 0 0
and B. P. 0 1 6
Mosaic Work, Stone and Slate manufactured hewn per ton 10s. and per cent.
and from B. P. 1s. and 11s. per cent.
5 0 0
Mosaic Work, Stone and Slate small ornaments for jewellery, per cent 10 0 0
Prints and Drawings, plain or coloured, single each 1d. and £5 per cent.
Prints and Drawings, bound or sewn the dozen 3d.
Pictures each 1s. 0d. and £5 per cent.
Pictures and further, the square foot 1s. and £5 per cent.
Pictures being 200 square feet and upwards each £10 and £5 per cent.
Paintings on Glass the superficial foot 0 0 9
Plate, of gold or silver, gilt or ungilt, per cent. £10 and £5 per cent.
Plate, also the stamp-duty. If intended for sale, it must be assayed, under the
penalties and forfeiture regulating the standard for plate in England
per oz. 0 1 6
Seeds, garden the lb. Free
Silk, Millinery, turbans or caps each 0 3 6
Silk, Millinery, hats or bonnets each 0 7 0
Silk, dresses each 1 10 0
Silk Hangings, and other manufactures of silk per cent. 15 0 0
Toys £10 and £5 per cent.
Velvet, plain (produce of Europe) the lb. 0 9 0
Velvet, figured the lb. 0 9 0
Velvet, otherwise £15 per cent.
Wine, in casks, all except Cape, the gallon, 5s. 6d. and £5 per cent.
Wine, in bottles, six to the gallon, 5s. 6d. and £5 per cent.
Wine, and further, on the bottles the cwt. 0 0 9
Spirits, in casks, must not
be imported under twenty gallons
the gal. 1 2 10
Spirits, in bottles, the additional duty for the
bottles, as wine bottles.
the gal. 1 2 10


Bullion, Coins and Medals of gold or silver, and battered Plate.


Live Creatures, and other specimens illustrative of Natural History.

Pictures, Sketches and Drawings, on a declaration by the proprietor (being a British subject), that they are of his or her performance and not intended for sale.

Plants and Trees, alive.

Specimens of Minerals, Fossils or Ores.


It may be useful, as a reference, to give the distances of the different stations in India from each presidency.

Miles distant from
Calcutta. Madras. Bombay.
Agra 796 1238 755
Ahmedabad 1219 1050 354
Ahmednuggur 1033 664 162
Ahtoor 1232 186 779
Ajmere 1035 1272 677
Akola 829 694 349
Akulcote 1185 557 269
Akyab 548 1161 1745
Allahabad 489 1151 831
Alleppee 1475 470 805
Allyghur 816 1321 810
Allynuggur 416 1139 920
Almorah 896 289 1013
Amulnair 1078 829 231
Anantapore 1068 293 507
Anjunwel 1240 636 149
Anopshuhur 856 1329 735
Arcot 1085 71 715
Arnee 1140 81 732
Arracan 462 980 1647
Arrah 381 1367 1033
Aska 399 707 1040
Asseeghur 909 779 313
Ava 851 1280 1947
Avanashy 1293 289 735
Aurungabad 963 690 215
Azimghur 475 1220 977
Backergunge 183 1246 1368
Bagapully 1151 218 566
Bair 364 1339 1105
Baitool 789 834 433
Balasore 145 922 1192
Bancoorah 101 1062 1223
Banda 613 1102 771
Bangalore 1161 205 633
Baraset 15 1078 1202
Bareilly 782 1329 918
Baroda 1230 997 281
Barrackpore 16 1079 1201
Bassein 1221 784 32
Beana 1050 1292 808
Beauleah 145 1135 1345
Behar 340 1324 1120
Beerbhoom 127 1118 1279
Bejapore 1173 482 280
Belgaum 1173 482 280
Bellary 1090 316 446
Benares 428 1151 927
Berhampore 118 1138 1290
Berhampore (Mad.) 382 682 1015
Beawur 1000 1287 692
Bezoarah 786 275 603
Bhaugulpore 268 1288 1202
Bhewndy 202 774 34
Bhilsah 877 973 521
Bhoolooah 293 1356 1478
Bhooj 1324 1281 587
Bhopawur 1024 1095 449
Bhopaul 848 944 492
Bimlipatam 540 518 851
Bishnawth 627 1647 1719
Biznore 905 1420 957
Bogra 246 1266 1427
Bogra 972 408 444
Bombay 1185 763 0
Bolundshuhur 857 1335 872
Broach 1228 927 231
Bugwah 332 1352 1359
Burdwan 75 1066 1227
Burkaghur 209 1256 1162
Buxar 446 1222 988
Cabool 1815 2134 1700
Cachar 398 1461 1583
Calcutta 0 1062 1185
Calicut 1374 418 672
Calimere Point 1283 224 925
Callian 1178 760 36
Calpee 657 1168 803
Cambay 1253 998 250
Canara 1350 436 524
Candahar 2047 2158 1394
Candy 1250 576 1277
Canuanore 1375 419 613
Carangoly 1109 49 777
Caroor 1272 258 799
Cashepore 872 1418 946
Cashmere 1564 1882 1250
Cawnpore 628 1200 854
Chandernagore 22 1085 1207
Chandore 1082 798 150
Chatterpore 686 1071 702
Chicacole 498 567 900
Chingleput 1095 36 767
Chinsurah 28 1098 1218
Chirra Poonjee 360 1423 1545
Chittagong 342 1405 1557
Chittledroog 1175 343 496
Chittoor 1079 96 685
Chitwye 1410 390 726
Chunar 433 1146 952
Chundpore 718 1259 894
Chuprah 400 1291 1056
Cochin 1441 437 772
Coimbatore 1319 315 746
Colgong 250 1270 1368
Combaconum 1246 187 888
Comercolly 124 1197 1304
Comorin Cape 1770 440 830
Condapilly 797 285 599
Conjeveram 1086 46 742
Contai 80 980 1226
Coochbehar 342 1362 1369
Coomreah 72 1196 1348
Coorg 1328 372 676
Coringa 674 374 783
Cotamputty 1304 250 885
Cotapuramba 1355 400 637
Cotyam 1495 490 825
Covilputty 1281 236 862
Cuddalore 1170 110 816
Cuddapah 1007 166 569
Culnah 52 1122 1368
Culneah 118 1181 1303
Cumbum 919 223 617
Cuttack 251 815 1151
Dacca 187 1250 1372
Damaun 1209 861 128
Dapoolie 1206 622 121
Darjeeling 343 1373 1441
Deesa 1300 1147 451
Delhi 900 1372 868
Deyrah Dhoon 967 1492 1008
Dharwar 1299 468 351
Dhoolia 1055 806 208
Dhummow 681 975 654
Dhurrungaum 1087 780 236
Diamond Harbour 30 1028 1176
Dinajepore 259 1289 1357
Dinapore 376 1337 1072
Dindigul 1315 270 819
Dum-Dum 8 1071 1193
Durbangah 424 1374 1193
Ellichpore 796 736 433
Ellore 748 315 648
Errode 1258 253 758
Eta 773 1319 856
Etawah 719 1221 764
Ferozepore 1150 1695 1170
French Rocks 1236 287 626
Furreedpore 128 1194 1313
Furruckabad 711 1252 897
Futtyghur 711 1252 897
Futtypore 580 1157 821
Galle, Point de 1380 576 1277
Ganjam 382 699 1302
Ghazeepore 431 1209 974
Goa 1359 573 318
Golconda 907 358 475
Goomsoor 425 760 1097
Goorgong 924 1396 892
Gopaulpore 374 1022
Goruckpore 525 1273 1038
Ghooty 1036 262 500
Gowahatty 502 1522 1594
Gowalparah 425 1445 1517
Gunga Khair 918 570 301
Guntoor 807 255 617
Gwalior 782 1164 680
Gya 289 1270 1069
Hajeepoor 1118 1687 1161
Hameepore 629 1142 867
Hansi 995 1476 880
Haupper 880 1350 895
Hazareebaugh 239 1200 1166
Heerapore 730 1014 659
Herat 2595 2510 1747
Hidjelee 80 980 1226
Hingolee 885 608 373
Hissar 1015 1496 900
Hooghly 28 1098 1218
Honore 1372 546 414
Hosheyapore 1148 1647 1121
Hospett 1129 355 424
Hurryhur 1203 393 446
Hursole 1273 1053 358
Hussinabad 864 900 460
Hydrabad (Deccan) 972 398 434
Do. (Scinde) 1626 1541 778
Incollo 848 215 634
Inchura 44 1192 1228
Indore 970 975 374
Injeram 674 374 783
Jansee 766 1001 400
Jaulnah 932 651 253
Jaunpore 466 1168 933
Jeagunghe 125 1145 1337
Jelalabad 734 1275 910
Jelasore 112 951 1159
Jessore 40 1141 1263
Jeypore 933 1340 745
Joudpore 1249 1316 696
Joynagore 139 1192
Jubulpore 700 879 674
Juggernauth 297 766 1102
Jumalpore 301 1321 1479
Kaira 1204 1029 334
Kalladghee 1223 453 314
Kamptee 686 722 547
Kangra 1200 1798 1170
Karicaul 1231 175 876
Kedgeree 64 994 1210
Khandala 1149 700 56
Kharwarah 1004 721 127
Khasalpore 91 1144 1328
Khatmandoo 560 1470 1215
Khyouk Phyoo 648 1711 1845
Kircumbady 1027 82 680
Kirkee 1110 670 87
Kishnaghur 64 1114 1249
Kishore 980 1186 587
Kolapore 1245 600 220
Kotah 971 1161 562
Kulladghee 1223 453 314
Kurnaul 978 1477 952
Kurnool 988 289 542
Kurrachee 1750 1596 833
Kurturpore 1148 1647 1211
Lahore 1356 1675 1130
Landour 980 1505 1021
Lohoogaut 950 1497 1067
Loodianah 1103 1602 1077
Luckeepore 270 1379 1591
Lucknow 619 1253 907
Madapollum 733 327 698
Madras 1063 0 763
Madura 1337 292 858
Mahableshur 1163 639 130
Mahidpore 1028 1033 432
Malcolm Peyt 1163 639 130
Maldah 191 1211 1288
Malwa 1400 616 278
Malabar 1374 418 672
Malligaum 1058 774 176
Mangalore 1359 436 524
Manuntoddy 1317 362 707
Masulipatam 797 285 654
Meerut 906 1405 912
Mercara 1328 372 676
Mhar 1257 655 107
Mhow 980 961 360
Midnapore 69 994 1116
Mirzapore 455 1124 890
Mithenkote 1345 1840 1077
Mokeran 1580 1682 1156
Mominabad 980 551 269
Monghyr 304 1324 1163
Moorshedabad 118 1138 1290
Moradabad 842 1388 916
Moulmein 928 1176 1939
Mozuffernuggur 942 1441 951
Mow 726 1111 742
Muctul 1060 349 420
Mukhi 1183 1682 1157
Mundeysir 1012 858 328
Munnipore 490 1557 1679
Muttra 818 1301 776
Mymensing 281 1348 1466
Mynpoory 739 1285 797
Mysore 1246 290 636
Nacrecul 892 329 504
Nagercoil 1483 438 1004
Nagery 1049 56 705
Nagore 1241 182 632
Nagpore 677 713 885
Naidopet 993 70 714
Nakodah 1138 1637 1100
Nalchitty 173 1236 1378
Nassick 1067 762 111
Neemuch 1049 1119 516
Neermul 859 530 599
Negapatam 1246 187 888
Nellore 952 111 684
Neilgherries 1342 338 722
Nepaul 560 1470 1215
Nerumbauk 1044 19 756
Noorpore 1213 1712 1186
Noacolly 293 1356 1478
Nowgong 610 1694 1766
Nowgaum 425 732 1065
Nubbenuger 349 1310 1095
Nuddea 64 1114 1249
Nujehabad 907 1444 981
Nursingpore 756 877 574
Nusseerabad 1018 1255 660
Nundydroog 1137 196 599
Nursapore 733 327 698
Odeypore 1130 1200 435
Ongole 873 189 642
Oojein 1004 1009 408
Oolundorpet 1177 131 823
Oomrawuttee 774 720 412
Oorungabad 160 1180 1347
Ootacamund 1342 338 722
Oossoor 1184 200 556
Oude 562 1228 1013
Padigaum 1147 629 130
Palamcottah 1435 390 957
Palaveram 1072 11 758
Palunpore 1291 1165 469
Paniput 1000 1428 924
Panwell 1159 741 20
Patna 369 1299 1065
Paulghaut 1350 346 754
Pelibeet 817 1364 948
Penn 1158 716 27
Periapatam 1279 324 669
Pertabghur 1081 1151 484
Peteraghur 975 1525 1095
Philloor 1113 1612 1086
Pondigul 862 286 550
Pondicherry 1157 98 803
Poonah 1107 667 90
Poonamallee 1065 12 750
Poondy 439 624 957
Pooree 297 766 1102
Poosa 422 1363 1129
Porto Nova 1188 129 850
Pubna 137 1210 1317
Pulicat 1043 30 770
Punderpore 1202 549 212
Purnea 228 1302 1379
Puttahat 258 1391 1513
Puttealee 817 1321 832
Quetta 1982 1897 1134
Quilon 1500 454 859
Ragapore 783 350 683
Rajahmundry 690 373 706
Rajapore 1400 1099 215
Rajeshye 145 1135 1345
Rajcote 1383 1153 458
Rajmahal 196 1216 1312
Rajpootana 1018 1255 660
Ramnad 1376 331 931
Ramree 698 1761 1895
Rhotuck 950 1422 918
Rungpore 302 1322 1329
Rutnagherry 1320 1320 198
Russellcondah 370 746 986
Ryepore 497 893 689
Sadras 1118 58 789
Saharunpore 978 1477 984
Sahuswan 796 1336 863
Salem 1221 217 747
Samulcottah 664 399 737
Sandoway 748 1811 1945
Santepore 50 1122 237
Sattara 1180 609 163
Saugor 742 964 602
Sawunt Warree 1360 583 280
Secunderabad 962 398 434
Sedashagur 1397 604 472
Sehore 870 966 470
Setapore 671 1305 959
Seonie. 755 791 536
Serampore 18 1081 1203
Seringapatam 1236 281 626
Seroor 1067 661 111
Serowie 1213 1243 518
Severndroog 1218 634 133
Shahabad 381 1367 1033
Shahjehanpore 735 1320 916
Shergotty 297 1258 1043
Shekohabad 762 1257 803
Sholapore 1162 534 246
Sigouly 461 1373 1138
Sirdhanah 918 1417 924
Simlah 1112 1601 1086
Sobraon 1173 1672 1147
Subathoo 1038 1577 1062
Sukree Gully 213 1233 1329
Sultanpore 436 1149 941
Do. (Oude) 525 1228 949
Sumbulpore 309 1081 879
Surat 1238 903 191
Sukkur 1818 1733 970
Surdash 177 1147 1357
Sylhet 332 1395 1517
Tanjore 1257 212 871
Tannah 1198 764 27
Tatta 1602 1467 773
Tellicherry 1307 411 629
Tezpore 594 1614 1750
Tindevanum 1129 77 711
Tinnevelly 1435 390 957
Tippera 246 1306 1431
Tirhoot 392 1342 1108
Tranquebar 1227 168 889
Travancore 1500 454 859
Trichinopoly 1254 209 835
Trincomallee 1420 426 1277
Trivandrum 1526 481 892
Tulleh 1208 680 77
Tumlook 50 1034 1156
Tuticoreen 1469 424 990
Umballa 1033 1532 1007
Undul 120 1088 1249
Vaniumbaddy 1132 130 719
Vellore 1100 86 799
Vingorla 1370 593 283
Vizagapatam 557 501 834
Viziadroog 367 737 245
Vizianagram 541 523 856
Wallajahbad 1095 38 753


Aden 33
Alexandria 26
Bombay, Overland to 36
Bombay, Rules for Passengers by the East India Company’s Steamers 39
Boulac 26
Cairo to Suez 30
Ceylon, Passage to 2, 46
China, Overland to
Desert, the 32
Distances from Calcutta, Madras and Bombay 108
Egypt, Sojourn in 71
Gibraltar 8
Lazaretto, Maltese 67
Lazaretto, Marseilles 62
Lazaretto, Syra 63
Madras, Passage to 2, 50
Malta 11, 67
Miscellaneous 68
Nile, travelling on the 71
Overland Journey, Expense of 67
Overland, Viâ France, Germany and Italy 41
Overland, Homeward 47, 65
Passengers, Instructions to 4
Penang, Overland to 46
Plague, the 54
Pyramids, Ascent of the 29
Servants, Indian 80
Singapore, Overland to 46
Southampton, Passage to 64
Sporting in Egypt 97
Tariff of Duty Goods 101
Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon and Cadiz 68




It is not our custom to seek business by the channel of continued advertisements, but we feel it to be our duty through the present opportunity to thank the Civil and Military Services of India, as well as many others, for the confidence they have been pleased to place in our management, when entrusted with their commands, and, further, to assure them that our effort to please, which has hitherto secured to us so large a portion of their patronage and support, will be energetically continued, and that our constant endeavour is to execute every commission entrusted to our care with promptness and fidelity.

We feel that a general Agency of this description to be really useful must embrace every variety of service, and that acute attention should be paid to the smallest trifle, often regulating the comfort and convenience of those by whom we are employed.

With these prefatory remarks, we may commence our detail, by observing—

Captain Barber’s long experience in the East India Company’s maritime service, together with his personal knowledge of all the first-class ships or steamers, fully qualifies him to furnish every information that can possibly be required for the voyage to India or China, whether the long sea or Overland Route be chosen.

Supposing the Overland Route to be chosen, no time should be lost in giving us directions to select the best vacant berth in the steamer, and to collect and ship all heavy baggage round the Cape, so that it may arrive sufficiently early to meet its owner at the Presidency.

The detail of an OUTFITfor so long a journey is a matter of serious consideration, both as regards comfort and cost—from ignorance on this subject it too frequently happens, that an expenditure beyond that which is necessary, fails to provide for the wants that might have been satisfied for a much less sum—and, further, even when the list is well chosen, the articles are bought at a great price, or indiscriminately procured from advertising tradesmen, who supply inferior goods.

We are always ready with detailed Lists of Outfit, and to advise parties who apply in time to avail themselves beneficially of our assistance in this and every other particular relating to the journey.

The Peninsular and Oriental Company do not in any case book through to BOMBAY, and for information and assistance in removing all difficulty while en route to that Presidency we recommend that application be made to this Agency.

BAGGAGE is fetched from any part of London by us and sent down to Southampton, and there put on board the steamers in accordance with the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s regulations, at a fixed charge on each package.

The BANKING DEPARTMENT of this agency includes all monetary operations at home and abroad.

Pay and Pensions received. Life insurance and insurance on baggage, passage and goods, effected; letters of credit granted; private and public business transacted at all the Government offices, and at the East-India House.

Military appointments and miscellaneous supplies of every description, including wines, musical instruments, plated ware, cutlery, sporting equipments, &c., &c., &c., are procured direct from the manufacturers, and forwarded as instructed by messes or individuals requiring them.

We are always ready to give advice when required for the packing of goods and render estimates of Cost of Freight and insurance—of packages to any part of the world. Having directed particular attention to this branch of the business, the fullest information and assistance can be given.

Although it is not indispensable that parties resorting to this Agency should become permanentSUBSCRIBERSof £1 per annum paid in advance, we beg to observe that those who do are entitled to the privilege of admission to a comfortable READING ROOM, provided with writing materials, and where English newspapers and periodicals and the latest Indian journals are regularly filed.

Many parties resident in this country experience great difficulty in the transmission of their Indian Letters, the postmasters, except in large towns, being frequently ignorant of the rates chargeable, and unable to afford any accurate information on the subject. The charges for postage become a serious item in an annual account; the subject is, therefore, deserving especial attention. Parties who from choice adopt the Marseilles route, may save much by selecting the lightest paper made for the purpose and by dispensing with large seals of wax.

The Weight of Letters can scarcely be too carefully kept down, when it is remembered that, independently of the heavy postage from England to the Presidency, the weight allowed for a single letter in India is only that of a sixpenny piece, or, to speak more correctly, forty-five grains troy!

Letters transmitted through this Agency are duly registered, the proper postage is paid, and charged in a periodical account; but when the Agency is used merely for the transmission of letters, a deposit of the probable amount of postage is required in addition to the annual subscription.

Lastly, we might refer to numbers who have employed this Agency for years past to prove that the advantages promised have been realised.






As follow, with Her Majesty’s Mails, Passengers, and Cargo, for the undermentioned Ports:


VIGO, OPORTO, LISBON, CADIZ, and GIBRALTAR, on the 7th, 17th, and 27th of every month, at 1 30 p. m. When either these dates fall on Sunday, the vessels start the following day.


MALTA, 20th and 29th of every month.    ALEXANDRIA, 20th of the month.


On the 29th of the month.



ADEN and BOMBAY, also on the 29th of the month.


The Company’s Steamers leave CALCUTTA for England, on the 8th of every month, except in May, June, and July, when the Steamers sail on the 3rd.

Leave MADRAS, four days after leaving Calcutta.
CEYLON, nine days after leaving Calcutta.
ADEN, on or about the 30th of every month.
ALEXANDRIA, on or about the 10th.
MALTA, on or about the 14th and 26th.
TREBIZOND, on or about the 12th.
CONSTANTINOPLE, on or about the 19th.
SMYRNA, on or about the 21st.
GIBRALTAR, on or about the 6th, 16th, and 26th.
LISBON, on or about the 9th, 19th, and 29th.

⁂ For Plans of the Vessels, rates of Passage-money, and to secure Passages and Ship Cargo, please apply at the Company’s Offices, No. 122, Leadenhall Street, London, and No. 57, High Street, Southampton.

N.B.—Length of passage from Southampton to the undermentioned ports, including all stoppages:

To GIBRALTAR Seven Days.
MALTA Ten ditto.
ALEXANDRIA Sixteen ditto.
BOMBAY Thirty-five ditto.
CEYLON Forty-two ditto.
MADRAS Forty-five ditto.
CALCUTTA Forty-eight ditto.
HONG KONG Fifty-four ditto.


Parcels under one quarter of a cubic foot measurement will be taken at five shillings, six and sixpence, seven and sixpence, and nine shillings each; above that measurement at the following graduated scale, including all charges to the Port of Delivery, except Transit Duty:—

Measurement Aden,Calcutta,
Madras, Ceylon,
Straits, & China.
¼ foot 0 10 0 0 15 0
Ditto and 1 inch 0 11 6 0 17 6
Ditto and 2 inches 0 13 0 0 19 6
½ foot 0 14 0 1 1 0
Ditto and 1 inch 0 15 0 1 2 6
Ditto and 2 inches 0 16 0 1 4 0
¾ foot 0 17 0 1 5 6
Ditto and 1 inch 0 18 0 1 7 0
Ditto and 2 inches 0 19 0 1 8 6
1 foot 1 0 0 1 10 0


If the Package weighs more than 20 lbs. to the cubic foot, an additional one shilling per lb. will be charged for the additional weight.

Merchandise taken by Special Agreement before the 16th of the Month, and must be at this Office by 3 p. m. on that day.

No Package will be received if it exceeds 70 lb. in weight.

For the above Rate of Freight the Company undertake to receive packages at their Offices in London or Southampton, and to ship and forward them by each Steamer to the Ports of destination, free of any other charge, subject to the following conditions:—

Parcels for Aden, Ceylon, Madras, Calcutta, Singapore, China, and Bombay, should be delivered not later than noon, on the 17th of each month; and if forwarded on the 18th, will be subject to an extra charge.

When the 18th falls on a Sunday, no package will be received after the 17th.

Periodicals for each Presidency will be charged 1s. each.

Parcels for Aden, Ceylon, Madras, Calcutta, and China, not to exceed 70 lbs. weight, or 5 cubic feet measurement.

Parcels for Bombay not to exceed 40 lbs. weight, and if in excess of 2 cubic feet measurement a further extra charge will be made.

Packages exceeding one cubic foot must be in a wood case, iron-hooped at each end, or an additional charge will be made for the same.

Specie, Jewellery, Silver, Watches, and other valuable articles, charged at three per cent. on their value, the Company reserving to themselves the right to charge by value, weight, or measurement.

Transit Duty.—Ten Shillings per cent. (payable to the Egyptian Government) will be added to the above rates.

Contents and value.—Must be declared at the time of booking, or the package cannot be received. A wrong declaration of value or contents subjects the consignee to a charge of double freight, and the package to seizure at the Custom House abroad.

Caution.—Parcels sent through any intermediate Agency cost the proprietor more. Application made personally, or by letter, to this Office, are promptly attended to.

⁂ Parcels must be applied for to the Company’s Agents at the Port of Delivery.

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company’s
, 122, Leadenhall Street.





Capital £500,000.

(Established by Act of Parliament, 19th May, 1836).


William Butterworth Bayley, Esq.

C. H. Latouche, Esq. Henry Porcher, Esq.


William Butterworth Bayley, Esq., Chairman.
John Fuller, Esq., Deputy Chairman.

Bruce Chichester, Esq. Colonel Ouseley

Major H. B. Henderson Major Turner

C. H. Latouche, Esq. Lewis Burroughs, Esq.

Edward Lee, Esq. Lewis Burroughs, Esq.

Bankers—Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Smiths.

Actuary—Mr. W. Lewis. Secretary—Mr. John Cazenove.



Charles Binny Skinner, Esq. T. C. Morton, Esq.

James Stuart, Esq. James Jos. Mackenzie,

J. S. Judge, Esq.

Medical Officer—John Grant, Esq., Apothecary General.

Bankers—Bank of Bengal. Solicitors—Messrs. Frith and Sands.

This Society offers a lower and more economical scale of Premiums for Life Assurance than hitherto demanded by the established Offices in India.


Age With Profits Without Profits Age With Profits Without Profits
20 Rs 33 Rs 31 20 Rs 83 Rs 35
30 38 35 30 44 41
40 49 45 40 53 49
50 63 59 50 66 61
60 82 77 60 84 79

All holders of Policies in India on the Profit scale, who may have paid five annual premiums, will be entitled, at the expiration of the fifth year, to a year’s profits, calculated on the average of the preceding five years; such profit to be paid in cash, or to go in diminution of the future premiums payable, or to be added to the sum assured by the policy, at the option of the holder, after the calculation of the profits shall have been made in London.

After the expiration of 1851, the profits will be declared annually, and the payers of five complete annual premiums be regularly entitled to a participation therein, with a like option as to the mode of application.

Parties assured in India for Life shall, on their return to England for a permanency, and on the first half-yearly premium becoming due, be entitled to come upon the English rates of premium, and be placed under the rules and conditions of the Society there obtaining.

All parties assured for life or for terms other than for life, whatever the number of payments or the permanency or otherwise of their residence in Europe, shall, after completing a full year from the date of their quitting India, and on the first half-yearly premium thereafter becoming due, be entitled to a reduction of their premium to the English rates, such reduced rates being continued during their further residence in Europe.

Notices of Assignments of Policies will be duly registered at the Office of the Secretaries.

The Society also grants Endowments and Deferred Annuities for India. The Tables for which, with full information, may be had at the Office of the Family Endowment Society, No. 12, Chatham-place; or at the Office of the Secretaries, in Calcutta, Messrs. Gordon, Stuart, and Co.







The Chisholm, Erchless Castle, Inverness-shire, and Sloane-street, London, Chairman

Richard Hartley Kennedy, Esq., Deputy Chairman of the Oriental Bank, Resington Lodge, Notting Hill, Deputy Chairman

Colonel Michael E. Bagnold, Bombay Army, Hamilton-terrace, Saint John’s Wood

Henry Stroud Barber, Esq., 36, Fenchurch-street, and Wanstead, Essex

Francis Brodigan, Esq., Garden-court, Middle Temple

James William Deacon, Esq., Walbrook, and Southwick-place, Hyde-park Square

Harry George Gordon, Esq., 58, Porchester-terrace, Chairman of the Oriental Bank

Henry Allan Harrison, Esq., St. Leonard’s-on-Sea, Sussex, Director of the Oriental Bank

Alexander Robert Irvine, Esq., 14, Waterloo-place, Managing Director

John Inglis Jerdein, Esq., Upper Ground-street, Blackfriars

James John Kinloch, Esq., Kair, Kincardineshire, and Gloucester-road, Hyde-park Gardens

Henry Lawson, Esq., Fortress-terrace, Kentish Town

Robert Francis Power, Esq., M.D., Queen-street, May Fair

Archibald Spens, Esq., Bombay Civil Service, Manor-house, Inveresk, N. B.

Reverend F. W. J. Vickery, King-street, Covent-garden


Capital, £250,000,

In 5,000 Shares of £50 each.

This Company assures the lives of healthy persons in any part of the world.


The attention of parties connected with India is directed to the moderate rates for Assurances on the Lives of either Military or Naval Officers, or Civilians—by which means young men may secure the repayment of advances for outfit, &c.—and parties enjoying annuities from the bounty of their friends, may secure themselves against the death of their benefactors.

Extract from the Tables for an Assurance of 1,000 Rupees, or £100:—

Age. Civilians. Military or
Naval Officers.
18 Rupees 29 Rupees 38
25 34 42
35 43 50
45 56 62

Exchange, 2s. per Rupee.


This Society is established on the tried and approved principle of Mutual Assurance. The first division of profits was declared at a general meeting of members, held on the 26th May instant, agreeably to the deed of settlement, when a bonus of 30 per cent. was given in reduction of future premiums on all policies which had been in force five years, and hereafter this Society will make an annual division of the profits.

Credit is allowed for half the annual premium for the first five years.

The following Table exemplifies the effect of the present reduction:—

Age when
Annual Premium
hitherto paid.
Reduction of
30 per cent.
Annual Premium
now payable.
£ £ s. p. £ s. p. £ s. p.
20 1000 20 17 6 7 5 3 14 12 3
30 1000 25 13 4 6 14 0 17 19 4
40 1000 33 18 4 10 3 6 23 14 10
50 1000 48 16 8 14 13 0 34 3 8

14, Waterloo Place,

A. R. IRVINE, Managing Director.





Capital, £200,000, in 2,000 Shares.


E. Barnard, Esq. John H. Capper, Esq.

Robert Brooks, Esq. J. B. Elin, Esq.

Henry Buckle, Esq. C. E. Mangles, Esq.

Richard Onslow, Esq. William Walker, Esq.

Trustees—Edward Barnard, J. H. Capper, and Edward Thompson, Esqs.

Auditors—James Easton and Robert Capper, Esqs.

Solicitors—Messrs. Maples, Pearse, Maples and Pearse.

Bankers—The Union Bank of London.

Colonial Bankers—The Bank of Australasia (incorporated by Royal Charter, 1835), 8, Austin Friars, London.

Physician—Dr. Fraser, 62, Guildford-street, Russell-square.

Actuary and Secretary—Edward Ryley, F.R.A.S.

At Sydney there is a Board of Directors, and Agents and Trustees at Western Australia.

Agents in India.

Calcutta Messrs. Robinson, Balfour and Co.
Madras Messrs. Line and Co.
Bombay Messrs. Ritchie, Steuart and Co.
Ceylon Dr. J. C. Cameron, Assistant Staff-Surgeon.
(Medical Referee.)

The following peculiar advantages are offered by this Company.

1. Their policies cover the risk of living and voyaging over a far larger portion of the globe than do those issued by any other Company in existence. They allow the assured to reside in the Australasian and North American colonies, and at the Cape of Good Hope. They also allow one passage out and home to any of those colonies. For British India a very moderate extra-premium is charged.

2. Premiums may be paid, and claims settled at Sydney, Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

3. A third of the premiums may remain unpaid for five years; nor is it necessary for the maintenance of the Assurance to pay up the premium at the end of that time, but the unpaid thirds may remain as a debt against the policy, if the interest be regularly paid upon them as the renewal premiums fall due.

The Annuities offered by the Company are on a more favourable scale than those offered by any other Companies, having been calculated with reference to the rates of Interest obtainable on Colonial Investments. Annuitants also participate in the profits.

Specimens of the Rates of Annuity for £100 sunk.

Age. Male Lives. Female lives.
£ s. p. £ s. p.
40 7 8 3 6 18 2
50 8 13 6 7 14 4
60 10 16 3 9 9 0
65 12 12 0 10 19 0
70 15 0 8 13 2 6
75 18 9 2 16 3 5

EDWARD RYLEY, Actuary and Secretary.




(Empowered by Special Act of Parliament, 4 & 5, Vic., Cap. xcii.)




Major James Oliphant, H.E.I.C., Chairman.

Major James Adair The Very Rev. the Dean of Emly
Rev. W. Harness, M.A. J. Hopkinson, Esq.
Benjamin Jackson, Esq. Rev. H. J. Knapp, D.D.
James Lamb, Esq. Captain Macdougall
William Ambrose Shaw, Esq. George Sloane, Esq.
Edward Heathcote Smith, Esq. Rev. H. T. Tucker, M.A.
John Walker, Esq. Sir William White
Rev. Richard Wood, B.D.


R. S. Cahill, Esq. M. R. Scott, Esq.


Messrs. Herries, Farquhar & Co. Commercial Bank of London.


Messrs. E. C. Harrison.


William Emmens, Esq.


Edinburgh. Glasgow.
Office, 55, Great King Street. Office, 24, Gordon Street.
Agent and Secretary.
William F. Skene, W.S.
Agent and Secretary.
Robert Baird, Jun.


Calcutta Committee. Madras Committee.
Andrew Hay, Esq. Edward F. Elliot, Esq.
James Steuart, Esq. Walter Elliot.
J. Spencer Judge, Esq. Rev. G. W. Mahon.
W. McAdam Stewart, Esq. Robert Franck, Esq.
Dr. Duncan Stewart Ramsey Sladen, Esq.
Agents and Secretaries.
Messrs. Colvio, Ainslie, Cowie & Co.
Agents and Secretaries.
Messrs. Parry and Company.


Age Seven Years Life Age Civil Military
7 Years Life 7 Years Life
£ s. d. £ s. d. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.
25 1 2 9 1 17 9 25 28 38 37 45
30 1 3 7 2 2 7 30 31 42 39 49
35 1 5 2 2 9 1 35 34 47 43 53
40 1 8 2 2 17 8 40 38 53 47 59

Prospectuses, the necessary Forms, and every requisite information for effecting Assurances, may be obtained on application to the Secretary, at the Head Office in London, or to the Agents and Secretaries in Scotland and India, as above.

Wm. EMMENS, Secretary.


(Established in 1836. Empowered by Act of Parliament.)

Offices—8, Water-street, Liverpool; 3, Charlotte-row, Mansion House, and 28, Regent-street, Waterloo-place, London; 29, Northumberland-street, Edinburgh; and Commercial-buildings, Dublin.


Sir Thos. Bernard Birch, Bart, M.P.

Adam Hodgson, Esq. Sl. Hy. Thompson.


Chairman—William Nicol, Esq.

Deputy Chairmen—Joseph C. Ewart, Esq., Joseph Hornby, Esq.

Thomas Booth, Esq. William Brown, Esq., M.P.
Thomas Brocklebank, Esq. William Earle, Esq.
T. Steuart Gladstone, Esq. George Grant, Esq.
Francis Haywood, Esq. Robert Higgin, Esq.
George Holt, Esq. John Hore, Esq.
George H. Lawrence, Esq. Harold Littledale, Esq.
Andrew Low, Esq. John Marriott, Esq.
Edward Moon, Esq. Lewin Mozley, Esq.
John Pennington, Esq. H. Stolterfoht, Esq.

Secretary—Swinton Boult, Esq.

Auditors—T. B. Blackburn, Esq., and Daniel James, Esq.

Bankers—Bank of Liverpool.  Union Bank of London.

Solicitors—Messrs. Clay, Swift, and Wagstaff, Union Court, Liverpool.

Medical Referees—James Vose, M.D.  Robert Bickersteth, Esq.

Surveyor—John Stewart, Esq.


Chairman—William Ewart, Esq., M.P.

Deputy Chairman—George Frederick Young, Esq.

Sir W. P. de Bathe, Bart. Mathew Forster, Esq., M.P.
Frederick Harrison, Esq. James Hartley, Esq.
Ross D. Mangles, Esq., M.P. James D. Nicol, Esq.
Hon. F. Ponsonby. John Ranking, Esq.
J. M. Rosseter, Esq. Edward T. Whitaker, Esq.
Swinton Boult, Esq.

Secretary to the Company.

Resident Secretary—Benjamin Henderson, Esq.

Manager of West-end Branch—Frederick Chinnock, Esq.

Bankers—Union Bank of London.

Solicitors—Messrs. Palmer, France, and Palmer, Bedford-row, London.

Medical Referees—Marshall Hall, M.D., F.R.S.  A. Anderson, Esq., F.R.C.S.

Surveyors—Messrs. Thompson and Morgan, 2, Conduit-street West, Hyde Park.

The Amount of Capital Subscribed Exceeds £1,500,000. At the commencement of 1849, the Reserved and Guaranteed Funds were, together, £164,940. The liability of the Proprietors is unlimited.

The Fire Business has steadily Increased Year by Year. The Duty paid to Government in 1836 was £3,414, in 1846 it reached £12,362. The Premiums are moderate; the settlement of claims liberal and prompt. Insurances are effected at home and abroad.

In the Life Department, simplicity, certainty, and large Guaranteed Bonuses, involving no liability of Partnership, with very reasonable Premiums, are characteristics of the Company. The amount of Premiums on new business in 1846 was £3,160; in 1847, £3,687; in 1848, £4,410.

Capital Sums, payable on a fixed future day, giving to Property held under Lease for years certain the same value as if it were Freehold, are insured by the Company. Full Prospectuses may be had on application at the Offices or Agencies.

BENJAMIN HENDERSON, Resident Secretary in London.
SWINTON BOULT, Secretary to the Company.

Coat of Arms








Colonel Sir Frederic Smith, K.H., F.R.S., R.E., Chairman.

James Nugent Daniell, Esq., Deputy Chairman.

Admiral the Right Hon. Sir G. Cockburn, G.C.B. Major-gen. Sir J. Cockburn, Bt., G.C.H.
General Sir Thomas Bradford, G.C.B., G.C.H. Major-gen. Sir P. Ross, G.C.M.G., K.C.H.
Lieut.-gen. Sir John Gardiner, K.C.B. Major-gen. Sir Hew D. Ross, K.C.B., R.A.
Captain Sir George Back, R.N., F.R.S. Major-general Taylor, C.B., E.I.C.S.
Major-general Edward Wynyard, C.B. Major-general Arnold, K.H., K.C.
Archibald Hair, Esq., M.D., late R.H.G. Captain William Lancey, R.E.
William Chard, Esq., Navy Agent. Wilbraham Taylor, Esq.
Major-general Sir John Rolt, K.C.B. Major F. S. Sotheby, C.B., E.I.C.S.
Lieut.-colonel Alderson, R.E. Major-general Sir George Pollock, G.C.B.

Bankers—Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand.

Physician—Sir Charles Fergusson Forbes, M.D., K.C.H., F.L.S.

Standing Counsel—John Measure, Esq., 4, Serle Street, Lincoln’s-inn-fields.

Solicitor—Rowland Neate, Esq., 57, Lincoln’s-inn-fields.

Actuary—John Finlaison, Esq., the Government Calculator, and President of the Institute of Actuaries.

Assurances are granted upon the lives of persons in every profession and station in life, and for every part of the world, with the exception, for the present, of that part of the western coast of Africa within the tropics.

The Rates of Premiums are constructed upon sound principles with reference to every colony, and, by payment of a moderate addition to the Home Premium, in case of increase of risk, persons assured in this office may change from one climate to another, without forfeiting their Policies.

Four-fifths of the Profits are divided amongst the Assured, and the Bonus may, at their option, either be applied in augmentation of the Sum Assured, or in reduction of the Annual Premium, or its value may be received in Cash.

Joseph Cartwright Brettell, Secretary.



Empowered by Special Act of Parliament.







Sir Henry Willock, K.L.S., Chairman. John Stewart, Esq., Deputy-Chairman.
Major-gen. Sir R. Armstrong, C.B. K.C.T. & S. John Bagshaw, Esq., M.P.
Augustus Bosanquet, Esq. Charles Dashwood Bruce, Esq.
Ellis Watkin Cunliffe, Esq. William Kilburn, Esq.
Francis Macnaghten, Esq. Charles Otway Mayne, Esq.
William Rothery, Esq. Robert Saunders, Esq.
James Duncan Thomson, Esq. Captain Samuel Thornton, R.N.


Robert Gardner, Esq.
Robert Hichens, Esq.
William Oxborough, Esq.


The Bank of England and Messrs. Curries and Co.


William Henry Cotterill, Esq.


George Burrows, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.
45, Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Square.


David Jones, Esq.


Michael Elijah Impey, Esq.


Particular attention is requested to the rates, which, being founded on the most accurate observations of the duration of human life, are as moderate as is consistent with perfect security.

The Profits are declared in each year, on the second Wednesday in May, on which date all those whose Policies have been in existence five complete years, are entitled to participation therein.

This practice of an annual division, as observed by Mr. Babbage, “distributes the Profits with more regularity and justice than any other,” and it is especially advantageous to persons of advanced years, who cannot hope to participate in many septennial or decennial divisions.

One-fifth of the ascertained Profits of the five preceding years is divided between the Policy-holders and Shareholders, three-fourths to the former and one-fourth to the latter. The remaining four-fifths are set apart to enter into the average of the succeeding years, and thus to provide against unforeseen contingencies.

The Annual Reduction has averaged considerably above 40 per cent., and in no one year has it fallen below that amount.

The following Table will show the operation of the reduction of 40 per cent. made by the Society to all holders of Policies entitled to participate in Profits, by reason of their having paid six complete original annual Premiums:—

Age when Policy was issued. Sum assured. Original Premium. Reduced annual Premium for the current year.
£ £ s. p. £ s. p.
20 1000 19 6 8 11 12 0
30 1000 24 8 4 14 13 0
40 1000 31 10 0 18 18 0
50 1000 42 15 0 25 13 0
60 1000 66 11 8 38 19 0

Thus it will be seen that the benefits arising from the Division of Profits will be experienced by each whole Life Assurer on the payment of his seventh annual Premium.

This system of reduction in the Premiums affords immediate benefit to the Assured, or enables them to secure a considerable bonus by effecting a new Policy.


Policies are granted in London, and by resident Committees at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, on India Risks, at very advantageous rates, calculated from extensive data and tables, exclusively in the possession of this Society, to show the true risk of life during residence in India, and after retirement from foreign service.

To parties who are proceeding to India, this Society offers advantages such as are not attainable in any other Assurance Company; for, while a fair and equitable rate is charged for the increased risk of residence in a tropical climate, the assured are, upon permanent return to this country, reduced to the English rates, corresponding with the age at which the assurance was originally effected, without reference to their state of health, and without being subject to any medical examination whatever.

Agents in India.

Messrs. Braddon and Co., Calcutta.
Messrs. Bainbridge and Co., Madras.
Messrs. Leckie and Co., Bombay.


The Entire Profits divided among the Assured.


Vernon Abbott, Esq. Lieut. Colonel Abdy.
George Ashlin, Esq. Hall Hall, Esq., R.N.
John James, Esq. John Ledger, Esq.
R. W. S. Lutwidge, Esq. Henry T. Prinsep, Esq.
William Phelps, Esq. Charles H. Smith, Esq.
James Traill, Esq. William Foster White, Esq.
George Whitmore, Esq. Edward Winslow, Esq.
John Young, Esq.

Advantages presented by this Society.

Life Assurances may be effected upon Equal, Half-Premium, Increasing or Decreasing Scales; also by Single Payments, or Payments for limited periods. Tables have been specially constructed for the Army, Navy, East India Company, and Merchant Services; also for persons voyaging to, or residing in, any part of the world.

Endowments for Widows and Children, Pensions for retired Officers and Civilians Immediate or Deferred Annuities, and Survivorships.

The Bonus declared on 30th of March, 1847, gave a Reduction of Premiums, until next division of Profits, averaging 36 per cent. on Policies in force Five Years, or an addition to the Sums Assured, ranging from one-third to one-half of the total amount of Premiums paid.

E. OSBORNE SMITH, Actuary and Secretary.

Agents—Messrs. J. OUCHTERLONY & Co., Madras.


Messrs. THRESHER AND GLENNY respectfully invite attention to their General Outfitting Establishment, which comprises the following advantages:—

EQUIPMENTS for LADIES, GENTLEMEN and FAMILIES, suitable to all circumstances and appointments, are supplied at the Wholesale Prices, and are prepared, packed, and shipped, without any trouble to the parties.

CLERGYMEN, WRITERS, CADETS, ASSISTANT SURGEONS, and others, are provided free of expense with detailed Lists of the requisite Equipment for India, China, Australia, &c., both by Ship and by the Overland Route.

MILITARY and NAVAL OFFICERS, CIVILIANS, and others returning to India, Officers joining their Regiments, &c., are provided with every requisite for the completion of their Outfits, at the usual Wholesale Prices.

ESTIMATES for LADIES, and FAMILY OUTFITS, with Lists of the Articles required, the several prices of each, and every particular connected with the necessary Equipment for India or the Colonies, will be forwarded on application.

PASSENGERS’ BAGGAGE, PACKING, &c.—Messrs. Thresher and Glenny undertake to receive, arrange, and carefully pack Outfits and Passengers’ Baggage, and to ship the same, either in the Docks, or on Board the Peninsular and Oriental Company’s Steamers at Southampton; to fit up the Cabins, and to insure the Outfits, Baggage, Passage, &c., without entailing any trouble whatever on the parties.

PASSAGES TO INDIA, CHINA, &c.—Full particulars of the Overland Route to India, Regulation of Baggage, Rates of Passage Money to Malta, Alexandria, India, China, &c.; also, Expenses of Passage by Ship, Lists of Ships sailing, &c., &c., will be forwarded to any part of the country free of expense, and Passage secured if required.

Messrs. THRESHER and GLENNY beg to observe, that Outfits supplied by them are arranged with the STRICTEST ECONOMY, all useless expense scrupulously avoided, and those Articles only recommended which experience has proved to be actually necessary. The Goods are all charged at the lowest Wholesale Prices; consequently all Orders and Outfits must be paid for on delivery, and no discount whatever can be allowed.

The following Articles, Manufactured by Thresher and Glenny, can only be procured at their Warehouse, 152, Strand, London.

THRESHER’S REGISTERED TRAVELLING BAGS—manufactured by authority of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, expressly for their Steam Ships to Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Malta, Alexandria, and India.

THE REGULATION OVERLAND TRUNK—manufactured by direction of the Egyptian Transit Company, for crossing the Desert, and for travelling in Egypt, Syria, and India, and authorised by all the Companies connected with the Overland Route.

THE NAPIER BED AND BULLOCK TRUNKS—manufactured expressly for marching in India, by direction of General Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., Commander-in-chief of India, &c., &c., strong, light, and water-proof.

THRESHER’S INDIA GAUZE WAISTCOATS.—These most important articles of clothing for wear in India, possesses all the advantages, without the inconvenience, of flannel waistcoats; the texture is light, soft, and durable, and perfectly free from every irritating and disagreeable quality.

items for sale

Polar Glove-Driving Glove-South-Wester-Travelling Cap-Ladies Hood-Garden Slippers


Driving Coat


Dreadnaught Wrapper




231, Strand,

Five Doors West of Temple Bar.

Manufacturer of the New Dreadnought Coats, warranted to resist the effects of any climate. The superiority of this new description of Waterproof is acknowledged by all who have tried it, being perfectly pliable and elastic, and not affected by the sun or frost. It answers equally well on a great variety of fabrics suitable to tropical or polar regions, and is invaluable to the sportsman, the sailor, and every one likely to be exposed to the elements.

Cording’s Sheet India Rubber Fishing Boots are made up with improvements, the suggestions of veteran sportsmen, and have the appearance of leather, but are one-half the weight; they are, also, more pliable, and never crack; they are perfectly waterproof for any length of time, require no dressing to keep them in condition, and are pronounced by gentlemen who have tried them to be the only article fit for the purpose.


Compressible Hat


Ankle Boots


Patent Life Belts.

Ladies’ Capes, Hoods and Petticoats.

Gig and Box Aprons, Travelling Knee Wrappers, Driving and Travelling Gloves.


Fishing or Shooting Boot


Deck or Travelling Boot


Every description of article made to order if required, either Black or Drab coloured.

A new and excellent Oil-proof Cape, for labourers and keepers,warranted not to crack, from 3s. 6d. each, or 40s. per dozen upwards.

Caution.—As many shopkeepers are selling inferior goods as “Cording’s Waterproofs,” thereby causing disappointment to the purchaser and bringing undeserved discredit on the good article, gentlemen are requested to observe that J. C. Cording’s name is on all articles manufactured by him, and he requests he may be judged by the service of those only.

Every one may be certain of purchasing Articles really Waterproof from







May be taken with a Piece of Tape, and reduced to Inches.

Link to larger image

left image COAT MEASURE. Inch left image
1. Height and length of Collar
2 to 3. From bottom of Collar to Hip Buttons
3 to 4. From Hip Buttons to bottom of Skirt
5. From centre of Back to Elbow
6 to 7. Continued to length of Sleeve
8. Size round top of Arm
9. Size round Chest, over Coat
Size round Chest under Coat
10. Size round Waist, over Coat
Size round Waist under Coat
11 to 12. From top of Trousers to bottom
15. Size round top of Thigh, taken tight
16. Size round top of Calf, taken tight
17. Size round top of Waistband, taken tight
18. Size round top of Hips, taken tight

Please to state if any peculiarity in figure—as, very upright, or inclined to stoop, high or low shoulders, &c., &c.

Measures taken as above, will answer every purpose, stating whether measured over a Uniform or Plain Coat.

Gentlemen who have not previously had an account with the House, will be pleased to make a reference to their Agents in London; or, if they wish to avail themselves of the discount, to refer to them for payment.

military header




Gentlemen proceeding on appointment to join their Regiments abroad, provided with Regimentals and every necessary article of the very best quality and manufacture, strictly uniform, at the lowest possible prices,






S. ISAAC has had the honour to supply Officers of Her Majesty’s Service for the last twenty years most satisfactorily, which the numerous testimonials in his possession will certify.

S. ISAAC having supplied Regiments and Depôts with necessaries of every description for many years, to the entire satisfaction of the Officers Commanding, respectfully begs their examination of his kit and prices, being uniformly pronounced by many distinguished Officers in Her Majesty’s Service at least 30 per cent. less in price, and 20 per cent. superior in quality,[*] to any yet issued to the soldier!

Gentlemen, on landing from India, provided with Plain Clothes, and every necessary article for use in England, in one day.


Plans and correct information of every Ship sailing to India and New South Wales may be obtained. Passages engaged, whether by sailing or the overland vessels; and baggage also shipped through this medium, at a considerable saving of time, trouble and expense.

[*]Vide Testimonials in S. Isaac’s possession.

Patronised by the Commander in Chief, General Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., and Staff.







Camp and Barrack Furniture.


May be taken with Tape and reduced to Inches.

Link to larger image

left image COAT. right image
1. From bottom of collar to Waist.
2. From Waist to Skirt.
3. From centre of back to Elbow.
4. From Elbow to Knuckle.
5. Round centre of Arm.
6. Round the Chest over Waistcoat.
7. Round the Waist over Waistcoat.
1 to 2. From top of Trousers to Sole of the Boot.
3 to 4. From Fork to Sole of Boot.
5. Exact size of the Top of the Thigh.
6. Round Waist.
7. Round Seat.

Please to mention the height, and if any peculiarity in the Figure.

N.B. Gentlemen who have not previously had an Account with the House, will be pleased to make a reference to their Agents in London, or, if they wish to avail themselves of the Discount, to refer to them for payment.

coat of arms





May be insured to fit perfectly, by a tight fitting Cotton Body and Sleeve being suited to the figure, and a pattern of the same on tissue paper, with the exact size of waist on tape, forwarded per Overland Mail to




N.B. Orders will be promptly attended to, accompanied by a satisfactory reference.




Gentlemen and Families supplied with every article in Under Clothing for home use or wear in a foreign climate. Each article marked, washed, and packed at a few hours notice.

Lists of Outfits, and every information given to parties going abroad, upon application at 33, Lombard-street.

Messrs. Bowring and Glenny respectfully invite the attention of gentlemen travelling, to their


combining the advantages of a portmanteau, with the convenience of a carpet bag, to be obtainedonly at 33, Lombard-street, London.




Manufacture all the best description of Hosiery, in Silk, Cotton, and Woollen Stockings, Socks and Under-clothing. Elastic Gaiters, for Ladies, which require neither lacing nor buttoning, suitable for home, the carriage, promenade, or equestrian wear, and can be forwarded in a Letter; also of the Elastic Stockings, Leggings, and Knee-caps for Varicose Veins, Weakness, &c., which afford suitable compression and support, without the trouble of lacing.





JULLIEN and COMPANY have the honour to submit to the Colonels, Commanding Officers, Presidents of Band Committees and Band-Masters in the British Army, and the Hon. East-India Company’s Service, a Prospectus of their Military Journal, arranged for full Military Bands, by C. Godfrey, Band-Master of the Coldstream Guards, which contains all the most Popular Overtures, Symphonies, Fantasias and the Principal Novelties of the day in Musique Dansante, as performed at Her Majesty’s Theatre, the Ancient and Philharmonic Concerts, and at Jullien’s celebrated Concerts, also at the Court Balls and the Soirées of the Nobility. The extensive and increasing patronage this highly popular Journal has met with in Her Majesty’s Service, is a sufficient guarantee of its utility, such a publication having never before existed in so perfect a form.

This Journal will be found a most desirable medium of procuring the most Popular Works ofBeethoven, Rossini, Mendelssohn, Verdi, Roch-Albert, Benedict, Balfe, Kœnig, Barret,Flotow, Auber, Maretzek, Pugni, Jullien, ETC.

Terms of Subscription, Three Guineas per annum, or Three Pounds ten Shillings per annum,postage paid, payable in advance, for which each Subscriber will receive Twelve Pieces of Music, being twice the number of Pieces allowed by any other Publisher for Three Guineas, arranged for Full Military Bands, one of which is published the first of every month. The subscription commences on the first of January in each year. Subscribers can select any piece that has been published during a previous year at the Subscription Price; to Non-Subscribers, 10s. 6d. each.

N.B.—To ensure the quickest possible transmission of the Music to India, after its publication in London, Messrs. Jullien and Co., have made arrangements to send the monthly parts to their agents, Messrs. Young and Co., of Bombay, and Messrs. Oliva and Co., of Calcutta, immediately after publication; for which they charge One Guinea a-year extra, to include all expenses of carriage to Bombay or Calcutta. Subscribers adopting this plan are requested to inform the Agents in India how they wish the music forwarded to their respective stations.


Terms of Subscription Three Guineas per Annum.

1 Semiramide Quadrille Jullien
2 English Quadrille Idem
3 Valse à deux Tems
4 Bouquet Royal Valse
5 Chinese Quadrille
6 Original and Royal Polkas
7 Tarentella de Belphegor Roch-Albert
8 The Bohemian Girl Balfe
9 Zampa Quadrille Jullien
10 Post Horn Galop Kœnig
11 Drawing-Room Polka Jullien
12 Stabat Mater Rossini
1st Book Introduction,
Aria, Cujus Animam

13 Original Mazurka and Cellarius Valse Jullien
14 Stabat Mater Rossini
2nd Book Duo, Quis est Homo
Aria, Pro Pecatis,
Coro, Eia Mater
15 Selection, “The Daughter of St. Mark Balfe
16 Chimes Quadrille Jullien
17 Mazurka d’Extase, Eoline
Septette, “Vedi Come,” “Ernani
18 Pas des Fleurs Valse Maretzek
19 Bohemian Polka Kœnig
20 Minuet Quadrille Jullien
21 Overture “La Barcarole” Auber
22 Stabat Mater Rossini
3rd Book. Quartette, Sancta Mater
Cavatina, Fac ut Portem
Air et Chœur, Inflamatus
23 Bridal Waltz (Second Set of the celebrated “Valses à Deux Tems“) Jullien
24 Introduction and Allegro Scherzo Movement, Third Grand Symphony, Composed for and Dedicated to Her Majesty, by Mendelssohn

25 Original Polonaise
And Two Quick Steps, from “La Barcarole,” arranged by
26 Original Napolitaine (Tarentelle des Salons) Jullien
27 Cricket Polka Jullien
28 British Navy Quadrille Idem
29 Fleur de Marie Valse Barret
30 Stabat Mater Rossini
4th Book. Quatour, Quando Corpus
Finale, Chorus, Amen
31 Selection “The Crusaders Benedict
32 Overture to Stradella
Grand March and Chorus “Nino
33 Hyacinth Waltz Kœnig
34 Selection “I Lombardi,” Verdi
35 Ernani Quadrille Jullien
36 American Polka Idem

37 British Army Quadrille Jullien
38 Camelia Polka Idem
39 Selection, “The Bondman Benedict
40 Garland Waltz Kœnig
41 Phantom Dancers’ Quadrille Jullien
42 Allegretto, Ninth Grand Symphony, and
Presto, Choral Symphony
43 Olga Waltz Jullien
44 Standard Bearer Quadrille Idem
45 Figlia del Reggimento Polka
46 Jenny Lind Waltz Kœnig
47 Selection, “I Due Foscari Verdi
48 Carriole Polka Kœnig

49 Swiss Quadrille Jullien
50 Selection (1st) “Maid of Honor Balfe
51 Eclipse Polka Kœnig
52 Ravenswood Waltz Jullien
53 Original Schottisch Idem
54 Queen of May Quadrille
55 Selection (2nd) “Maid of Honor Balfe
56 Jupiter Polka Kœnig
57 Pearl of England Waltz Jullien
58 Selection, “La Figlia del Reggimento Donizetti
59 Overture, to “Haydee Auber
60 Maitraume Walzer Prince Metternich

61 Drum Polka Jullien
62 Selection, “Les Huguenots Meyerbeer
63 Fuchsia Waltz Barret
64 Caledonian Quadrille Jullien
65 Selection, “Haydee Auber
66 Trumpet Polka Kœnig
67 Masaniello Quadrille Jullien
68 Valse d’Amour
March, Souvenir des Alpes
69 Valse Lucrezia Jullien
70 The “Coronation March,”
“Le Prophète
Cavatina, I’Lombardi
71 Prophète Quadrille Jullien
72 Jetty Treffy Polka Jullien

List of Subscribers to M. Jullien’s Military Journal.

The Governor General of India (Earl Dalhousie)
2nd Regiment of Life Guards Royal Regiment of Horse Guards
1st (The King’s) Regiment of Dragoon Guards
2nd (Royal North British) Regiment of Dragoons
3rd (The Prince of Wales’s) Regiment of Dragoon Guards
3rd (The King’s Own) Regiment of Light Dragoons
4th (The Queen’s Own) Regiment of Light Dragoons
6th Regiment of Dragoon Guards (Carabineers)
11th (Prince Albert’s Own) Regiment of Hussars
14th (The King’s) Regiment of Light Dragoons
16th (The Queen’s) Regiment of Light Dragoons (Lancers)
17th (Regiment of Light Dragoons Lancers)

Scots’ Fusilier Guards Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards
1st (Royal) Regiment of Foot
2nd (The Queen’s Royal) Regiment of Foot
3rd (The East Kent) Regiment of Foot (The Buffs)
4th (The King’s Own) Regiment of Foot
6th (Inniskillen) Regiment of Dragoons
5th Regiment of Foot (Northumberland Fusiliers)
7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers)
8th (The King’s) Regiment of Foot
9th (The East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot
10th (The North Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot
13th Prince Albert’s Regiment of Light Infantry
17th (The Leicestershire) Regiment of Foot
19th (1st Yorkshire North-riding) Regiment of Foot
21st Regiment of Foot (Royal North British Fusiliers)
23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
25th (The King’s Own Borderers) Regiment of Foot
26th (The Cameronian) Regiment of Foot
28th (The North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
30th (The Cambridgeshire) Regiment of Foot
31st (The Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot
33rd (The 1st Yorkshire West-riding) Regiment of Foot
34th (The Cumberland) Regiment of Foot
35th (The Royal Sussex) Regiment of Foot
36th (The Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot
37th (The North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot
40th (The 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot
44th (The East Essex) Regiment of Foot
45th (The Nottinghamshire) Regiment of Foot
46th (The South Devonshire) Regiment of Foot
48th (The Northamptonshire) Regiment of Foot
51st (The 2nd Yorkshire West-riding King’s Own Light Infantry)Regiment of Foot
55th (The Westmoreland) Regiment of Foot
56th (The West Essex) Regiment of Foot
57th (The West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot
58th (The Rutlandshire) Regiment of Foot
60th (The King’s Royal Rifle Corps) 1st Battalion
60th (The King’s Royal Rifle Corps) 2nd Battalion
61st (The South Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
62nd (The Wiltshire) Regiment of Foot
63rd (The West Suffolk) Regiment of Foot
65th (The 2nd Yorkshire North-riding) Regiment of Foot
66th (The Berkshire) Regiment of Foot
68th (The Durham) Regiment of Foot
72nd (The Duke of Albany’s Own Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
74th (Highland) Regiment of Foot
75th Regiment of Foot
79th Regiment of Foot (Cameron Highlanders)
81st Regiment of Foot (Royal Lincoln Volunteers)
82nd Regiment of Foot (The Prince of Wales’s Volunteers)
83rd Regiment of Foot
84th (York and Lancaster) Regiment of Foot
86th (The Royal County Down) Regiment of Foot
90th Regiment of Foot (Perthshire Volunteers Light Infantry)
92nd (Highland) Regiment of Foot
97th (The Earl of Ulster’s) Regiment of Foot
32nd (The Cornwall) Regiment of Foot
98th Regiment of Foot
Royal Artillery, Woolwich
Royal Marines, Portsmouth
Royal Marines, Chatham
Royal Marines, Plymouth
Royal Dockyard Infantry, Portsmouth
Royal Hospital Schools, Greenwich
Royal Caledonian Asylum
H.M.S. Bellerophon
1st West Indian Regiment


3rd Regiment of Light Cavalry
2nd Regiment of Native Infantry
9th Regiment of Native Infantry
11th Regiment of Native Infantry
21st Regiment of Native Infantry
26th Regiment of Light Infantry
31st Native Infantry
36th Native Infantry
40th Regiment of Native Infantry
42nd Regiment of Light Infantry
45th Regiment of Native Infantry
50th Regiment of Native Infantry
54th Regiment of Native Infantry


1st European Regiment (Fusiliers)
3rd (Or Palamcottah Light Infantry)
4th Regiment of Native Infantry
5th Regiment of Native Infantry
9th Regiment of Native Infantry
16th Regiment of Native Infantry
20th Regiment of Native Infantry
25th Regiment of Native Infantry
34th (Or Chicacole) Light Infantry
38th Regiment of Native Infantry
39th Regiment of Native Infantry
40th Regiment of Native Infantry
46th Regiment of Native Infantry
49th Regiment of Native Infantry


2nd Regiment of Light Cavalry
1st European Regiment (Fusiliers)
1st (Grenadiers) Regiment of Native Infantry
2nd (Grenadiers) Regiment of Native Infantry
3rd Regiment of Native Infantry
7th Regiment of Native Infantry
9th Regiment of Native Infantry
10th Regiment of Native Infantry
16th Regiment of Native Infantry
20th Regiment of Native Infantry
26th Regiment of Native Infantry

Numerous Yeomanry Bands, Musical Societies, Amateurs, &c., &c.


Published by Jullien and Company, at their Royal Conservatory of Military Music, 214, Regent Street, and 45, King Street.

coat of arms


The Members of Regimental Messes, resident in India and the Colonies, are respectfully solicited to inspect the articles supplied them, purporting to be the manufacture of CROSSE and BLACKWELL, as from the patronage they have obtained for the sale of their various Condiments, vast quantities of goods are prepared, approximating outwardly so closely to theirs, that the deception is not discovered until the purchaser has opened them.

It is, therefore, important to all who wish their goods, to inspect the articles minutely, as C. and B. do not guarantee any to be their manufacture that have not their name and address in full, on all the various labels and corks. The indents, C. and B., are now executing for many of the principal storekeepers in India and the British Colonies, consist, in addition to their usual assortment of Pickles, &c., of the undermentioned articles, many of which are just introduced and guaranteed to keep.

The Royal Table Sauce, a warm, rich sauce for cold meat and general purposes.—The celebrated Soho Sauce, for game, venison, fish, &c.—Dinmore’s Essence of Shrimps, a most delicious sauce for all kinds of boiled and fried fish, prepared expressly at their factory on the sea-shore, thereby retaining the true flavour of the shrimps.—Sir Robert Peel’s Sauce for general purposes, labelled with a fac-simile of Sir Robert Peel’s letter of approval.—Soyer’s New Sauces, one mild for the Ladies, and one warm for the Gentlemen, manufactured under his own direction.—Pure Mushroom Catsup and White Mushrooms, in tin canisters, prepared as they are gathered at Lewes in Sussex, where C. and B. have a factory for the purpose.—Fruits in Bottles for Tarts, Fruits in Jelly and Crystallised Fruits for Dessert; also Jams and Jellies of first quality, manufactured by C. and B. at the gardens, Dawley Wall, and West Drayton, Middlesex. By this means the fine aroma of the fruit is most effectually preserved.—Strasbourg Meat, Bloater and Anchovy Paste, for Sandwiches, in small glass jars.—Fine Bologna Sausages, hermetically sealed in tins.—Russian Caviare, in bottles, Russian Ox and Rein-Deer Tongues, secured in skins.—Real York Hams, cooked in Jelly; fine Wiltshire Bacon, secured in tins.—Berkley Cheese, hermetically sealed in tins; prepared Parmesan and Gruyere, in bottles, for Maccaroni, &c.; rich Stilton Cheese, in tins.—Preserved Salmon, Oyster, Lobsters for Sauce, Eels and Herrings, à la Sardines, Dried Sprats, Haddocks and Yarmouth Bloaters, Sardines and Anchovies in Oil.—All the various kinds of Sauce, Pickles, Preserved Meats, Soups, Game, Vegetables, &c., carefully selected and secured, and warranted fit for immediate use.—Syrups for Ices, comprising Pine-apple, Lemon, Orange, Raspberry, Limes, Currant, Strawberry and Cherry. Any of the above diluted with water, make a cool and delightful beverage.—Dried Herbs in bottles, Essences of Herbs and Spices of all kinds—most useful preparation for flavouring.—Arrowroot, Maccaroni, Vermicelli, Durham Mustard, Table Vinegar, Olives, Capers, &c., &c.



Established 1706.

coat of arms











London Mr. A. HAMILTON, Hatton Garden.
Calcutta Messrs. LEACH, KETTLEWELL Co.
Bombay Messrs. WILLIAM ELSAM & Co.
Hong Kong Messrs. FOX, RAWON & Co.


These celebrated Instruments, measuring, when closed, 3-1/2 inches, possess sufficient power to show clearly Jupiter’s Moons. Its efficient performance as a Reconnoitering Telescope, both as to magnifying and defining power, renders it peculiarly adapted to the Military Gentleman and Tourist. Price 35s.; or sent through the post at 36s.

The same Instrument, with an additional Eye-piece to show Saturn’s Ring and some of the Double Stars, with Stand and Case, 4-1/2 inches by 3 inches, to contain the whole, £3 2s.

To be had of the Maker, JOHN DAVIS, Optician, Derby.


IMPROVED ENEMA SYRINGES, with Metal Pistons, for use in warm climates, where the ordinary Pistons become hard or unfit for use. These Syringes are not only superior from their durability, but more perfect, more easy in their action, and much better adapted for the use of invalids.

PATENT CORK NIPPLES FOR SUCKLING, AND BOTTLES FOR FEEDING CHILDREN.—This elegant invention possesses the most decided advantages over all the artificial Nipples at present in use; they are perfectly free from the impurities and the injurious effects of the prepared calves’ teats, or those made of elastic gum. They are made of the finest cork, prepared for the purpose, presenting a smooth velvety surface to the lips; and, although supple and elastic, they are so firm that there is no danger of their collapsing from the pressure of the gums.

WEISS’S IMPROVED SCISSORS WITH ECCENTRIC OR LEVER JOINTS.—The joints of these Scissors being placed at the side, instead of in the centre as usual, cause the blades to cross diagonally, and thus a drawing cut is obtained, similar to that made by a knife. By this means the power of the Scissors is greatly increased, not only by the additional leverage obtained by the position of the joints, but by the sliding action of the blades on each other. This has long been a desideratum in Scissors, not only where power is required, but even for the lightest work. Every description of Scissors is made upon this improved principle.

WEISS’S best Town-made RAZORS, and CUTLERY of every description, peculiarly adapted for use in India.





(Upwards of Forty Years in constant Practice),




Noblemen and Gentlemen are informed that they can be supplied with every description of HUNTING KNIVES, WILD BOAR SPEARS, OTTER SPEARS, &c., &c., made to any design, and in such a manner as to give perfect satisfaction and ensure a continuance of favours.





Is the only one now before the public that is entitled to be ranked as an Invention; it is an ENTIRE NEW SHAPE, and so studied and constructed, that it is admitted to be the MOST PERFECT RAZOR EVER MADE.

To Gentlemen who wear moustaches, it will be found invaluable, as it can be handled with the greatest freedom and facility. The following is one of the many spontaneous testimonies of its superiority over every other Razor:—

Sir,—I not only think it a duty I owe you for your ingenuity, but I have great pleasure in informing you that I have been using your Norman Razors for some time, and, in my opinion, forphilosophical shape, elegance of make, and keenness of cutting, they cannot be exceeded. Sincerely wishing you success for your improvement,

“Bath, August 29th, 1848.

(Signed) I remain, yours, &c., J. Bullen, Admiral.”

Black handle, 3s. 6d.; Ivory handle, 5s. each.

J. DAVIS, 69, Leadenhall-street (four doors from Aldgate Pump), and 39, Threadneedle-street,adjoining the South Sea House, Maker of the Unrivalled Razor Strop.

Superior London-made Knives and Forks. Officers’ Messes supplied on very reasonable terms.




Improved Achromatic Telescopes.


By using Harris and Son’s Spectacles, the many painful sensations in the eyes so frequently complained of by ladies when at needle-work, music, &c., are removed; they are very beneficial by candlelight, and enable the wearer to continue reading a much longer time without fatigue, or the risk of injuring the sight.

T. H. and Son have especial regard in adapting the proper shape to fit each person’s face. Badly formed spectacles subject the wearer to many annoyances, such as continually shifting their position from the eyes, the frame intersecting the sight, causing too much pressure on the temples, disarranging the hair, marking the nose, &c.; these inconveniences may be avoided by the use of T. H. and Son’s spectacles, which from their light (nearly invisible) appearance, do not at all disfigure the countenance; and being composed of pure crystal, are the most efficient for preserving the sight.


For Ladies Best Blued Steel, 15s. Silver, 20s. Gold, from 42s.
For Gentlemen Best Blued Steel, 18s. Silver, 24s. Gold, from 50s.

Extra Crystals per pair, 10s.

Improved Eye Protectors, invaluable for preserving the Eyes from Light, Heat, Dust, Flies, &c., with glass or wire gauze, from 16s. to 24s.


The most powerful ever made. An infinite variety of the newest fashion, from 8s. each. Patronised by Her Majesty the Queen Dowager, H.R.H. the Duchess of Cambridge, H.R.H. Prince George.

Binocular Opera Glasses

By reason of their great power, have now the preference in the army and navy. The price of one to show an object distinctly at the distance of

Eight miles, made of Brass, is £ 0 18 The same size in German Silver, £ 1 18 0
Twelve miles, do. 1 10 Do. do. 3 0 0
Sixteen miles, do. 2 2 Do. do. 4 0 0
Twenty miles, do. 4 0 Do. do. 7 0 0

The smallest reconnoitering Telescope, 28s., of Brass. German Silver, 42s.

Leather Sling Case for the above-sized Telescopes, 5s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 9s. 6d. and 12s.

Every description of Astronomical Telescopes at equally reduced prices.

Thomas Harris and Son’s newly invented Deer-stalking Telescope, patronised by H.R.H. Prince Albert. Price, with sling leather case, £5. This Telescope has given the greatest satisfaction.









May be seen in use on board the RIPPON, the GREAT WESTERN, the HINDOSTAN and the AVON.

This is the only invention for KNIFE CLEANING for which Her Majesty’s Letters Patent have been granted, and is distinct from all others, in every essential principle, however closely imitated in external appearance. This Machine, so eulogised by the Press, and which, after the test of three years, is acknowledged by all to be the most useful, as well as the most successful, invention (for a domestic purpose) which the present age has produced; is made in eight sizes, and thereby adapted for the smallest private Families or largest Public Establishments; they are portable, durable, ornamental in appearance, noiseless, and so perfectly cleanly, that they may be used in any apartment; are incapable of getting out of order, and so simple in operation, that the Small Ones for Families may be used by a Child, whilst the saving in time and in cutlery is immense, as the number of Knives each Machine is adapted to take at one time, are not only cleaned and beautifully polished, equal to new, in less time than One Knife can be cleaned on the knife-board, but are not subject to the risk of injury they sustain when cleaned by the old method, nor can they ever be worn away at the points or backs.

To be had of the Patentee, at the MANUFACTORY, 329, STRAND, LONDON. (Opposite Somerset House).

First Size, to clean 10 knives £14 14 0
Second Size, do 9 do 12 12 0
Third Size, do 8 do 10 10 0
Fourth Size, do 7 do 90 0 0
Fourth Size, do 7 do 90 0 0
Fifth Size, do 6 do 7 10 0
Sixth Size, do 5 do 6 0 0
Seventh Size, do 5 do 4 15 0
Seventh Size, do 5 do 3 18 0

The principals of the following Establishments (among many others), in which Kent’s Knife Machines are in constant use, have kindly given the Patentee permission to refer to them.


Army and Navy Club, St. James’s square
Adelaide Hotel, London-bridge
Albion Tavern, Aldersgate street
Anderton’s Hotel, Fleet-street
Bache’s Langbourne Dining Rooms
Bath Hotel, Piccadilly
Brunswick Hotel, Blackwall
Brett’s Hotel, Holborn
Bridge House Hotel, London-bridge
Bay Tree Tavern, St. Swithin’s-lane
Bank Dining Rooms, Throgmorton-street
Bedford Hotel, Covent Garden
Betsey’s Chop House, Old Broad-street
Blue Posts Hotel, Cork-street, Bond-street
Cathedral Hotel, St. Paul’s Churchyard
Cesarini’s Hotel, Golden-square
Christie’s Hotel, St. James’s-street
Chequers’ Tavern, Abingdon-street
City Arms Tavern, Pope’s Head-alley
City of London Club, Broad-street
Castle and Falcon, Aldersgate-street
Clarendon Hotel, Bond-street
Clarence Hotel, Aldersgate-street
Clothworkers’ Hall, Mincing-lane
Coulson’s Hotel, Brook-street
Commercial Travellers’ School
Cox’s Hotel, Jermyn-street
Crown and Sceptre Tavern, Greenwich
Castle Tavern, Guildhall
Cock Tavern, Fleet-street
Café de l’Europe, Haymarket
Coventry House Club, Piccadilly
Christ’s Hospital, Newgate-street
Dolly’s Chop House, City
Dr. Butler’s Head Tavern, Coleman-street
Edinburgh Castle Tavern, Strand
Euston Hotel, Euston-square
Exchange Dining Rooms, ‘Change-alley
Exeter Hall Hotel, Strand
Electric Telegraph Refreshment Rooms
Ellis’s Hotel, St. James’s-street
Eagle Tavern, City-road
Fishmongers’ Hall, London-bridge
Fenton’s Hotel, St. James’s-street
Freemason’s Tavern, Great Queen-street
Foundling Hospital
Free Trade Club, St. James’s-square
Giraud’s Hotel, Castle-street
Gordon’s Hotel, Albemarle-street
Gresham Club, King William-street
Gresham Dining Rooms, Bucklersbury
Grillion’s Hotel, Albemarle-street
Guildhall Hotel, Guildhall
Green Dragon Hotel, Bishopsgate-street
Gerard’s Hall Tavern, Basing-lane
Gray’s Inn Coffee House, Holborn
Girdlers’ Arms, Sherbourne-lane
Golden Cross Hotel, Charing Cross
Groves’s Hotel, Albemarle-street
Gunter’s, Messrs, Berkeley-square
Hotel de Provence, Leicester-square
Hotel de l’Europe, Leicester-square
Home and Colonial School, Gray’s-inn-road
Hanover Hotel, Hanover-square
House of Commons (Refreshment Depart.)
Joe’s Chop House, Finch-lane
London Tavern, Bishopsgate-street
London Hotel, Albemarle-street
London Coffee House, Ludgate-hill
Lloyd’s Coffee House, Royal Exchange
Lake’s Dining Rooms, Cheapside
Mullin’s Hotel, Ironmonger-lane
Morley’s Hotel, Trafalgar-square
New Hummum’s, Covent-garden
Old Hummum’s, Covent-garden
Osborn’s Hotel, Adelphi
Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall-mall
Peel’s Coffee House, Fleet-street
Piazza Hotel, Covent-garden
Plough Tavern, Blackwall
Pulteney Hotel, Albemarle-street
Queen’s Hotel, St. Martin’s-le-Grand
Queen’s Hotel, Cork-street, Bond-street
Royal Naval School, New-cross
Ship and Turtle Tavern, Leadenhall-street
Sablonière Hotel, Leicester-square
Somerset Coffee House, Strand
Taylor’s Dining Rooms, Moorgate-street
Tavistock Hotel, Covent-garden
Travellers’ Club, Pall-mall
Virginia Tavern, Cornhill
Union Hotel, Cockspur-street
United University Club, Pall-mall
Wood’s Hotel, Furnival’s-inn
Woolpack Tavern, St. Peter’s-alley
Windham Club, St. James’s-square


Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool
Albert Hotel, Glasgow
Albion Hotel, Brighton
Albion Hotel, Hastings
Albion Hotel, Manchester
Albion Hotel, Glasgow
Bath Hotel, Leamington
Bedford Hotel, Brighton
Bell Hotel, Gloucester
Bell Hotel, Worcester
Brunswick Hotel, Liverpool
Bull Hotel, Preston
Bush Hotel, Carlisle
Buck’s Head Hotel, Glasgow
Café Royal, Edinburgh
Castle Hotel, Richmond
Clarence Hotel, Brighton
Clarendon Hotel, Leamington
Clarence Hotel, Manchester
Cavendish Mansion, Bridge House, Brighton
Clarendon Mansion, Bridge House, Brighton
Café de l’Europe, Manchester
Crow Hotel, Glasgow
Crown Hotel, Worcester
Commercial Hotel, Belfast
Dolphin Hotel, Southampton
Dolphin Hotel, Chichester
Eton College
Eldon Dining Rooms, Liverpool
Esplanade Boarding House, Brighton
Fountain Hotel, Portsmouth
George Hotel, Portsmouth
George Inn, Warwick
Greyhound Hotel, Richmond
George Inn, Frome
Great Northern Hotel, Lincoln
Guildhall Hotel, Bristol
Harrison’s Hotel, Brighton
Imperial Hotel, Liverpool
Imperial Hotel, Dublin
Jury’s Hotel, Dublin
King’s Head Hotel, Gloucester
King’s Head Hotel, Margate
King’s Arms Tavern, Richmond
Lamb Hotel, Cheltenham
London Hotel, Dover
London Hotel, Edinburgh
Marine Hotel, Hastings
Marlborough College, Marlborough
Montague Tavern, Bristol
Morrison Hotel, Dublin
Mount Ephraim Hotel, Tonbridge Wells
Nelson Hotel, Birmingham
New Steine Hotel, Brighton
Norfolk Hotel, Brighton
Old Bowling Green Hotel, Leamington
Old Ship Hotel, Brighton
Pier Hotel, Brighton
Plough Hotel, Cheltenham
Queen’s Hotel, Birmingham
Queen’s Hotel, Manchester
Radley’s Hotel, Dublin
Railway Tavern, Southampton
Reindeer Hotel, Worcester
Red Lion Hotel, Portsea
Regent Hotel, Leamington
Roebuck Tavern, Richmond
Royal Hotel, Edinburgh
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester
Royal Albion Hotel, Ramsgate
Royal Hotel, Plymouth
Royal Hotel, Richmond
Royal George Hotel, Southampton
Royal Kent Hotel, Ryde, Isle of Wight
Royal Western Hotel, Bristol
Royal York Hotel, Brighton
Royal Oak Hotel, Hastings
Royal Oak Hotel, Portsea
Royal Victoria Hotel, St. Leonard’s
Royal Hotel, Deal
Royal Pier Hotel, Ryde, Isle of Wight
Royal Hotel, Torquay
Scarborough Hotel, Leeds
Sea House Hotel, Worthing
Star and Garter Hotel, Portsmouth
Star and Garter Hotel, Richmond
Star and Garter Hotel, Worcester
Spread Eagle Hotel, Gloucester
Talbot Tavern, Richmond
Thistle Tavern, Glasgow
Three Swans’ Hotel, Salisbury
Trafalgar Hotel, Greenwich
Trinity College, Cambridge
Unicorn Hotel, Worcester
Union Hotel, Birmingham
Victoria Hotel, Preston
White Hart Hotel, Bath
White Lion Hotel, Bath
White Lion Hotel, Brighton
Windsor Hotel, Southampton
Wolverton Station Refreshment Rooms
Wovendon’s Dining Rooms, Manchester
Waterloo Hotel, Liverpool
White Hart Hotel, Margate
York House, Bath

The Patentee has also been favoured with approving testimony from (with full permission of reference to) a large number of the Nobility, Gentry and Clergy, the Heads of Public Institutions, Colleges and other Scholastic Establishments, with numerous Private Families, in nearly all parts of England, where his Machines are in constant use; as also in many parts of Ireland and Scotland; therefore, Gentlemen wishing to be satisfied of the merits of this Invention, may be referred to parties in their own vicinity who have it in use, by application to

GEORGE KENT, 329, Strand, London.





Manufacture and sell every description of Apparatus illustrative of Chemistry, Hydraulics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, Frictional and Voltaic Electricity, Electro-Magnetism, Electro-Metallurgy, Optics, Models of Steam Engines, Turning Lathes, Soda Water Machines, &c., &c., Apparatus for showing the Dissolving Views, Oxy-Hydrogen Microscope, Telescopes, Achromatic and other Microscopes, Daguerréotype Apparatus and Calotype Apparatus for taking Portraits and Views on Silver Plates and Paper, from £5 5s. to £20. Electro-Galvanic Machines for administering Medical Galvanism, from £3 3s. to £15 15s.

A descriptive Catalogue, containing upwards of 500 Engravings, can be procured through any Bookseller or Agent, price 2s. 6d. or per Overland Mail, Post free, 3s. 6d.

Orders containing a remittance, or order for payment, in London, promptly attended to.


(From Dollond’s,)


Begs respectfully to return thanks for the liberal patronage he has already received; and, in soliciting future favours and recommendation, feels confidence in stating that, having had twenty years’ experience in Dollond’s, all articles submitted by him may be relied upon as being of the most perfect character, and at economical charges.

Spectacles, Telescopes, Microscopes, Opera and Race-glasses, Sextants, Compasses, Barometers, Surveying Instruments, Rules, Scales, &c., of every description.

Orders may be sent through Messrs. James Barber and Co., Grindlay and Co., or direct to 41, Ludgate-street, St. Paul’s.


En suite, with extra Bed Rooms if required; the house is modern, well-furnished, and in the centre of the most fashionable part. Gentlemen and small Families requiring a superior abode in London, with good attendance and all the advantages of an Hotel, will find this desirable. Terms moderate.

15, Bury Street, St. James’s.

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Begs to call the attention of such to his Method of Measuring, by which he guarantees at the first trial to produce a fit unprecedented for comfort, yet combined with the most fashionable shape.

Those Gentlemen on whom Boot Makers have practised unsuccessfully, are particularly solicited by J. C., who will undertake to fit them at once, however difficult.—Established, 1825.



Boot Maker,





Respectfully begs leave to acquaint Officers of the Army, the Civil Service, Cadets, and others proceeding to India, that he has introduced an entirely new process in the preparation of leather, whereby it is rendered most beautifully soft and pliable, and at the same time so much changed in its nature, as not to occasion that pain and inconvenience universally experienced in wearing new boots. They bear a most beautiful polish, requiring no blacking; they do not crack or become hard, and are remarkably soft and pleasant to wear. Ease, elegance and durability, are combined in these Boots, and are invaluable for warm climates.

T. Grundy earnestly solicits one trial, which will be convincing.




115, REGENT STREET, Corner of Vigo Lane.




Respectfully informs Gentlemen in her Majesty’s and the Honourable East India Company’s Services, Merchants, Planters, and others, that he has always on hand a Stock of


Expressly prepared for Sportsmen in India, which he continues to supply on the most reasonable terms, at which a suitable and well-finished article can be sold.

J. Collins invites special attention to his assortment of Pistols, and every description of weapon that is manufactured.







Beckwith and Son manufacture for Sportsmen double and single Guns, at the lowest possible price, that will insure the assistance of the best mechanics in the gun trade, which guns, for workmanship and shooting cannot be surpassed. Also double and single Rifles made to shoot with the greatest accuracy.

B. and Son make Guns marked No. 2, which will be found on trial much better and cheaper than most second hand Guns, and prevent the loss now so often sustained in the purchase of what are called second-hand Guns, but which are really very common ones, with London maker’s names forged upon them.

Also Guns marked No. 8, perfectly safe and made to shoot well, suitable for the Colonies.


All kinds of Implements for Sportsmen, Powder, Wadding, Caps, &c., &c.





Have much satisfaction in making public their important discovery of manufacturing Gun Barrels entirely of Pure Steel, which are found in all respects as decidedly superior to stubb twist as the later is to common plain Iron Barrels. Some of the most important advantages possessed by Deane’sSteel Barrels are, first, that they are found to stand a much more severe test in proof than those of any other description, and even in comparison with the best Stubb Barrels of the same length and calibre. The Steel Barrels will stand the same proof, although one-fourth lighter; the greater safety which this invention secures is therefore obvious. Secondly, the Shooting is from 25 to 35 per cent. stronger and closer than any other. And, thirdly, they will not become leaded or foul, or by constant use lose their superiority of shooting. As an Advertisement precludes the possibility of detailing their full merits, Sportsmen are respectfully invited to inspect the Steel Barrel Guns, and test their Shooting, at G. & J. Deane’s Factory; where also will be found the largest assortment of Double and Single Fowling Pieces, Double and Single Rifles of every calibre, and fitted with extra barrels for shot; Air Guns and Air Canes for all descriptions of Shooting; and Pistols in endless variety.






Respectfully begs to thank his customers in India for their long and continued patronage, and to state that, from the great experience he had in making Double Rifles, he has attained to a principle of making them throw with equal precision to a Single Rifle, which he unhesitatingly challenges the world to surpass, even those who charge nearly double his price. His Fowling Pieces are bored upon a system, and the interior of the breeching made upon such an improved plan, as to throw small shot stronger and closer than has ever before been accomplished. Double and Single Rifles, with extra barrels for small shot, to fit in the same stocks. Pistols of every description, both double and single, for holster, belt, pocket, or duelling. The Regulation Cavalry and Infantry Pistols, with musket or carbine-size bores. The Six-barrel Self-acting Pistol now made complete and perfect.

J. B. has always a large stock of Second-hand Guns and Pistols of his own make and all the other first-rate London makers, at most reasonable prices, together with every article connected with the trade.

N. B.—Observe the Name and No. 321, High Holborn, London, directly opposite Gray’s-inn Gate.






Guns, &c. manufactured upon the Premises, at the lowest possible Price, consistent with first-rate workmanship.



No. 3,








Respectfully acquaint the Nobility and Gentry, that they have just completed


Including Stewpans, Saucepans, &c., in Copper, Iron, and Block Tin; Patent Dish Covers, Roasting Jacks, Meat Screens, and every requisite for the Kitchen; also Knives and Forks, Japan Ware, Table and Suspending Lamps, Tea and Coffee Urns, and the largest Assortment of Stoves, Fenders, and Fire-irons, improved Kitchen Ranges, &c.





Officers and Families, Writers, Army, and Naval Cadets proceeding to India, can be completely equipped on the shortest notice.

⁂ The articles supplied at this establishment are of the best qualities and strictly correct as to the Uniform of either Presidency—Samples, with the Prices, and detailed Lists of Necessaries, may be seen at the Warehouse, or transmitted by request, per post.


Promptly executed for Mess Supplies, Officers’ and Privates’ Clothing and Accoutrements, Plate, China, Glass, Musical Instruments, Wines, &c., &c.


Tested on the most powerful machine, and gild by the best London workmen, supplied at £3 3s. each.


Now adopted by the Honourable Company, supplied, both for Officers and Privates, on the very best terms.


And every article of personal outfit, ready for immediate shipment.


Is strongly recommended; also their very Light Waterproof Trunk, 21s., and their Regimental Trunk, 30s.

Agency.—M. and H. transact all Business, receive Pay, and engage Passages, &c., for Officers on Furlough, or returning to India.

MAYNARD AND HARRIS, 126, Leadenhall Street.

(Removed from 27, Poultry.)

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A good substitute for silver has long been sought after, and numerous have been the attempts to produce a perfect metal that will retain its colour when in use. How fruitless the attempts have been the public know too well, from the fact that all their purchases have, after a few days’ wear, exhibited a colour little better than brass. The very severe tests that have been applied to our metal (which in all cases it has withstood), at once places it pre-eminent above all others, and from its silver-like appearance, its intrinsic and valuable properties, gives us confidence in asserting that it is, and must remain, the only pure and perfect substitute for silver.

Fiddle Pattern. Strongest Fiddle. Thread Pattern. King’s Pattern.
Table Spoons and Forks per dozen 12s. and 15s. 19s. 28s. 30s.
Desert Spoons and Forks per dozen 10 and 13 16 21 25
Tea Spoons and Forks per dozen 5 and 6 8 11 12

Cruet Frames with Rich Cut Glasses, from 22s.

Table Candlesticks, 12s. per pair.

Tea Sets, and every article for the Table, at proportionate prices.

R. and J. S. beg to caution the public against several spurious imitations of their articles, which are daily offered to the public as Albata British Plate. The genuine are to be had only at their establishment, 336, Strand, opposite Somerset House, where no inferior goods are kept.


Richard and John Slack are now offering the most extensive and elegant assortment of Fenders in London, embracing the newest designs, at prices 30 per cent. under any other house. Ornamental Iron Fenders, 3 feet long, 4s. 6d.; 3 feet 6 inches, 5s. 3d.; 4 feet, 6s.; ditto, bronzed, from 6s.; Bed-room Fenders, from 2s. 6d.; rich Scroll Fenders, with Steel Spear, any size, from 10s.; Chamber Fire-irons, 1s. 9d. per set; Parlour ditto, 3s. 6d.; superior ditto, with cut head and bright pans, from 6s. 6d.; new patterns, with bronzed head, 11 s.; ditto, with ormolu and China heads, at proportionate prices.

Balance Ivory Table Knives 10s. per dozen.
Desert Ivory Table Knives 9
Carvers 3  6d. per pair.
White Bone Table Knives 6
Dessert 4
Carvers 2
Superior Kitchen Table
Knive and Forks from
6s. 6d. per doz.
Table Knives with pure
Nickel Silver, Tables
Dessert ditto 18.
Carvers 6 6d.

All marked Richard and John Slack, and warranted.

Richard and John Slack, in submitting the above prices, beg it to be understood it is for articles of the best quality only.

Richard and John Slack, 336, Strand, London.

Their Illustrated Catalogue may be had gratis, or sent to any part of Great Britain, post free.


The Money returned for every article not approved of.

Published on the Morning after the arrival in London of every Overland Mail.

Price Sixpence; or 10s. for 24 Numbers paid in advance.






⁂ This Journal was established in June, 1840, by a numerous body of the principal Merchants, Company’s Officers, and others connected with India, and has ever since maintained its influence and circulation among Anglo-Indians, and parties in this country having friends or relatives in the Civil and Military Services of the Company; also among Merchants, Shippers, and others interested in our Eastern Empire. Its contents are arranged as follows:—


A continuous sketch, bringing down the Political, Military and Miscellaneous Transactions in an historical form from mail to mail.


Giving the more interesting Materials of the foregoing History, in Extracts from the various Indian and Chinese papers.


This department contains the Anecdotes and on dits of the English in India, and generally all Articles of News not included under the foregoing head.


Civil, Military, Naval, Medical, Ecclesiastical and Miscellaneous; Births, Marriages and Deaths; Shipping Intelligence, Arrivals, Departures and Lists of Passengers.


Comprehensive Views of the Movement of Trade and Commerce in India, China and the Archipelago, from the best authorities on the spot, with price current.


On the Indian topics of the day; Sketches of Manners in India; Proceedings of Public Societies; Resources and Improvement of the Country, &c.


Embracing a Critical Review, not confined to Works on India.



And general list of Casualties from time to time.


Examinations at the Colleges; Reports of Arrivals, Permissions to return or remain, Applications to retire, &c.


Containing everything interesting to the Indian body in England up to the day of publication; Births, Marriages, and Deaths, Shipping Intelligence, Arrivals, Departures, Lists of Passengers, &c.



To whom all communications for the Editor, or orders for Subscriptions, may be addressed; or to





A Certain Remedy for disorders of the Pulmonary Organs—in difficulty of breathing—in redundancy of phlegm—in incipient Consumption, of which Cough is the most positive indication, they are of unerring efficacy. In Asthma, and in Winter Cough, they have never been known to fail.

Keating’s Cough Lozenges are free from every deleterious ingredient; they may, therefore, be taken at all times, by the most delicate female and by the youngest child; while the public speaker and theprofessional singer will find them invaluable in allaying the hoarseness and irritation incidental to vocal exertion, and consequently a powerful auxiliary in the production of melodious enunciation.

Prepared and sold in boxes, 1s. 1-1/2d., and tins, 2s. 9d., 4s. 6d. and 10s. 6d. each, by Thomas Keating, Chemist, &c., No. 79, St. Paul’s Church-yard, London; and retail by all Druggists and Patent Medicine Venders in the Kingdom.

N.B.—To prevent spurious imitations, please to observe that the words “Keating’s Cough Lozenges” are engraved on the government stamp of each box.


Copy of a Letter from Colonel Hawker (the well-known Author on “Guns and Shooting.”)

Longparish House, near Whitchurch, Hants, Oct. 21st, 1846.

Sir,—I cannot resist informing you of the extraordinary effect I have experienced by taking only a few of your Lozenges. I had a cough for several weeks, that defied all that had been prescribed for me; and yet I got completely rid of it by taking about half a small box of your Lozenges, which I find are the only ones that relieve the cough without deranging the stomach or digestive organs.

I am, sir, your humble servant,
P. Hawker.

To Mr. Keating, 79, St. Paul’s Church-yard.



(Prepared by cold process) from the above fine species of the root, and prescribed by the first physicians and surgeons of the day, is acknowledged by the faculty to be the best form of Sarsaparilla now in use. It is remarkable for its medicinal properties as a purifier of the blood, and restorative of the vital energies of the system, in cases of debility consequent on acute disease and other causes, or wherever tonic or alternative remedies are indicated. It has been prescribed with marked success in the treatment of the following class of complaints:—Skin Disease, Scrofulous Complaints, Glandular Enlargements, Scorbutic Affections, Blotched Face, Boils and Tumours, Obstinate Ulcerations, Chronic Rheumatism, Affections of the Liver, Biliary Obstructions, Indigestion, Loss of Appetite, Loss of Flesh, Lowness of Spirits, Local, Nervous, and General Debility, and in most disorders depending on a depraved habit of body, bad state of the blood, or debilitated constitution.

“I have prescribed the Fluid Extract of the Red Sarza (by the cold process) to many of my patients with considerable benefit, and, I may say, in cases where the ordinary forms of Sarsaparilla seemed to have little effect I am persuaded this is a valuable preparation for the profession, and have recommended it for use in University College Hospital.”—Letters of the late Professor Liston.

To be obtained in bottles, half-pints, 8s.; pints, 15s.; quarts, 25s.; (accompanied with doses and directions), of T. Keating, Chemist, 79, St. Paul’s Church-yard, London.


The increasing demand for this medicine, and the difficulty of procuring it, has induced Messrs. Henry Cox and Co. to make arrangements for a constant supply of this valuable article, which can be depended upon (colour, taste and smell being uniform), and which will bear the strictest test.

To be had retail of Mr. T. Keating, Dispensing Chemist, 79, St. Paul’s Church-yard.

Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest—Brompton, July 5, 1849.

“Mr. Cox—Please supply 20 gallons Cod Liver Oil.—Osborn P. Cross, Secretary.”

“July 18—Please supply as last 20 gallons Cod Liver Oil.—Osborn P. Cross, Secretary.”

“August 1—Please supply as last 20 gallons Cod Liver Oil.—Osborn P. Cross, Secretary.”

Agents for Calcutta, William Cragg, Esq.-Madras, Messrs. Gordon and Co.—Bombay, Messrs. Treacher and Son.—Gibraltar, T. H. Roberts, Apothecary.




a most refreshing preparation for the Complexion, dispelling the cloud of languor and relaxation, allaying all heat and irritability, and immediately affording the pleasing sensation attending restored elasticity and a healthful state of the skin. Composed of choice exotics of balsamic nature, utterly free from all mineral admixture, and pleasing and delightful in its effects, “Rowland’s Kalydor” tends to neutralise the action of the atmosphere upon the skin, and to promote that healthy action of the microscopic vessels, by which its general well-being and the beauty of its appearance are so essentially promoted. It exerts the most soothing, cooling and purifying action on the skin; and effectually dissipates all REDNESS, TAN, PIMPLES, BLOTCHES, SPOTS, FRECKLES, and other Cutaneous Visitations. The radiant bloom it imparts to the CHEEK, and the softness and delicacy it induces on the HANDS and ARMS, render it indispensable to every toilet. In cases ofSun-burn, Stings of Insects, or incidental Inflammation, its virtues have long and extensively been acknowledged. Gentlemen after Shaving, will find it allay all irritation and tenderness of skin, and render it soft and smooth. Its purifying and refreshing properties have obtained its exclusive selection by Her Majesty the Queen, the Court, and the Royal Family of Great Britain, and the several Courts of Europe; together with the “elite” of the Aristocracy, from the sultry climes of India to the frozen realms of the Czar. Price 4s. 6d. and 8s. 6d. per bottle.

Beware of spurious “KALYDORS” for sale, containing mineral astringents utterly ruinous to the Complexion, and by their repellent action endangering health.


powerful, yet balsamic, efficacious, yet mild; its effects, either in restoring the Human Hair when lost, or preserving it in its original strength and beauty, are in many cases all but miraculous, and are recorded by testimonials most numerous in themselves, and certified by the highest authorities. It has obtained the exclusive patronage of Royalty, not only as regards our own Court, but those of the whole of Europe. From its exquisite purity and delicacy, it is admirably adapted for the hair of children, even of the most tender age, and is constantly employed for this purpose in the Nursery of Royalty, and by the families of the nobility and aristocracy. It is alike suited for either sex; and whether employed to embellish the tresses of female loveliness, or to add to the attractions of manly grace and aspect, will be found an indispensable auxiliary to the toilet both of ladies and gentlemen. Price 3s. 6d.—7s. Family bottles, (equal to 4 small) 10s. 6d.; and double that size, 21s. per bottle.


A preparation from the choicest Oriental Herbs, of peculiarly mild and detersive properties. It pleasingly and effectually cleanses the Hair and Skin of the Head from Scurf and every species of impurity, and imparts a delicate fragrance. It is particularly recommended to be used after Bathing, as it will prevent the probability of catching cold in the head, and will render the hair dry in a few minutes. Price 3s. 6d. per bottle.

ROWLAND’S ODONTO (or Pearl Dentrifrice),

A WHITE POWDER, compounded of the choicest and most recherche ingredients of the Oriental Herbal, of inestimable value in preserving and beautifying the Teeth, strengthening the Gums, and in rendering the breath sweet and pure. Its truly efficient and fragrant aromatic properties have obtained its selection by “The Queen,” the Court and Royal Family of Great Britain, and the Sovereigns and Nobility throughout Europe. Price 2s. 9d. per box.


For relieving the Tooth-ache, Gum-boils, and Swelled Face, and which, by constantly using, prevents those maladies. In the anguish of excruciating pain it affords instantaneous relief. Price 2s. 9d., 4s. 6d., and 10s. 6d. per bottle.


Unprincipled Shopkeepers, for the sake of gaining a trifle more profit, vend the most Spurious Compounds under the same names. It is, therefore, highly necessary to see that the word “ROWLANDS'” is on the wrapper or label of each article. Sold by the Proprietors—A. ROWLAND and SONS, 20, Hatton Garden, London, and by all respectable Chemists and Perfumers.

Officers in the Military and Civil Service proceeding to India or the Colonies, supplied on better terms than at any other House in London.


All Orders sent direct from India must be accompanied with a Reference, or an Order for Payment in England.




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Families in the Country will find an unprecedented advantage regarding quality and price. The Articles printed in this list warranted of the first-rate quality. Many Articles cannot be priced, owing to the multiplicity of Sizes; but guaranteed at Wholesale Prices.



£ s. d.
Best Huntin Saddles, full size, with superior made trees with spring bars, warranted of the best materials and shape, complete with best steel stirrup irons, girths, and thirrup leathers 4 14 6
Ladies’ superior Side Saddles, with slipper girths, &c., all complete, warranted of the first quality 6 16 6
Ladies’ Side Saddles, with leaping heads for hunting. 7 17 6
Race Horse Saddles complete, with irons, girths, sursingle, &c., any weight, from 2 lbs 4 4 0
Superior Double Rein Bridles, with highly polished steel bits, spring curbs, bradoon, &c., covered buckles, warranted most superior 1 10 0
Superior Single Snaffle Bridles, with highly polished snaffle bits, covered buckles 0 17 6
Ladies’ most unique Double Rein Bridles, with round reins and head pieces, nose bands, rosettes, with extra highly polished steel bits, spring curbs, &c., made in the first style of fashion 2 12 6
Exercising Bridles, with leading reins 0 8 6
Hunting Breast-plates, with covered or plated rings, stuffed pads, superior quality 1 1 0
Round ring Martingales 0 10 6
Flat ring Martingales 0 10 6
Round Chaise Reins 0 18 0
Hobbles, per pair 0 6 6
Leather Head Collars, on all the improved principles, to prevent slipping 0 6 6
Colts’ Head Collars 0 6 6
Leather Head Collar Reins, per pair 0 6 6
Sponge Boots 1 5 0
Shoe Brush Cases 0 6 6
Patent Saddle Cloths 0 12 6
Greyhound Slips, per pair 1 1 0
Spring Dog Couples 0 4 0
Best Stirrup Leathers, with steel bar buckles, warranted, per pair 0 7 3
Pillar Reins 0 4 9
Pillar Reins with spring hooks 0 12 0
White and Blue Saddle Girths, with steel bar buckles, most superior quality, per pair 0 4 6
Horse Blankets, 9 quarter, extra heavy 0 12 0
Horse Blankets, 8 quarter, extra heavy 0 10 6
Best Body Rollers, extra strong 0 12 0
Complete suit of superfine Kersey Horse Clothing, bound and edged with superfine cloth, stitched throughout, with silk initials, &c., all complete 4 11 0
Complete suit of Summer Horse Clothing, stitched throughout, with silk initials, &c. 1 15 0
Complete suit of Blanket Horse Clothing, with hood, full breast cloth roller, initials, &c., extra heavy, all complete 2 12 6
Sweating Hoods, lined throughout 1 2 6


£ s. d.
Saddles for Infantry mounted, or Staff Officers, with loops complete 4 14 6
If metal cantle to ditto 0 9 0
Pair of Helsters, and patent leather flounce 2 2 0
Regulation Bridle, with gilt bosses 2 15 0
Breast-plate and Crupper 0 12 0
White Field Collar 0 9 0
Infantry Saddle Cloth, edged gold lace 4 0 0
Staff Saddle Cloth, edged gold lace 5 10 0



£ s. d.
Horse Brushes 0 5 4
Water ditto 0 3 9
Heel ditto 0 3 3
Spoke ditto, four-row 0 3 9
Dandy ditto 0 2 2
Improved mane brushes, to supersede the use of mane combs 0 3 0
Oil brushes 0 1 3
Inside carriage ditto, various 0 1 4
Bit ditto 0 1 6
Boot-top ditto 0 1 10
Harness blacking and compo. ditto 0 2 6
Shoe ditto (per set) 0 7 6
Davis’s patent curry-comb brushes, to supersede the use of iron combs 0 5 0
Chamois leather 0 1 9
Curry combs, best four knocker 0 1 3
Mane and trimming combs 0 0 4
Trimming scissors, bent and straight
Mane pullers and pickers
Horse scrapers, spurs, whips, &c.
Pillar and rack chains
Stable sponge, very best, per lb.
1 1 0


£ s. d.
Single Horse Harness, with breeching or kicking straps, lined, throughout, bits, &c., &c. Silver Furniture 11 11 0
Silver and covered 10 10 0
Brass 9 9 0
Brass and covered 9 9 0
Covered 9 9 0
Pony Chaise Harness, to fit about 12 hands high, warranted superior Silver 9 9 0
Silver 8 8 0
Brass 7 7 0
Brass and covered 7 7 0
All covered 7 7 0
Pair Horse Phæton Harness without breechings, four times stitched, with bits all complete, warranted of the most superior quality Silver 25 0 0
Silver 23 0 0
Brass 21 0 0
Brass and covered 21 0 0
All covered 21 0 0
Tandem Harness for wheel and leader, first style, with bits, reins, &c., all complete Silver 26 5 0
Silver and clovered 25 0 0
Brass 20 0 0
Brass and covered 20 0 0
All covered 20 0 0
Pair of Pony Harness, without breechings, to fit about 12 hands, superior quality, bits, &c., all complete Silver 21 0 0
Silver and clovered 19 0 0
Brass 17 10 0
Brass and covered 17 10 0
All covered 17 10 0

Game Bags, Letter Bags, Horse Nets, Dressing Muzzles, Coupling Rings, India Rubber Cutting Boots.


Ross and Sons’ Method of measuring the Head,


If you wish to excel, study nature; this is particularly applicable in making ornamental hair, as unless the previous way of wearing it is imitated, so complete a transformation takes place, that, as Byron says,—”a mother would not know her son.” ROSS and SONS having succeeded beyond all calculation in producing perfect imitations of nature, have given the name of the Invisible Ventilating Head of Hair to their productions, and are enabled to offer them to both Ladies and Gentlemen, from one guinea and a half upwards.


The only Dye that really answers for all colours, and does not require re-doing, but as the hair grows, as it never fades or acquires that unnatural red or purple tint common to all other dyes. ROSS and SONS can, with the greatest confidence, recommend the above DYE as infallible; and ladies or gentlemen requiring it are requested, if convenient, to have it done the first time at their establishment, which will enable them to use it afterwards themselves without the chance of failure. They think it necessary to add that, by attending strictly to the instructions given with the Dye, numerous parties have succeeded equally well without coming to them.


When the hair is becoming thin, and falling off, the only effectual remedy, besides shaving the head, is the use of the two above-named articles, applied alternately, the Botanic Water to cleanse the roots from scurf, and as a stimulant, and the Bears’ Grease as a nourisher. If any further evidence was required of the virtues of Bears’ Grease for renovating and preserving the hair, Mr. Catlin’s account of the quantity used, and the length of hair obtained by some of the North American Indians, would be a sufficient answer. ROSS and SONS, who first introduced the use of Bears’ Grease in this country, and who fat and kill the animals, recommend the public to purchase none other but with their names and addresses printed on pot, or the chances are their obtaining a spurious article.


Thoroughly cleansing between the teeth when used up and down, and polishing the surface when used crossways, the hair warranted never to come out; in four strengths, viz.:—No. 1, hard; No. 2, less hard; No. 3, medium; No. 4, soft. The double anti-pressure nail-brush, which does not divide the quick from the nails. The triple hair-brush, which thoroughly searches and cleanses the hair in one-fourth part of the time of any other method, and acts as both comb and brush combined. The medium shaving-brush, being a selection of the strongest badgers’ hair, so well secured in the socket as never to come loose. And, though last not least, the newly-invented “Renovator” Clothes-brush, which makes an old coat look like a new one, and a new coat to look new double the usual time. Invented and made only by ROSS and SONS.


It may be fairly said, the state of the Teeth depends greatly upon the state of the bodily health, and the state of the bodily health depend greatly upon the state of the Teeth. The homopathic principle of infinitesimal doses in all cases of weakness and nervousness, is no doubt the right one, as nature is not then overpowered, but assisted. The United Dentists’ Tooth Powder carries this out to its utmost extent, as some of the most strengthening articles in the Materia Medica are contained in it; and a small portion being gradually absorbed every day, not only strengthens the gums, but the whole system. It likewise thoroughly cleanses the teeth, gradually removing the tartar, purifies the breath, thereby preventing infection, and corrects acidity both in mouth and stomach. Address ROSS and SONS.


Firstly, a good Razor. Secondly, a good Strop. Thirdly, good Soap. Fourthly, a good Shaving Brush. And these are be to obtained, of the best quality, and newest construction, of ROSS and SONS, who can strongly recommend their Triple Converted Railway Razor; their Railway Strop, with Hone attached; their Pearl Shaving Paste, beautifully scented, and making a durable lather; and their medium badgers’ hair Shaving Brush. They also recommend travellers to inspect their Russian Dressing Case, which contains the largest number of conveniences in the smallest space.

Address, ROSS and SONS, 119 & 120, Bishopsgate Street, London.

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Under Royal Patronage.






Small books, containing many hundreds of properly authenticated testimonials, may be had from every agent.

Extract of a letter from W. J. Taylor, Esq., Agra and United Service Bank, Madras, dated February 13, 1846.

“In all that I do, I beg you will understand that I am actuated with the desire of benefitting my fellow creatures. I consider in very truth that the medicine is, ‘under Divine Providence,’ a blessing and a cure; there are many instances here of its efficacy, and it is doing good to all classes—European and native.

(Signed) W. J. TAYLOR.

From J. D. Marshall, M.D., Lecturer to the Royal Institution, Belfast, and Chemist in Ireland to her Majesty the Queen.

8, High-street, Belfast, Sept. 21, 1847.

Gentlemen, I have the gratification of stating that from all I have been enabled to observe of Dr. Locock’s Pulmonic Wafers, they have been of eminent service in the alleviation of severe asthmatic coughs, pains in the chest, &c.

I have no doubt that when they become more generally known in the north of Ireland, they will be as highly esteemed as they are in other parts of the kingdom.


To Singers and public Speakers they are invaluable, as in a few hours they remove all hoarseness, and wonderfully increase the power and flexibility of the voice.

They have a pleasant taste. Price 1s. 1-1/2d., 2s. 9d., and 11s. per box.

Agents: DA SILVA and Co., 1, Bride-lane, Fleet-street, London. Sold by all Medicine Vendors.



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PRICE, 1s. 1-1/2d., 2s. 9d., and 11s. per box.

The only Medicine recommended to be taken by Females!


Unprincipled Persons Counterfeit this medicine in the form of PILLS, &c. Purchasers must therefore observe that none are Genuine but “WAFERS,” and that the words


are in the Stamp outside each Box.

Observe.There are various Counterfeit Medicines, having words on the Stamp so nearly resembling these, as to mislead the unwary. Purchasers must therefore strictly observe the above Caution.

Prepared only by the Proprietor’s Agents, DA SILVA & CO., 1, Bride Lane, Fleet St., London. Sold by all Medicine Vendors.

Dr. Locock’s Female Wafers fortify the constitution at all periods of life, and in all Nervous Affections act like a charm. They remove Heaviness, Fatigue on Slight Exertion, Palpitation of the Heart, Lowness of Spirits, Weakness, and allay Pain.

They create Appetite, and remove Indigestion, Heart-burn, Wind, Head-aches, Giddiness, &c.

In Hysterical Diseases, a proper perseverance in the use of this Medicine will be found to effect a Cure after all other means have failed.

⁂ Full Directions are given with every box.

Note.—These Wafers do not contain any Mineral, and may be taken either dissolved in water, or whole.




Extract of a Letter from His Lordship, dated Villa Messina, Leghorn,

To Professor Holloway,

21st February, 1845.

Sir,—Various circumstances prevented the possibility of my thanking you before this time, for your politeness in sending me your Pills as you did. I now take this opportunity of sending you an order for the amount, and, at the same time, that your Pills have effected a cure of a disorder in my Liver and Stomach, which all the most eminent of the Faculty at home, and all over the Continent, had not been able to effect; nay, not even the waters of Carlsbad and Marienbad. I wish to have another Box and a Pot of the Ointment, in case any of my family should ever require either.

Your most obliged and obedient Servant,
(Signed) Aldborough.

Sold at the Establishment of Professor Holloway, 244, Strand, (near Temple Bar), London, and by most all respectable Druggists and Dealers in Medicines throughout the civilised world, at the following prices:—1s. 1-1/2d., 2s. 9d., 4s. 6d., 11s., 22s., and 33s. each Box. There is a considerable saving by taking the larger sizes. N.B. Directions for the guidance of Patients in every Disorder are affixed to each Box.

HOLLOWAY’S PILLS and OINTMENT are Sold in every part of India.



Manufactured on a entirely new principle, are the most perfect frictors for freeing the pores and producing an agreeable re-action.


Are indispensable articles of health for all persons travelling by sea or land, as by friction they promote a healthy action of the skin, than which nothing can be of greater importance, especially in tropical climates.

They were first introduced to the two Services and the Public, some years since, by Major-generalRolt, in his “Treatise on Moral Command;” and have since possessed the entire approbation of the Medical Faculty; and, undoubtedly, of all who have resorted to their use, in every country where civilization exists.

It is beyond a doubt, that, by a healthy action of the skin, many diseases may be escaped, and even that dire malady the Asiatic Cholera amongst them, as by freeing the pores, acidity of the stomach is removed, with all its train of annoyances.

A peculiar Fabric manufactured expressly for the use of Ladies.

Manufactured only by LAWRENCE and Co.,








Diamond Lamp

Fig. 30.

This Lamp is beyond doubt the best Lamp for India. Royal Letters Patent have been granted to Richard Clark, for the recent improvements. In simplicity, in beauty, there is none to equal the Diamond Lamp. It gives the light of fourteen candles, and burns for twelve hours without attention. Is so simple, that it cannot be mismanaged—a wick has been woven expressly for this Lamp, which ensures a brilliant flame. The Diamond Light is tranquil amid the draught of the Punkah, and unaffected by currents from the windows or doors. The Table Lamps (as Fig. 30) are now fitted with a ribbed cut crystal under-dish, ventilating Punkah top and enamelled shade. The light and appearance thereby is considerably improved. The Table Lamps, from £3 18s. complete, to £8 9s., can be had in gold colour or bronze, or in bronze in relief, which is very handsome, or in artistic bronze in relief. Also with Derbyshire slate pillar, ornamented. Also with crystal pillars, plain or cut, which with the ribbed cut crystal under-dish, has a magnificent effect. The price is from £7 complete, to £11 10s.; also, Table Lamps can be had plated or electro-plated, from £7 15s. complete, to £12 12s. complete.

The Table Lamps fitted with an ornamented slate pillar with Ionic capital, either in gold colour, or bronzed in relief, are very much recommended for their elegance and durability; the price is, complete, £5 19s., if fitted with Punkah apparatus; but 14s. less is charged when the Punkah apparatus is not required.

Fig 32

Fig. 32.

The Hanging Lamps, with two, three, four, or more burners, are very superior. They are so simple in construction, that servants cannot mismanage them. These lamps can be had in gold colour or in bronze in relief. Each burner gives the light of ten candles, and a three-burner lamp will illumine a large apartment; but where lights are required for remote parts of the room, or particular positions, then the bracket-lamps to fix to the wall are recommended, or lamps to stand on brackets, or on the mantel-piece, &c. The Hanging Lamps are from £8 10s. to £14 for two burners, complete; for three burners, complete, from £12 15s. to £18 10s., and so on, according to the number of burners required.

Bracket Lamps can be protected from external draughts, for £3 15s., complete, and for £3 1s. if not required to be so protected.

Study, or Reading, or Writing Lamps, or Sideboard Lamps, or Mantel-piece Lamps, or Lamps to stand on brackets, or Hall Lamps (as Fig. 32), are also fitted with Punkah apparatus to protect the light from draughts of air; the price is £4 10s. complete, but 14s. less if not required to be fitted with Punkah apparatus.

These Lamps burn admirably with cocoa-nut or olive oils.

Orders are executed with extreme care, so that every article must render real service.

Extra cotton-holders are always sent with each lamp, so that the lamp cannot become damaged and thereby unfit for use. All necessary directions are on each lamp-cotton box.

Cut crystal glass or gold colour Candle Chandeliers and Candelabra. Candlesticks in gold colour or bronze, or artistic bronzed in relief. Royal Wax Candles made expressly for warm climates, 14s. per dozen lbs.

Fire-proof lamp chimneys for the Diamond Lamp, 12s. per dozen.

Patent Lamp wicks for the Diamond Lamp, 6s. per gross.

Ground Lotuses for Hanging Lamps (as Fig. 31), or Lamps (as Figs. 32 and 33), are 6s. 6d. each.

Lamp-trimming scissors, 3s. per pair.

Cut under-dishes for Table Lamps, 12s. 6d. each.

The packages for a single lamp, with et ceteras, vary in price from 10s. to 18s.

Orders received through the East India Agents, or direct, by


WILLIAM SHEPHERD, Resident Managers.


An Order for payment on some person in England must please accompany the order.









Takes leave to submit the following high and flattering testimonial of his Marine and Pocket Chronometers, and to assure Gentlemen of the United Services, Merchants, and Captains, that they may fully rely on the steadiness and general uniformity of the rates of his Chronometers, Pocket Watches, and Astronomical Clocks, being manufactured under his own especial care and attention, regardless of time or expense in the perfection of such important instruments.

“Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Oct. 22, 1838.

“I certify that, since the commencement of the annual trials of Chronometers at the Royal Observatory, in competition for rewards offered by the Government for the best Chronometers, Mr. Carter, Chronometer Maker, of Tooley Street, has obtained a greater number of rewards than any other Chronometer Maker, and that he obtained the two last rewards given by the Government. I certify, also, that since I have had charge of the Royal Observatory, several Chronometers constructed by Mr. Carter, either belonging to the Royal Navy, or on trial for purchase by the Government, have been rated at the Royal Observatory, and that they have generally been extremely good.

(Signed) “G. B. Airey.

Chronometers and Watches carefully adjusted, timed, and rated or exchanged.—61, CORNHILL.


CHUBBS’ PATENT DETECTOR LOCKS give perfect security from false keys and picklocks, and also detect any attempt to open them. They are made of all sizes, and for every purpose to which locks are applied, and are strong, secure, simple, and durable.

CHUBBS’ PATENT LATCH, for front doors, counting-house doors, &c., is simple in construction, low in price, and quite secure. The keys are particularly neat and portable.

CHUBBS’ PATENT FIRE-PROOF SAFES, BOOKCASES, CHESTS, &c., made entirely of strong wrought-iron, so as effectually to resist the falling of brick-work, timber, &c., in case of fire, and are also perfectly secure from the attacks of the most skilful burglars.

CHUBBS’ CASH and DEED BOXES, fitted with the Detector Locks.

CHUBB and SON, 57, St. Paul’s Church-yard, London.




The AGENTS for Bottling this celebrated Ale, have on hand a large Stock of the above in excellent condition, in quart and pint bottles, and casks of eighteen gallons and upwards. They have always in good condition

BARCLAY’S DOUBLE BROWN STOUT, STOUT and PORTER, and the Strong BURTON and SCOTCH ALES, in casks and bottles.

Mess of Regiments and Gentlemen going Abroad, can still be supplied with some of the choicest brewings.


E. MOSES & SON, as the Monarchs of Trade,
Not only in Britain have mightily sway’d,
But proofs of their prowess have long been display’d
All over the World.
Full many a vessel its service has done,
In bearing the Goods of E. MOSES & SON,
Whose Fame, by this means, has triumphantly run
All over the World.
E. MOSES & SON sell attire as they ought,
With elegance fashion’d, and famously wrought,
And you never would equal their dress, if you sought
All over the World.
How many, when leaving their own native land,
To MOSES repair with their Cash in their hand:
And thus does the glory of MOSES expand
All over the World.
And now, worthy reader, if you are about
To sail on the Seas for a long, distant route,
Come and purchase of MOSES, whose Flag is spread out
All over the World.
Whatever you wish to obtain, ere you go,
May be cheaply obtained at their noted Depôt;
Then hasten to MOSES, whose benefits flow
All over the World.
Thus aid Messrs. MOSES, the Monarchs of trade,
Who, not only in Britain have mightily sway’d,
But proofs of whose triumphs have long been display’d
All over the World.
READY MADE. £ s. d.
Men’s Spring and Summer Wrappers. from 0 0 6
The Bulwer Pacha Paletot and every description of light Over Coats 0 12 6
Cloth Over Coat of light texture & handsomely trim’ 1 1 0
Ditto ditto lined with Silk. 1 8 0
Ditto ditto Superior quality 1 18 0
Jean and Holland Blouses 0 2 9
Fancy Victoria ditto 0 4 0
Tweed ditto 0 4 6
Dress Coats 0 17 0
Frock ditto 1 0 0
Spring and Summer Trowsers 0 4 0
Doeskin and Buckskin ditto 0 7 6
Spring and Summer Vests in every variety 0 1 6
Black & Figured Satin Vests 0 4 6
Black ditto Superior quality 0 9 6
White Marcella Vests 0 4 6
Men’s Black Cloth Vests 0 3 6
Boys’ Spring & Summer do. 0 0 10
Boys’ Hussar & Tunic Suits 0 15 0
Men’s Fishing Coats in great variety 0 4 0
Paletots made froma variety of material fitted for Summer wear from 1 8 0
Men’s Fishing Coats in great variety 0 4 0
Ditto very elegantly trimm’d ditto 1 8 0
Superior Cloth of a light texture 1 15 0
Superior Cloth of a light texture 1 15 0
Ditto ditto lined with Silk 2 2 0
Ditto Dress Coat 1 12 0
Best ditto for 2 15 0
Superfine Frock ditto 1 15 0
Best ditto ditto 3 3 0
Fancy Doeskin Trowsers from 0 16 6
Black ditto ditto 0 16 0
Best ditto ditto 1 6 0
Black Cloth Vests 0 8 6
Best ditto ditto 0 13 6
Splendid Satin ditto 0 14 6
Best ditto ditto 0 18 6
Hussar and Tunic Suits 1 5 0
Superfine ditto ditto 1 15 0
Men’s White Marcella Vests 0 7 0
Fishing Coats in endless variety from 10s. 6d. to 1 16 0
Elegant Dressing Robes in great variety from 16s. to 5 0 0

Mourning to any extent at Five minutes’ notice. A Suit of Clothes complete for £1 10s.

The new Book entitled The Great Fact, with full directions for Self-measurement, can be had on application, or forwarded Post-free to any part of the Kingdom.

Notice.—The Shawl and Parasol departments are now replete with Novelty of the Season.

Observe.—Any Article purchased either Ready-made, or made to Measure, if not approved of, will be exchanged or the money returned.

E. MOSES and SON, Tailors, Woollen Drapers, Clothiers, Hatters, Hosiers, Furriers, Boot and Shoemakers, and General Outfitters, 154, 155, 156, & 157, Minories, and 83, 84, 85, & 86, Aldgate, City, London. All communicating with each other, and forming one vast Establishment.

Caution.—E. MOSES and SON regret having to guard against imposition, but having heard that the untradesmanlike falsehood of being connected with them, or it is the same Concern, has been resorted to in many instances, and for obvious reasons; they beg to state they have no connexion with any other House in or out of London, except their Branch Establishments, 36, Fargate, Sheffield, and 19, Thornton’s-buildings, Bradford, Yorkshire, and those who require Cheap and Genuine Clothing, &c., should call at or send to the Minories, and Aldgate, City, London, or either of the Branches as above.

Take Notice.—This Establishment is Closed from Sun-set, Friday, till Sun-set, Saturday, when Business is resumed till 12 o’Clock.





Biographical Index to the Historians of Muhammedan India. By Sir Henry M. Elliot, K.C.B., Foreign Secretary to the Government of India. Vol. I. 8vo. 16s.

To be completed in Four Volumes.

History of the British Empire in India, to the close of Lord Ellenborough’s Administration. ByEdward Thornton, Esq. Illustrated by Maps, showing the Possessions of the East-India Company at various times. 6 vols. 8vo., cloth lettered, £4. 16s.

“It (Thornton’s India) presents such a mass of valuable and authentic information respecting the origin, government, and resources of our Indian territories, as is to be found in no other publication. * * * It is the best, the most comprehensive, and the most original history of India which has yet appeared, and we cannot doubt its becoming the most popular, if, indeed, it be not so already. The style in which it is written is clear, vigorous, and terse, and free from those far-fetched, flowery, and pompous clap-traps which too many writers of the present day are apt to inflict upon their readers.”—United Service Gazette.

“The style of the work is free, rapid, and spirited, and bears marks of a thorough familiarity with the subject. Every Englishman ought to be acquainted with the history of the British empire in India, and we therefore cordially recommend this work to our readers.”—Patriot.

“Mr. Thornton’s history is comprehensive in its plan, clear and forcible in its style, and impartial in its tone.”—Globe.

“A sound, an impartial, and a searching composition; chaste, elegant, and flowing in diction, profound in thought, and thoroughly logical in reasoning.”—Colonial Magazine.

A Dictionary, Hindustani and English; to which is added a reversed part, English andHindustani. By Duncan Forbes, LL.D., Professor of Oriental Languages in King’s College, London; Member of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, &c. In 1 Vol., royal 8vo., cloth, £2. 12s. 6d., or half-bound, £2. 16s.

“The present volume, by Dr. Forbes, we regard as an inestimable contribution to our Oriental literature, and worthy of a more extended notice than we can give to such a work. To compose a lexicon of the Hindustani tongue, suited to the present advanced state of this and kindred studies, demands in its author an uncommon share of learning and critical sagacity,—that he be cautious, well practised in analysis and arrangement, with ability to assign to secondary and figurative meanings a due position, a philosophical classification under their proper themes. To this part of the task Dr. Forbes has brought rare qualifications, many years’ experience, great aptness in teaching the Oriental tongues, much tact with respect to the kind and degree of help required to their thorough mastery. He has already done good service; his former works have stimulated many to acquire that knowledge which is essential to an efficient discharge of the various offices of trust and responsibility of every Indian resident. To say that it is an entirely new work would be to claim for it an equivocal character; but we do say it is a matchless production of its kind, every way calculated to sustain its author’s well-earned reputation. The plan and principal authorities are fully detailed in the preface, to which we refer our readers; the classical works have been diligently explored; the more modern and valuable works of Thompson, Herklots, Cox, and H. M. Elliot have been laid under contribution for particular terms and local usage; the aim has been to compile a thoroughly usable and economical book. The words are given in alphabetical order; the leading word, and the meaning of which it, its derivatives and compounds, are susceptible, are given with great care;—in a word, if condensation and definiteness, if due distinction between the provinces of a grammarian and lexicographer, if to avoid faults, to reject things of a doubtful utility, to supply deficiencies, and do all this with a determination that typography, paper, and price shall be unexceptionable,—if these in combination be a recommendation to an author and his work, then Dr. Forbes’s Dictionary is fully worthy of the patronage of the patrons and students of Hindustani literature. We have to add, for we must not omit to mention, that it contains a second part, or a reversed dictionary—a very valuable companion indeed.”—Friend of India, published at Serampore.

Grammar of the Hindustani Language, in the Oriental and Roman Characters, with numerous Copper-plate Illustrations of the Persian and Devanagari Systems of Alphabetic Writing. To which is added, a copious Selection of Easy Extracts for reading in the Persi-Arabic and Devanagari Characters, forming a complete introduction to the Bagh-o-Bahar, together with a Vocabulary and explanatory Notes. By Duncan Forbes, LL.D. 8vo., cloth, 12s.

Hindustani Manual; a Pocket Companion for those who visit India in any capacity, consisting of a compendious Grammar and Exercises on its more prominent peculiarities; with a Selection of Useful Phrases and Dialogues, on familiar subjects, together with a Vocabulary of useful Words, English and Hindustani, showing at the same time the Difference of Idiom between the two languages. By Duncan Forbes, LL.D. New Edition, considerably improved, 18mo., bound, 5s. 6d.

“The work can be honestly recommended to all who are desirous of acquiring the elements of the language, or of making themselves understood among the people of this country. We have seldom, if ever, seen such a small pocket-companion, with such a variety of useful instruction. The language of the Vocabulary and of the Dialogues appears quite unexceptionable. Any one acquainted with Hindustani will at once recognize its idiomatic accuracy, and cheerfully recommend it to the notice of all those who desire to come out to India not altogether unprepared to convey their own wishes to those who surround them.”—Friend of India.

Grammar of the Persian Language. To which is added, a Selection of Easy Extracts for Reading, together with a copious Vocabulary. By Duncan Forbes, LL.D. Second edition. Royal 8vo., cloth, 12s. 6d.

Bagh-o-Bahar; consisting of entertaining Tales in the Hindustani Language. By Mir Amman, of Delhi. A new edition, carefully collated with original Manuscripts, having the essential vowel-points and punctuation marked throughout. To which is added a Vocabulary by Duncan Forbes, LL.D. Royal 8vo., cloth, 15s.

⁂ The Bagh-o-Bahar is the test-book in which Cadets and Assistant Surgeons have to pass an examination in India. This edition was prepared under the authority of the Honourable the East-India Company.

Oriental Penmanship: an Essay for facilitating the reading and writing of the Ta’lik Character, as generally used in the East in Persian and Hindustani Manuscripts and Printed Works; consisting of various Specimens of Fine Writing, accurately lithographed from Original Native MSS., accompanied by Letter-press Descriptions, together with explanatory Notes and Observations. ByDuncan Forbes, LL.D. 4to. cloth, 8s.

The British World in the East; a Guide to India, China, Australia, South Africa, and the other possessions or connections of Great Britain in the Eastern and Southern Seas. By Leitch Ritchie. 2 vols. 8vo., cloth lettered, £1. 4s.

The object of this work is to embody everything of a practical nature that is known of the countries in question, in an historical description of the course of that great eastward stream of commerce and colonization which has commenced a new era in the destinies of the world.


British India.
Malay Peninsula.
Indian Archipelago.
Empire of Anam.
Chinese Empire.
New Zealand and the other Islands of the Pacific.
Australia with Tasmania.
Islands of the Indian Ocean.
Southern Africa.
Islands of the South Atlantic Ocean.

“An able summary of events connected with the rise, progress, and present state of the British Empire in the Eastern hemisphere. The author has well worked out the desire of the publishers, ‘to have the spirit and results of history in a form at once popular and practical;’ and although he professes to give only ‘the heads of knowledge,’ there is nothing dry in the manner in which his task has been performed; on the contrary, the book is exceedingly readable, and will be found of great value, both as a work of reference, and as presenting a comprehensive and interesting sketch of an important portion of a mighty empire. A work which seems, in every respect, worthy of public patronage.”—Foreign Quarterly Review.

“The title of this book will show its comprehensive character, and those who wish to have an Encyclopædia of information on Eastern and Southern history, commerce, everything, in fact, but physical science, and not without a good deal even on that, will here find what they require. It is a condensation of the contents of multifarious volumes, and may justly be termed ‘many things in few words.’ If read, it will impart to the student nearly all that is known on the subject to which it relates, and afford him withal much entertainment. If kept as a book of reference, few questions relating to Eastern affairs can arise for which it will not furnish a complete answer.”—Indian Mail.

“This book will become invaluable for reference, since it embraces all the leading circumstances in the histories and position (social and political) of India, China, and Australia.”—Court Journal.

“This comprehensive title-page may be regarded as a faint outline of the prodigious mass of information which is contained in the work to which it belongs. Divided into ten books, subdivided into forty-seven chapters, and consisting of 1,000 rather closely-printed 8vo. pages, the reading, research, and labour, both of mind and pen, requisite for its production, may readily be supposed to have been great. It was with no slight expectation that we sat down to a perusal of his (Mr. Ritchie’s) volumes; and we must do him the justice to say, that our anticipations have been more than realized. By judicious management, and by skilfully and forcibly exercising the art of condensation, he has succeeded in drawing within one lucid focus an infinite variety of subjects, all more or less interesting and important.”—Naval and Military Gazette.

History of the Punjab, and of the Rise, Progress, and present Condition of the Sect and Nation of the Sikhs, including a full account of the Military Operations on the Banks of the Sutlej in 1846, and the Proclamations and Treaties of the Governor-General in India relating thereto. By Thomas Thornton, Esq. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth lettered, £1. 1s.

“The work gives all the information on the history and topography of the Punjab that could be desired; and in the fullness and completeness of its details, and the diligence with which information has been collected from every available source, constitutes this the best and most authentic work extant on the important country of which it treats.”—Britannia.

The East-India Gazetteer; containing Descriptions of the Empires, Kingdoms, Cities, Towns, Districts, &c., of Hindostan and adjacent Countries, with Sketches of the Manners, Customs, &c. of their various Inhabitants. By Walter Hamilton. Second edition, 2 vols. 8vo., cloth, £1. 12s.

“A valuable and excellent work.”—Times.

The Memoirs of a Griffin; or, a Cadet’s First Year in India. By Captain Bellew. Illustrated from Designs by the Author. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth lettered, £1. 1s.

“Our author deserves a favourable hearing, not only for the spirit of hilarity and the invariable good humour with which he encounters his various difficulties, but because the recital presents us with an accurate and faithful account of the manners of the luxurious East. The minutiæ of domestic life, all the various usages of the presidencies, together with spicy military detail, which supply us with a very welcome and agreeable view of the way in which our fellow-subjects contrive to make themselves happy under the warm sunbeams of the Orient. There is a constant succession of new scenes, a great diversity of actors, and much new matter in this work; the whole enlivened by a bonhomie which gives it its most interesting aspect.”—Metropolitan Magazine.

Travels in Western India; embracing a visit to the Sacred Mountains of the Jains, and the most celebrated Shrines of the Hindu Faith between Rajpootana and the Indus, and an account of the ancient city of Nehrwalla. By the late Lieut.-Col. James Tod, Author of “The Annals of Rajast’han.” Royal 4to. cloth boards. £3. 13s. 6d.

Instructions by Major-Gen. Sir John Malcolm, G.C.B., K.L.S., &c., to Officers acting under his Orders in Central India, A.D. 1821. Post 8vo. cloth. 2s. 6d.

Advice to Cadets and other Young Persons proceeding to India. By Capt. Kerr, formerly Commandant of Gentlemen Cadets at Calcutta. Second edition, post 8vo., cloth, 5s.

“A man of experience in the superintendence of Cadets, coming forward in this unaffected and truly parental manner with his advice, is sure to be listened to.”—Overland Paper.

“The words may be few, but they contain much valuable information, and furnish much salutary advice.”—Conservative Journal.

“The advice is so sensible, so judicious, so friendly, and so prudent.”—Metropolitan Magazine.

The Hand-Book of India. A Guide to the Stranger and Traveller, and a Companion to the Resident. By J. H. Stocqueler, Esq., late Editor of the “Calcutta Englishman.” Post 8vo., cloth lettered, price 14s.

This publication embraces, in a condensed form, complete and accurate information respecting the Topography, Climate, Government, Commerce, Laws, Institutions, and Products of India; the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants; the Method of Travelling throughout the Empire, and the Expense attendant thereon; the Condition of the European (English) Society; the Rules and Regulations of the various branches of the executive; the Cost and Manner of proceeding to India; the Sports, Ceremonies, and Pageants common to the Country, &c. &c.

“Mr. Stocqueler’s excellent Hand-book of India.”—Foreign Quarterly Review.

“An able, interesting, and comprehensive work.”—Morning Herald.

“Mr. Stocqueler’s Hand-book of India is entitled to no inconsiderable praise.”—Spectator.

“There can be no hesitation in saying that the plan and execution of this Hand-book are equally excellent; that it is the most complete and accurate vademecum which has yet appeared, and cannot fail to be both interesting and useful to all those whom business or pleasure may send to India.”—Friend of India, published at Serampore.

“We can safely recommend this ‘Guide’ as one which will impart a correct notion of all those parts of the continent of British India which are the principal places of resort of Englishmen proceeding from this country to enter the service of Government, or embark in commercial, agricultural, or other pursuits.”—Atlas.

“This, for what it professes to do, is truly an excellent book. As is stated in the preface, it contains at one view a very complete outline of everything relating to India which may be sought to be known; and such pains have been taken to give the information, in a form as clear as it is ample, that we might say it was altogether a history as well as a Hand-book.”—Literary Gazette.

Rambles in Ceylon; minute Details of Scenes and Impressions. By Lieut. De Butts, H.M.’s 61st Regiment. Post 8vo. 10s.

Treatise on Field Fortification and Artillery. By Major Hector Straith. 4th Edition. 8vo. cloth, with folio Plans. £2. 2s.

Treatise on Military Surveying; including Sketching in the Field, &c. By Lieut.-Col. Basil Jackson. Third Edition, 8vo. cloth. 14s.

Bactrian Coins; Note on the Historical Results deducible from Recent Discoveries in Afghanistan. By H. T. Prinsep, Esq. 8vo. cloth. 15s.

Travels in the Punjab, Afghanistan, and Turkistan, to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat; and a Visit to Great Britain and Germany. By Mohan Lal. 8vo. cloth, lettered, 16s.

“To the readers of this volume we can promise much amusement, and no slight portion of information.”—Naval and Military Gazette.

“This is one of the most extraordinary volumes in reference to India that has issued from the press for a considerable time.”—Cheltenham Journal.

“On a variety of subjects it affords both information and amusement in no inconsiderable degree.”—United Service Magazine.

The Regimental Moonshi, being a course of Reading in Hindustani, designed to assist Officers and Assistant Surgeons on the Madras Establishment preparing for the Examination ordered by Government. By Captain E. T. Cox. Royal 8vo. 18s.

Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, published monthly. Per number, 3s. 6d.

Chinese Repository, published monthly. Per number, 2s.

Thugs of India, illustrations of their History and Practices, and Notices of some of the proceedings of the Government of India for the suppression of the Crime of Thuggee. 8vo. cloth. 15s.

The East India Register and Army List, (Published Half-yearly); containing complete Lists of the Company’s Servants, at home and abroad; Regulations respecting the appointment of Writers, Cadets, &c., compiled from the official returns received at the East-India House. By F. Clark, of the Secretary’s Office, East-India House. 1 Thick Vol. 12mo. Sewed, 10s., or 11s. 6d. strongly bound.

⁂ Separate Presidencies—Bengal, 6s.; Madras, 5s.; Bombay, 5s.

Dictionary of the Chinese Language, in Three Parts. By R. Morrison, D.D.: viz.—

1. Chinese and English, arranged according to the Radicals. 3 vols. royal 4to. £7. 10s.

2. Chinese and English, arranged alphabetically. 2 vols. royal 4to. £6. 6s.

3. English and Chinese. Royal 4to. 31s. 6d.

Each Part forms a complete Dictionary.

Sanscrit Plays. The Mrichchakati, or the Toy-cart; Vikrama and Urvasi, or the Hero and the Nymph; Uttara Rama Cheritra, or Continuation of the History of Rama; Malati and Madhava, or the Stolen Marriage; Mudra Rakshasa, or the Signet of the Minister; Retnavali, or the Necklace, translated from the original Sanscrit; together with an account of the Dramatic System of the Hindus, Notices of the different Dramas, &c. By Professor H. H. Wilson, of the University of Oxford. Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. £1. 1s.

Scenes and Characteristics of Hindostan, with Sketches of Anglo-Indian Society. By Miss Emma Roberts. Second Edition. 2 vols. post 8vo. cloth. 18s.

“Miss Roberts’s pictures are all drawn with great spirit and accuracy, and remarkable for the truth of their colouring.”—Quarterly Review.

The Overland Guide Book, a complete epitome of useful information for the Overland Traveller to India viâ Egypt: with Remarks upon Outfit, &c. By Capt. James Barber, H.C.S. 2nd Edition. Post 8vo. cloth. 5s.

“The advice furnished is not only sound and honest, but also judicious and practicable…. The individual whose pleasure or business leads him to traverse the route treated of, will find inseparable disappointment and irretrievable inconvenience if lacking the information contained in its pages: for the author is not only well acquainted with his subject, but has carefully studied the wants and difficulties of the race of travellers of either sex.”—Times.

Despatches, Minutes, and Correspondence of the Marquess Wellesley, K.G., during his Administration in India. Revised by his Lordship. 5 Vols. 8vo. cloth, with Portrait, Map, &c. £6. 10s.

“A publication of extraordinary interest.”—Edinburgh Review.

A Gazetteer of the Punjab, Sinde, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, and Neighbouring States, compiled by authority of the Honourable Court of Directors of the East-India Company, and chiefly from documents in their possession. By Edward Thornton, Esq. 2 vols. 8vo. £1. 5s.

The East-India Calculator; or Guide to the Merchant and Trader, in computation of Interest, Commission, Rent, Wages, &c. in Indian Money; containing copious Tables of the Exchanges between London, Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, and of the relative Value of Coins current in Hindostan, Tables of the Weights of India and China, with their respective Proportions, &c.; also an Account of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures of India, China, Persia, Arabia, &c., collected from the best sources. By Thomas Thornton, Esq. 8vo. cloth. 21s.

Cotton-Wool, Raw Silk, and Indigo, Papers respecting the cultivation and manufacture of. Printed by order of the Honourable East-India Company. 8vo. 12s.

The Ship, its Origin and Progress, a complete Naval History; together with a Description of every kind of Vessel, to the close of 1848. Illustrated by Plates, and accompanied by a Book of Flags of all Nations. By Francis Steinitz. 4to. half-bound. £2. 10s.

Hints to Cadets; with a few Observations on the Military Service of the Honourable East-India Company. By Captain Postans, Bombay Army. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

The Customs and Manners of the Mussulmans of India, with a full and exact Account of their various Rites and Ceremonies from the Moment of Birth to the Hour of Death. By G. A. Herklots, M.D. 8vo. 16s.

Medical Advice to the Indian Stranger. By John M’Cosh, M.D., Member of the Bengal Medical Service. Post 8vo. cloth lettered. 5s. 6d.

“The Cadet may accept this as a valuable addition to his luggage. It contains, in a short space, a mass of useful information for Europeans visiting India. People of all classes will find something in it applicable to their particular circumstances and position; and to individuals connected with the military or civil service it will be especially valuable. The medical hints are thoroughly practical, and the notes upon climate and diet cannot be too earnestly recommended to the attention of all our countrymen in the East.”—Atlas.

“We cordially recommend the work as an exceedingly sensible, well-written book, replete with useful and even valuable information.”—Naval and Military Gazette.

Horsburgh’s Directory. The India Directory; or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East-Indies, China, Australia, and the interjacent Ports of Africa and South America. Compiled chiefly from Original Journals of the Honourable Company’s Ships, and from the Observations and Remarks resulting from the Experience of Twenty-One Years in the Navigation of those Seas. ByJames Horsburgh, Esq., F.R.S., &c. Fifth Edition. 2 vols. 4to., cloth lettered. £4. 6s.

Horsburgh’s Charts, for the Navigation from England to India and China, and throughout the Eastern Seas, viz.—

1. North Atlantic Ocean. 6s.
2. South Atlantic Ocean. 7s. 6d.
3. Anchorage at Gough’s Island. 2s.
4. Bird’s Islands and Doddington Rock. 3s. 6d.
5 & 6. Cape of Good Hope, S. E. Africa, and Madagascar Seas. 2 sheets. 10s. 6d.
7. Indian Ocean. 7s. 6d.
8. Arabian Sea and East Africa. 7s. 6d.
9. Hindoostan Coasts and Islands. 7s. 6d.
10. Bombay Harbour. 10s. 6d.
11. Goa Road and River and Murmagoa Anchorage. 7s. 6d.
12. Maldiva Islands and Channels. 5s.
13. Bay of Bengal. 6s.
14. Peninsula and Islands of India, East of Bengal Bay. 9s.
15. West Coast of Sumatra. 6s.
16. Straits of Malacca and Singapore. 1 sheet. 7s. 6d.
17, 18, & 19. Straits of Malacca and Singapore. 3 sheets. 18s.
20. Strait of Sunda. 6s.
21. Straits of Banca and Gaspar. 7s. 6d.
22. Carimata Passage and Borneo West Coast. 7s. 6d.
23. Straits of Rhio, Durian, Lingin, and Singapore. 7s. 6d.
24 & 25. China Sea and Coasts adjacent. 2 sheets. 15s.
26. Canton River and its approximate Channels. 7s. 6d.
27. East Coast of China. 8s. 6d.
28. Bashee Islands and Channels between Luzon and Formosa. 3s. 6d.
29, 30, & 31. Eastern Passages to China. 3 sheets, £1. 11s. 6d.
32. Passages through the Barrier Reefs, Australia East. 4s.

Maps of India and China.

All from the latest Surveys, and drawn by John Walker.

A Newly constructed and improved Map of India,

Compiled chiefly from Surveys executed by Order of the Hon. East-India Company. On six sheets—Size 5 ft. 3 in. wide; 5 ft. 4 in. high. £2. 12s. 6d.; or on cloth, in a case, £3. 13s. 6d.

Map of India;

From the most recent Authorities. On two sheets—Size, 2 ft. 10 in. wide; 3 ft. 3 in. high. 18s.; or on cloth, in a case, 25s.

Map of the Western Provinces of Hindoostan,

The Punjab, Cabool, Sinde, &c.; including all the States between Candahar and Allahabad. On four sheets—Size 4 ft. 4 in. wide; 4 ft. 4 in. high. 31s. 6d.; or on cloth, in a case, 45s.

Map of the Punjab and Sikh Territory.

On one sheet. 5s.; or on cloth, in a case, 6s.

Map of Affghanistan and the Adjacent Countries.

On one sheet—Size 2 ft. 3 in. wide; 2 ft. 9 in. high. 9s.; or on cloth, in a case, 12s.

Map of the Overland Routes between England & India,

With the other Lines of Communication. On one sheet—Size 2 ft. 9 in. wide; 2 ft. 2 in. high. 9s.; or on cloth, in a case, 12s.

Map of the Routes in India;

With Tables of Distances between the principal Towns and Military Stations. On one sheet—Size 2 ft. 3 in. wide; 2 ft. 9 in. high. 9s.; or on cloth, in a case, 12s.

Map of China,

From the most Authentic Information. One large sheet—Size 2 ft. 7 in. wide; 2 ft. 2 in. high. 8s.; or on cloth, in a case, 11s.

Map of India and China, Burmah, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, and the Empire of Assam.

On two sheets—Size 4 ft. 3 in. wide; 3 ft. 4 in. high. 21s.; or on cloth, in a case, 30s.

Published immediately on the Arrival of the Marseilles Portion of each Overland Despatch.

32 closely-printed pages, price 1s. Stamped, or 24s. per annum.



Register of Intelligence




This Paper furnishes a full, exact, and authentic body of information respecting the countries above named, compiled not merely from public journals, but from private and exclusive sources, to the latest date. The intelligence may be classed under the following general heads:—


in which the substance of the news brought by each Mail is digested into a perspicuous narrative, with critical comments.


from each of the Presidencies of India, from China, Persia, and other Eastern countries.


Arrival and Departures of Ships and Passengers in India.


The intelligence under these heads is so arranged as to be readily referred to, the same being alphabetically dispersed.


besides original leading articles, Correspondence, and Reviews of Books, comprehends Proceedings in Parliament, Appointments, Casualties, Arrivals, Departures, Extension of Furloughs, and all Affairs connected with India and the Services.


Under this head, each number of the Indian Mail is enriched with matter, original and selected, archæological, critical, and miscellaneous, illustrative of the literature and science of the East.

Each year’s Papers form a moderate-sized volume, which, with its Analytical Index, forms a complete Asiatic Annual Register and Library of Reference.

The contemporary Press has pronounced the Indian Mail to be indispensable to all those who have friends or relatives in the East, as affording the only correct information regarding the Services, Movements of Troops, Shipping, and all events of Domestic and Individual interest.


[1]VideJames Barber and Co.’s Circular.

[2]Ladies will find Messrs. Thresher and Glenny’s air-tight cases very useful, even in India. This firm, as general outfitters for the Overland Route, deservedly stand high, and merit every encouragement.

[3]During the governorship of Sir Alex. Ball, public gardens for the accommodation or pleasure of the inhabitants of the various “casals” were formed, but fell into disuse, and remain a trifling memorial of a desire to inculcate good and friendly feelings in all classes, and has been responded to by these places being totally neglected for public use.

[4]A calesse, the common carriage of Malta, a sort of Brobdingnag imitation of a Dutch toy, can travel anywhere; but those who wish to see the country must adopt some other conveyance. Fortunately, under the government of Lieut.-General Sir F. Bouverie, such attention was paid the roads in the island—a source of advantage to the population, in every point of view, and the public in general—that where, some twenty years ago or less, only two or three carriages on four wheels, the property of private individuals, could be found, they are now in pretty general use, and may be had on hire.

[5]Casal Musta was singularly enough selected, by the commissioners of inquiry sent out to Malta in 1837, in reporting on the liberty of the press and the adoption of a newspaper—that it contained upwards of 5,000 inhabitants, of whom not more than 50 could read!

[6]This sketch is intended simply as a guide to the superficial observer, on a few hours’ detention in the island, and in no way with a view to geological disquisition. However, without any speculative theories, regarding the origin and present state of Malta—whether it arose by some convulsive throe from the ocean which surrounds it, or that the Mediterranean Sea, from remote causes, has lost its former elevation, being now found considerably below the level of the Red Sea, it may be mentioned, without dread of refutation, that these caverns, like numerous others in the island, show the water line at the period of their formation, as those under the black rock and the southern face especially. A recent writer on the statistics, &c., of the island of Malta and its dependencies, who visited Valetta, and knew little of Malta, informs his readers, that Malta is furrowed with what he designates valleys from S.W. to N.E.—following out the assertions of another and former resident in Malta—that the course of the various ravines was from west to east, as if to render subservient to geological theories, the mode or order in which Malta must have been formed; yet the slightest observation (which neither had exercised) proves these ravines to embrace each of the cardinal, and, perhaps, not less the subsidiary, points of the compass. In like manner, this writer on the statistics states very boldly that the island of Gozo has villages but no town; Rubatto has its cathedral, numerous churches, religious establishments, with its imposing citadel for defence, occupying considerable extent of ground, and with a population exceeding 7,000 souls, and to which the late governor, Sir F. Bouverie, added an aqueduct, for a more certain supply of water. Mr. Martin never visited Gozo, and this, like other portions of his work, is merely gathered from report.

[7]We recommend ladies to provide themselves with a basket having a cross handle and two flaps, as the most convenient to hold their desert requirements.

[8]The following extract from the last report of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, may not be without interest to our readers—showing, as it does, that efforts have recently been made to improve the desert-transit. We should premise, that Sir John Pirie proceeded to Egypt as the bearer of an address to the new Viceroy.

“His Highness the Pacha received Sir John with marked distinction and courtesy, and readily acquiesced in every suggestion made to him for the improvement of the transit; and His Highness was moreover pleased to declare, that the increased expense consequent thereupon would be of secondary consideration to the perfecting the transit through his country.

“His Highness has authorised the directors to order for his account one additional steam-vessel for the Nile, to be fitted with all the improved accommodation which experience suggests; also two paddle-wheel steamers for the Mahmoudie Canal. These canal boats will be devoted to the conveyance of passengers only, and the baggage will be conveyed in future by track-boats. These two steamers will be a most important addition and improvement to the canal transit, which has hitherto been considered the most inconvenient part of the journey; and they will accordingly be fitted in the most commodious manner, and sent out with the utmost dispatch.

“A small steamer, now building at Boulac, will shortly be placed at Suez, for the embarkation and landing of passengers and baggage from the India steamers, which will be productive of great comfort and convenience.

“A considerable improvement has already been effected in the landing and embarkation of passengers and baggage at Alexandria; and commodious storehouses have also been erected there, and at the Mahmoudie Canal.

“The occasional difficulties and delays at Atfeh will, in future, be avoided, by the intended erection of a jetty and landing-place there; but, in most cases, the new canal steamers will pass through the locks, and go alongside the Nile steamers, and the change from one to the other will thus be easily and conveniently effected. The navigation of the canal is to be improved by deepening, for which object, three dredging machines are now in operation.”

[9]There have been instances of passengers being detained at Trieste, in consequence of there being only three or four wishing to proceed;—the steamer did not start.

[11]Eighty pounds will carry a man through Italy, Switzerland, and France, with comfort, allowing for several days’ stay at each place of interest.

[12]Mr. Hill is the Southampton Custom-house agent of the “Peninsular and Oriental Company.”

[13]Government have the option of accepting your valuation. If they disapprove the estimate of the proprietor, they are empowered to seize the goods, but, in that case, must pay ten per cent. advance on your valuation.

[14]The principal zodiac has since been removed.